"Recent archeological digs have provided evidence
that Jerusalem was a big and fortified city already in 1800 BC. Findings show
that the sophisticated water system heretofor attributed to the conquering
Israelites pre-dated them by eight centuries and was even more sophisticated
than imagined. Dr. Ronny Reich, who directed the excavation along with Eli
Shuikrun, said the entire system was built as a single complex by Canaanites in
the Middle Bronze Period, around 1800 BC." - The Jewish Bulletin, July 31,
19986000 BC Ugarit foundations
are laid in the Neolithic period.
1800 BC Ebla
and Ugarit are under Egyptian hegemony. The population of Ugarit is roughly
1450 to 1220 BC The people of Ugarit
were the Canaanites, precursors to the Phoenicians. The first to recognize that
human speech consists of only a finite number of sounds they devised 30 symbols
from which the alphabets of phonetic languages are derived.
The style of
writing at Ugarit is alphabetic cuneiform, a unique blending of two alphabetic
script, like Hebrew, and cuneiform, like Akkadian.
evolved mythology parallel that of Enûma
Elish can be found in the Baal cycle recovered in the Canaanite city of
Ugarit which include "Legend of Keret", "Legend of Danel", "Myth of
Baal-Aliyan" and "Death of Baal".
Ugaritic literature is composed in
metre, bi and tri colas, and all of the
poetic tools found in the
Septuagint are found in Ugaritic
Ugarit is at its height politically, religiously and
1220 BC The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory
of the southern Levant, which today encompasses
Israel, the West Bank and
Jordan, and the southern portions of
Many names have been given to this area including
Palestine, Eretz-Israel, Bilad
es-Shem, the Holy Land and Djahy.
The earliest known name for this area
"When the Lord your God has cut off the nations whose land
the Lord your God is giving you, and you dispossess them and dwell in their
cities and in their houses." - Deuteronomy 19:1
the Cult of Yahweh informed tribes of
Israel defeated the Canaanite kings in battle they simply took over preexisting
"I have given you a land for which you did not labor
and cities which you did not build, and you dwell in them; you eat of the
vineyards and olive groves which you did not plant" - Joshua 24:13
was no need to build new cities, Yaweh delivered the existing cities into their
El was the
chief god at Ugarit.
is called the "Father of Men", "Creator", and "Creator of the
Other deities worshiped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El
Elyon, and El Berith.
Tribes of Israel worshiped
these variations of 'Creator' along with, and sometimes instead of,
denunciation of the Canaanite gods in understandable in the light of the
Ugaritic texts, for at Ugarit these were the very gods worshiped.
Psalms were originally Ugaritic or Canaanite hymns to
El which were adopted by the Israelites,
much like the American National Anthem was set to a beer hall tune by Francis
In Psalms and the Ugaritic texts the very same attributes
for which Yahweh is acclaimed are the
same for which El is acclaimed.
Among the inhabitants of Ugarit,
Yahweh was viewed as a son of El.
The names of
El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El
Berith are applied to Yahweh by the writers of the
theologians of the Cult of Yaweh
adopted the titles of the Canaanite
gods and attributed them to Yahweh in an effort to assimilate and synthesize
culture in a manner no different than the Egyptians, the Babylonians and the
The most important of the Canaanite lesser gods
Yam, the god of the sea, and
Mot, the god of
|Yam is the Hebrew word for sea.
Mot is the Hebrew word for death.
Asherah, is called the wife
Septuagint, with a name change
she became the consort of Yahweh.
In the Cult of
Yaweh, Hohkma is the female
counterpart of Yahweh.
"When they did
evolve, when the ancient Hebrew tribes put
together their notion of YHVH by
combining YHVH and the Elohim gods
("Elohim" is plural), and borrowing from other
religions, they put together a YHVH from which, in some important ways,
we are still suffering.
Biblical scholars are clear that
YHVH evolved originally from a tribal chief, and has always kept much of the
authoritarian character of that ancient tribal chief.
between that YHVH and his people was
based on an earlier Hittite treaty between a ruler and his subjects.
That covenant says "I'll be your
ruler and you will be my people. I'll protect you if you obey, and punish you
if you disobey."
That's the attitude that still lets Western
believers move way too effortlessly to persecuting or murdering those who believe
It's been harder to shrug
YHVH off as irrelevant, because
its followers will kill you - as many martyrs
throughout history have discovered the hard and painful way." - Davidson
Baal is named 76
prophets protested constantly against the compassionate affair the Israelites
had with Baal, the God of
viewed Yahweh as a warrior god of the
desert and so when they arrived in Canaan they thought it only proper to
adopt Baal, the God of
One of the central Ugaritic myths was the legend of Baal's
enthronement as king.
In the story,
Baal is killed by
the Fall of the year and he remains dead until
the Spring of the year when he is
reborn and re-enthroned as king.
The Septuagint also
celebrates the enthronement of Yahweh.
As in the Ugaritic
myth, the purpose of the enthronement of Yahweh is to re-enact
Yahweh overcomes death by his
continually recurring creative acts, the bestowing of life.
major difference between the Ugaritic myth and the
biblical hymns is that the kingship
of Yahweh is
eternal and uninterrupted while the
kingship of Baal is
interrupted every year by his death in the
As the God of Fertility
dies, so the vegetation dies; and when he is reborn so is the Earth in the
Not so with
Yahweh; for since Yahweh is always alive, Yahweh is always powerful.
Israel and Ugarit
both practiced a yearly ritual known as the sending out of the "scapegoats";
one for god and one
for a demon.
Cult of Yaweh sent a goat into the
wilderness for Azazel,
a demon, and a goat into the
This rite is known as a
"eliminatory" rite; that is, corruption, in this case
communal sin, is placed on the head of
the goat and it is sent away.
In this way it was believed that,
magically, the corruption and communal sin was removed from the
"Aaron is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat
and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites - all
their sins - and put them on the goat's head. Aaron shall send the goat away
into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. The goat will
carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release
it into the desert." - Leviticus 16:21-22
The same ritual was performed
at Ugarit; with one notable difference -
at Ugarit a woman
priest was involved in the ritual as
The rituals performed in Ugaritic worship involved
a great deal of
entheogens and sexual
Magically performing the reenactment of fertilization
the worshipers were attempting to convince
Baal to send rain for the
Rain and semen were seen in ancient time as of the same
essence, both produced fruit.
Worshipers in fertility religions
typically behaved in this manner.
Cult of Yaweh the
priests were forbidden to partake of
performing rituals and females were barred from the precincts of the temple,
approach of severe separation of self from emotion as opposed to
compassionate matriarchal approach of communal passion.
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