"Recent archeological digs have provided evidence
that Jerusalem was a big and fortified city already in 1800 BC. Findings show
that the sophisticated water system heretofor attributed to the conquering
Israelites pre-dated them by eight centuries and was even more sophisticated
than imagined. Dr. Ronny Reich, who directed the excavation along with Eli
Shuikrun, said the entire system was built as a single complex by Canaanites in
the Middle Bronze Period, around 1800 BC." - The Jewish Bulletin, July 31,
19986000 BC Ugarit foundations
are laid in the Neolithic period.
1800 BC Ebla
and Ugarit are under Egyptian hegemony. The population of Ugarit is roughly
1450 to 1220 BC The people of Ugarit
were the Canaanites, precursors to the Phoenicians. The first to recognize that
human speech consists of only a finite number of sounds they devised 30 symbols
from which the alphabets of phonetic languages are derived.
The style of
writing at Ugarit is alphabetic cuneiform, a unique blending of two alphabetic
script, like Hebrew, and cuneiform, like Akkadian.
An evolved mythology
parallel that of Enûma Elish can be
found in the Baal cycle recovered in the Canaanite city of Ugarit which include
"Legend of Keret", "Legend of Danel", "Myth of Baal-Aliyan" and "Death of
Ugaritic literature is composed in
Qinah metre, bi
and tri colas, and all of the poetic
tools found in the Septuagint are found in Ugaritic
Ugarit is at its height politically, religiously and
BC The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory of the
southern Levant, which today encompasses Israel, the West Bank and Gaza,
Jordan, and the southern portions of Syria and Lebanon.
time, many names have been given to this area including Palestine,
Eretz-Israel, Bilad es-Shem, the Holy Land and Djahy.
known name for this area was "Canaan."
"When the Lord your God has cut
off the nations whose land the Lord your God is giving you, and you dispossess
them and dwell in their cities and in their houses." - Deuteronomy 19:1
When the Cult of Yaweh
informed tribes of Israel defeated the Canaanite kings in battle they simply
took over preexisting infrastructure.
"I have given you a land for
which you did not labor and cities which you did not build, and you dwell in
them; you eat of the vineyards and olive groves which you did not plant" -
There was no need to build new cities, Yaweh delivered the
existing cities into their hands.
El was the chief god at Ugarit.
El is called the "Father of
Men", "Creator", and "Creator of the Creation".
worshiped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith.
Tribes of Israel worshiped
these variations of 'Creator' along with, and sometimes instead of,
denunciation of the Canaanite gods in understandable in the light of the
Ugaritic texts, for at Ugarit these were the very gods worshiped.
Psalms were originally Ugaritic or Canaanite hymns to
El which were adopted by the Israelites,
much like the American National Anthem was set to a beer hall tune by Francis
In Psalms and the Ugaritic texts the very same attributes
for which Yahweh is acclaimed are
the same for which El is acclaimed.
Among the inhabitants of Ugarit, Yahweh was viewed as a son of
The names of El Shaddai, El
Elyon, and El Berith are applied to Yahweh by the writers of the
Hebrew theologians of the Cult of
Yaweh adopted the titles of the Canaanite gods and attributed them to
Yahweh in an effort to assimilate
and synthesize culture in a manner no different than the Egyptians, the
Babylonians and the Romans.
The most important of the Canaanite lesser
Yam, the god of the sea, and
Mot, the god of death.
Yam is the Hebrew word for sea.
Mot is the Hebrew word for death.
Asherah, is called the wife
of Baal in the
Old Testament; but she is also
known as the consort of Yahweh.
In the Cult of Yaweh,
Asherah is the female counterpart of
"When they did
evolve, when the ancient Hebrew tribes put
together their notion of YHVH by
combining YHVH and the Elohim gods
("Elohim" is plural), and borrowing from other
religions, they put together a YHVH from which, in some important
ways, we are still suffering.
Biblical scholars are clear that
YHVH evolved originally from a tribal chief, and has always kept much of the
authoritarian character of that ancient tribal chief.
between that YHVH and his people was
based on an earlier Hittite treaty between a ruler and his subjects.
That covenant says "I'll be your
ruler and you will be my people. I'll protect you if you obey, and punish you
if you disobey."
That's the attitude that still lets Western
believers move way too effortlessly to persecuting or murdering those who believe
It's been harder to shrug
YHVH off as irrelevant, because
its followers will kill you - as many martyrs
throughout history have discovered the hard and painful way." - Davidson
Baal is named 76 times.
Old Testament prophets protested
constantly against the compassionate affair the Israelites had with
Baal, the God of Fertility.
Yahweh as a god of the desert and so
when they arrived in Canaan they thought it only proper to adopt
Baal, the God of Fertility.
One of the
central Ugaritic myths was the legend of Baal's enthronement as king.
In the story, Baal is killed by
Mot in the
Fall of the year and he remains dead until the Spring of the year when he is
reborn and re-enthroned as king.
The Old Testament also
celebrates the enthronement of Yahweh.
As in the Ugaritic
myth, the purpose of the enthronement of Yahweh is to re-enact
Yahweh overcomes death by his
continually recurring creative acts, the bestowing of life.
major difference between the Ugaritic myth and the
biblical hymns is that
the kingship of Yahweh is
eternal and uninterrupted while
the kingship of Baal is interrupted every year
by his death in the Fall.
As the God of
Fertility dies, so the vegetation dies; and when he is reborn so is the Earth
in the Spring.
Not so with Yahweh; for since
Yahweh is always
Yahweh is always powerful.
Israel and Ugarit
both practiced a yearly ritual known as the sending out of the "scapegoats";
one for god and one for a demon.
Cult of Yaweh sent a goat into the
wilderness for Azazel, a
demon, and a goat into the
This rite is known
as a "eliminatory" rite; that is, corruption, in this case
communal sin, is placed on the head of
the goat and it is sent away.
In this way it was believed that,
magically, the corruption and communal sin was removed from the
"Aaron is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat
and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites - all
their sins - and put them on the goat's head. Aaron shall send the goat away
into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. The goat will
carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release
it into the desert." - Leviticus 16:21-22
The same ritual was performed
at Ugarit; with one notable difference -
at Ugarit a woman
priest was involved in the ritual as
The rituals performed in Ugaritic worship involved
a great deal of
entheogens and sexual
Magically performing the reenactment of fertilization
the worshipers were attempting to convince Baal to send rain for the cannabis
Rain and semen were seen in ancient time as of the same essence,
both produced fruit.
fertility religions typically behaved in this manner.
Cult of Yaweh the
priests were forbidden to partake of
performing rituals and females were barred from the precincts of the temple,
approach of severe separation of self from emotion as opposed to
compassionate matriarchal approach of communal passion.
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