Akhentan moon

Akhenaten the Heretic

The Art of Amarna: Akhenaten and his life under the Sun

The Pharaoh of Egypt was considered to be an immaculately conceived resurrected form of the god Osiris carried in an Avatar that held Osiris' son, Horus' essence which was homoousion. Although Pharaoh was considered to be a descended god his queen was considered to be a mortal consort.

The sons of Pharaoh were immaculately conceived. Born of a virgin queen impregnated - not by a mortal man - but by the god Horus carried on Earth in the physical form of the body of Pharaoh which acted as an Avatar of the Divine.

Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye had two known sons. When the elder brother died as a teenager Pharaoh Amenhotep III had to brand his wife as the goddess Neith as she obviously was not a virgin after having given birth previously. The goddess Neith was considered to have given birth while remaining a virgin. This made the second son, rebranded Amenhotep IV, able to fulfill the mandate of being born of a virgin which assured the Pharaoh's lineage of succession. Strict religious traditionalists most likely considered this branding heretical at the time.

Amenhotep IV was educated in the court of Amenhotep III in the royal capital of Memphis, and later in 1375 BC, after being branded the god Horus at the religious capital of Thebes, Amenhotep IV ascended to the throne at the age of 18.

Amenhotep IV quickly wrought nothing less than a complete revolution in religion, art, construction and governance.

Amenhotep IV did away with the old gods, which were generally portrayed with human bodies and the heads of animals. In the place of the old gods, Amenhotep IV decreed that there was only one God, the god of his father and grandfather - Aten, symbolized by the Sun Disc. Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten, which means roughly, "The useful Son of the Sun Disc," and began replacing the names of the old gods from temples and public buildings with gods being combined and blended into Aten. The difference between night and day became, simply, that Aten was not present at night. No longer did other gods rule the dark.

"The real revolution implied transformation of thought patterns, in which all the traditional forms were bathed in the glare of a new light which the traditional Egyptians came to find intolerable. Beginning with the change in the king's birth name, from which the name of the (state god) Amun was removed, there was a step-by-step process of elimination. Amun was replaced by Aten, mythical statement by rational statement, many-valued logic by two-valued logic, the gods by God. All this was accomplished according to a well-conceived plan." - Erik Hornung

"Akhenaten was not a visionary but rather a methodical rationalist. Akhenaten was a rational philosopher who took the throne of perhaps the most powerful empire on earth at that time, and implemented reforms one by one as soon as the necessary political conditions had been created. Akhenaten manipulated the power of the priestly institutions at his command very brilliantly. The new religion could be summed up as there is no god but Aten, and Akhenaten is his prophet. " - Jimmy Dunn

Akhenaten was the first head of state on the Earth to decree monotheism and embrace the concept of one God. Akhenaten called himself the Son of Aten, prefiguring the legend of Christ.

Akhenaten also provoked a change in art. In the long history of Egyptian art, Pharaohs were generally presented as ideal figures, with athletic bodies and handsome faces. Portraits and statues made during Akhenaten's rule were much more realistic in style, often showing Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, Akhenaten's Chief Royal Wife, in intimate, affectionate poses or with their children, six daughters, on their laps. At times, Akhenaten is shown riding with Nefertiti in a chariot, kissing Nefertiti in public and with Nefertiti sitting on his knee. Akhenaten himself was portrayed with a long, narrow face, wide hips on a somewhat deformed body, a small potbelly, and unusually long fingers and toes.

A variety of evidence suggests that Akhenaten may have suffered from Marfan syndrome, a genetic disorder that alienated him from his family. Marfan sufferers recall feelings of rejection and isolation in childhood. As a result of the disease and Akhenaten's unusual appearance his family most likely shunned him and that isolation may have led him to reject the gods of the old religion. The connective tissue defect was shared by Abraham Lincoln.

Akhenaten later sired Tutankhamun (meaning "Living Image of Aten), likely by the royal wife Kiya.

Each of the royal women had her own sanctuary, frequently called a sunshade temple, usually situated in a parkland environment of vegetation and water pools. Crucially important to Akhenaten was renewel of creation through reproduction, basic to Akhenaten's personal life, but also in the daily renewal of creation affected by Aten. Another change Akhenaten wrought was the elevation of women. Akhenaten compares with Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh and Siddhartha Gautama in founding a religion respectful of women as human beings.

In the fourth year of his reign, Akhenaten decided to build his own capital city, and he chose the site now known as Tell el-Amarna, midway between Memphis and Thebes. To speed construction, Akhenaten changed the way buildings were put together.

In the past, public buildings had been put together with large blocks of sandstone, often weighing as much as 12-1/2 tons. Akhenaten decreed that the masons use blocks that averaged only about 10 inches square and 20 inches long, making them much easier to transport and assemble. They were quarried from a soft sandstone that could be easily shaped. (The Harappans used the same sized bricks, which they fired, and standard weights in 2500 BC, 1200 years earlier than Akhentan used bricks and 1500 years earlier than the Chinese fired brick. The Masons that built the cathedrals of Europe used nearly the same size stones. The reason is simple - it takes only one man to lift and place the building blocks.)

As a result, Akhenaten moved to the new city, called Akhetaten, or "Horizon of the Sun Disc", within two years after construction began. Elaborate drawing and narratives were carved onto the outside of the buildings and painted. Akhenaten built eight structures at East Karnak, some the size of four football fields. This method of building was abadoned at the end of the reign of Akhenaten.

successive awakening

Unfortunately their was a backlash to this revolution in thought. Cracks can be seen in the Egyptian empire , and they became ever more evident during the reign of Akhenaten.

As early as the latter years of Amenhotep III foreign holdings were neglected. During Akhenaten's reign the civil and military authority was left to Ay, 'Father of God', possibly Akhenaten's father-in-law, and general Horemheb. Ay and Horemheb both eventually became kings before the end of the 18th Dynasty, and Horemheb particularly was instrumental in reversing the Egyptian state religion back to its previous traditional form.

Many of the followers of Akhenaten and Aten, the inhabitants of Akhetaten, fled from Eygpt when the Egyptian state religion was converted back to its previous traditional form. This wandering tribe came to be known as the Hebrews. The main difference between Akhenaten's one god and the one god of Moshe Rabbenu, who lived during Akhenaten's reign, is that Akhenaten focused on the creative aspects of his one God - the reproduction of life, the daily resurrection of the life giving warmth of the sun, the seasonal life giving aspects of the waters of the Nile, etcetera whereas the god of Moshe Rabbenu, although still the God of Creation, has a nomadic warrior characteristic as manifested in Yahweh rather than a settled fertility god like Osirapis.

Contrary to the rumor that the entire race of Hebrews were enslaved by Pharaoh they worked for Pharaoh. Joseph (Yosef), who was sold into slavery by his brothers, became Pharaoh's trusted adviser. The myth that the Egyptians used only slaves to build the pyramid is false. The Egyptians planted and harvested in the proper seasons and after harvest they went down to the city to work as craftsman in the construction of the pyramids.

Near a Giza pyramid was discovered the first bottled beer factory. Those bottles have been found scattered at places of habitation throughout the Mediterranean Sea basin. "The mouth of a perfectly contented man is filled with beer," according to the ancient Egyptians, and on that basis it was a happy society. Bare-breasted women engaged in sudsy brewing work adorn tomb paintings and clay models from the dynastic period. To slake his thirst, each laborer on the pyramids got a daily beer allotment of 1 1/3 gallons. Everyone partied at the annual celebration of the Drunkenness of Hathor, goddess of fertility, motherhood and the Milky Way.

sun disc eye

Heliopolitan Theological System

The Heliopolitan Theological System declares that in the beginning there was nothing but immense chaos, Nun, thought to be an ocean or shapeless magma containing, none the less potential life. In this chaos there had been a conscious principle in existence since antiquity began, the god Atum, whose name means "the Whole," "the Complete," emphasized his abstract and somewhat metaphysical nature. This deification was the first of a divine line with each ensuring generation representing one aspect or element of the universe.

Alone and without any female counterpart, Atum succeeded in fertilizing himself to produce the first divine couple, Su and Tefnut. Su was the personification of air, in the sense of the void, and also in the sense of a life giving substance, whereas his sister/consort, Tefnut, whose role was less clearly defined, represented the moisture in the atmosphere. From this first couple came Geb, the male deification of earth, and Nut, the female deification of water, making the second couple. Su was depicted standing in between the two raising and holding the body of the sky-goddess above the earth god.


From the second couple came four more divinities: Osiris and Isis, Seth and Nephthys. This Heliopolitan System continued morphing gods until there were eight gods, nine including Amun who ruled the entire universe. Amun eventually became associated with Ra, the Egyptian sun god.

In the days before Ra had left the earth, before he had begun to grow old, his great wisdom told him that if the goddess Nut bore children, one of them would end his reign among men. So Ra laid a curse upon Nut - that she should not be able to bear any child upon any day in the year.

Full of sorrow, Nut went for help to Thoth, the thrice-great god of wisdom/magic/learning, Ra's son. Thoth knew that the curse of Ra, once spoken, could never be recalled, but in his wisdom he found a way of escape. Thoth went to Khonsu, the moon god, and challenged him to a contest at draughts. Game after game they played and Thoth always won. The stakes grew higher and higher. Khonsu wagered his own light and lost. At last Khonsu would play no more.

Then Thoth the thrice-great in wisdom/magic/learning gathered up the light and made it into five extra days which were set between the end of the old year and the beginning of the new. Since his match with Thoth, Khonsu the moon has not had enough light to shine throughout the month, but dwindles into darkness and then grows to his full glory again; for he had lost the light needed to make five whole days.

On the first of these five new days Osiris, the eldest son of Nut, was born, and the second day was set aside to be the birthday of Horus the Elder. On the third day the second son of Nut was born, dark Seth, the lord of evil. On the fourth Isis first saw the light, and her second daughter Nephthys on the fifth. In this way the curse of Ra was both fulfilled and defeated: for the days on which the children of Nut were born belonged to no year.

Isis, by her craft, learned the secret name of Ra leaving Osiris to become sole ruler of Egypt and reign on earth as Ra had done before him. Osiris and Isis found the people both savage and brutish, fighting among themselves while killing and eating one another. Isis discovered barley and millet. Osiris taught the people how to plant the seeds when the Nile had risen in the yearly inundation leaving fresh fertile mud over the fields; how to tend and water the crops; how to cut the millet when it was ripe; how to thresh the grain on the threshing floors, dry it and grind it to flour and make it into bread. Osiris showed them also how to plant vines and make the grapes into wine; and they knew already how to brew beer out of the barley as their grain had gotten wet before. When the people of Egypt had learned to make bread and cut only the flesh of animals Osiris taught were suitable, he went on to teach them Law, and how to live peacefully together, delighting themselves with art, music and poetry. As soon as Egypt was filled with peace and plenty, Osiris set out across the land to bring his blessings upon other nations.

While Osiris was away he left Isis to rule over the land, which she did both wisely and well.

Seth envied Osiris and hated Isis. The more the people loved and praised Osiris, the more Seth hated him; and the more good Osiris did and the happier mankind became, the stronger grew Seth's desire to kill Osiris and rule in his place. When Osiris returned from his travels Seth was among the first to welcome him back and kneel in reverence before "the good god Pharaoh Osiris". Seth obtained the exact measurements of the body of Osiris, and caused a beautiful chest to be made that would fit only him. It was fashioned of the rarest and most costly woods: cedar brought from Lebanon, and ebony from Punt at the south end of the Red Sea for no wood grows in Egypt except the soft and useless palm.

Seth gave a great feast in honor of Osiris. When the heart of Osiris had been made glad with feasting and song the chest was brought in, and all were amazed at its beauty. Osiris marveled at the rare cedar inlaid with ebony and ivory, with less rare gold and silver, and painted inside with figures of gods in birds and animal forms. Osiris desired it greatly.

"I will give this chest to whosoever fits it most exactly!" cried Seth.

"Let me see if I will fit into this marvelous crafted chest," said Osiris, and he laid down in the chest.

"It is yours indeed, and shall be so forever!" hissed Seth, the Deceiver, as he banged down the lid and sealed it with molten lead.

Seth took the chest containing the body of Osiris and cast it into the Nile. As the chest floated toward the great green sea it became hung in the reeds of an island in the marshes of the delta.

Seth came hunting wild boars with his dogs, hunting by night after his custom, since he loved the darkness in which evil things abound. By the light of the moon he saw the chest of cedar wood inlaid with ebony and ivory, with gold and silver, and recognized it.

At the sight anger overcame him in a red cloud, Seth flew into a rage and rendered like a panther of the south. Seth tore open the chest, took the body of Osiris, and rent it into many pieces which he scattered up and down the Nile so that the crocodiles might eat them. Isis missing Osiris begin to search for him. Nephthys left her wicked husband Seth and came to join her sister, Isis. Anubis, the son of Osiris and Nephthys, taking the form of a jackal, assisted in the search.

As Isis searched along the Nile and among the many streams of the delta she made her way in a boat made of papyrus. The crocodiles, in their reverence for the goddess, touched neither the rent pieces of Osiris nor Isis herself. Indeed ever afterwards anyone who sailed the Nile in a boat made of papyrus was safe from them, for they thought that it was Isis still questing after the pieces of her husband's body.

Isis gathered the pieces together, rejoined them by magic, caused the body to be embalmed and hidden away in a tomb of which she alone knew. After this the spirit of Osiris passed into Amenti to rule over the dead until the last great battle, when Horus should slay Seth and Osiris would return to earth once more.

As Horus grew in this world the spirit of Osiris visited him often and taught him all that a great warrior should know - how to fight Seth in both body and spirit - a final battle between good and evil. When Osiris knew that the time had come for Horus to declare war on Seth he bade him gather together a great army and sail up the Nile to attack him in the deserts of the south.

This theological system which began in the Delta, at Heliopolis not far from the head of the Delta, was very well accepted because Amun could easily be made the chief god in any local area, or a local goddess could become his consort, which eventually increased the Egyptian pantheon. Hammurabi, the Babylonian, added gods of local surrounding tribes just as the Egyptians had done. Later, following the same model of empire building the Roman Catholics added Saints. The acceptance of the sun god, Amum/Ra, fit the mindset of the ancient tribes living along the Nile as Amum/Ra was seen everday in a papyrus barque crossing the ocean of the sky. (Apollo, the Greek sun god, drove his chariot across the sky.)

sunflower sun disc

In front of the towering golden sandstone entrance to the temple of Edfu stands an imposing granite statue of a falcon, about 12-feet tall, representing Horus. Sculpted into Horus' chest is a small figure of a Ptolemy. To buttress his political legitimacy, the alien neo-pharaoh carved himself into the stone of a powerful god. The rulers of Egypt had been playing this game for 5,000 years.

More than three millenniums before the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, when ancient Europeans were still wandering the primal forests the first dynasty of the Pharaohs had already built a unified kingdom down the valley of the Nile, and they were treated as descended gods.

The Pharaohs presented themselves as children and intimates of the sun god Ra, of Isis and Osiris and of their divine offspring - Horus. Ra, the sun god, went through a daily cycle of death and rebirth, dying at the end of each day and being reborn in the morning as Ra-Horakhty, and it was through this cycle that the blessed dead traveled so as to enjoy rebirth along with the sun.

Local deities in the Mediterranean region were interchangeable in whole or in part for the deities of like nature or kind of trade partners due to the large movement of trade goods. Over the centuries, as the politics changed, there were diety mergers, hostile diety takeovers and synthetic blending of religious traditions.

Luxor luminary Amun and Ra eventually merged to become Amun-Ra, a strong new brand.

Everything changed when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt for nearly three centuries until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.

The Ptolemaic successors of Alexander III of Macedonia promoted Serapis, a deliberate blending of gods worshiped by the tribes surrounding the Mediterranean with the most well known Greek and Roman gods.

At the Greco-Roman temple of Philae, you see a mother-and-child image sculpted on the walls of the sanctuary, but the face of the mother has been chiseled away. In a Christian time, Isis was rebranded Mary, turning Horus into Christ.

"Politics, seen from this perspective of 5,000 years of Egyptian history, is something very different from what you find in American civics textbooks. It's not about the installation of this or that logically and legally constructed political system, based on this or that ideology.

It's about rulers borrowing, bending and merging gods, ideologies and legal systems, adapting to internal and external forces, mixing coercion and patronage, sharing some of the spoils where necessary, but always with the goal of maximizing their own power and wealth and hanging on to it for as long possible - for yourself, and your children, and your children's children.

Those who take the legitimating religion or ideology too seriously - be it Osirisism or socialism - are missing the point. The gods are continually morphing; what endures over the millenniums is men's lust for power and wealth and their vain quest for immortality." - Timothy Garton Ash

apis bull

parallels between Christian and Egyptian mythology

Horus was the keeper of wisdom as was Jesus.

Horus is the ascending Sun as Jesus is the ascending Son.

Horus and Jesus are both born of immaculate conception.

After Osiris' death Osiris' spirit enters Isis to immaculately conceive Horus.

Pharoah was an incarnation of Horus (also known as "Amun-Ra," the sun god).

In the same way, Jesus is considered to be the incarnation of the Creator.

Like the Egyptian pharoah incarnation of Horus, Jesus was called a "shepherd".

In the catacombs at Rome are images of the baby Horus being held by the virgin mother Isis, the original "Madonna and Child."

Jesus is homoousion as Horus is homoousion.

Horus had an evil adversary named "Seth".

Jesus had an evil adversary named "Satan".

"In the last days, Horus and Seth will fight one last time. Horus will defeat Seth forever, and Osiris will be able to return to this world. On that day, the Day of Awakening, all the tombs shall open and the just dead shall live again as we do, and all sorrow shall pass away forever."

Seth was a homosexual and tryed to prove his dominance by seducing Horus and sodomizing him. Horus pretends to submit, gives Seth a hand job between his thighs, catches Seth's semen and then throws it in the river, so that he may not be said to have been inseminated by Seth. Horus then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettuce, which was Seth's favorite food. After Seth has eaten the lettuce, they go to the deities to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt. The deities first listen to Seth's claim of dominance over Horus, and call his semen forth, but it answers from the river, invalidating his claim. Then, the deities listen to Horus' claim of having dominated Seth, and call his semen forth, and it answers from inside Seth. In consequence, Horus is declared the ruler of Egypt. Horus cast Seth into the darkness where he lives to this day.

Horus was considered the Savior after defeating Seth.

Horus had four sons; Imsety - human headed son of Horus, Hapi - the baboon headed son of Horus, Duamutef - the jackal headed son of Horus, Qebehsenuef - the hawk headed son of Horus. The four evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Matthew is symbolized as a human; Mark is symbolized as a lion; Luke is symbolized as an ox; John is symbolized as an eagle.

The hiding of the infant Horus in a marsh by his mother parallels the story of the hiding of the infant Moshe Rabbenu in a marsh by his mother.

When Horus died, Isis implored Ra, the Sun, to restore Horus to life. Ra stopped his ship mid way to heaven and sent down Thoth, the moon, to bring Horus back to life. The stopping of the sun and moon by Isis recalls the myth of the stopping of the sun and moon by Joshua.

The difference between Osiris and Horus, father and son, blurred and after a few centuries, it came to be said that Horus was the resurrected form of Osiris.

From The Book of the Dead or The Papyrus of Ani, 1240 BC

the evolution and merging of Egyptian, Greek and Hebrew mythology

The cult of the Apis bull started at the very beginning of Egyptian history as a fertility god connected to grain and the herds. In the land of Canaan the Apis bull was known as Baal. Osirapis was the sacred bull of Memphis after its death according to the hieroglyphic texts which were found on stelae and other objects in the Serapeum at Sakkara. Serapis was a syncretistic deity derived from the worship of the Egyptian Osiris and Apis (Osiris + Apis = Oserapis/Sarapis).

Greek and Roman authors have much to say about Apis, the marks by which the black bull-calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis with court for disporting himself, the mode of prognostication from his actions, the mourning at his death, his costly burial, and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found. The Apis bull, a manifestation of Pharaoh, symbolized the king's courageous heart, great strength, virility, and fighting spirit.

Auguste Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum of Saqqara revealed the tombs of over sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenhotep III to that of the Ptolemaic dynasty. At first, each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it.

As early as the 5th century BC the historian Herodotus equated the Egyptian god Osiris and the Greek god Dionysus.

Alexander III of Macedonia founded Alexandria in 331 BC. Alexandria became not only a center of Hellenism but also home to the largest Hebrew community in the world. The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Torah and other writings), was produced here.

Ptolemy I succeeded Alexander III of Macedonia and assumed the traditional title of pharaoh in 304 BC. Ptolemy I Soter I (Ptolemy the Savior) promoted Serapis while adding Hellenistic overtones most notable in the use of a human formed idol rather than an animal idol and thus the followers of Serapis endorsed him as the patron of Alexandria.

The composite term Serapis is found around the start of the first century BC, for example in Aegyptiaca by Hecataeus of Abdera, and in works by Leon of Pella. At the time of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth the Gnostic Mystery of the Serapis was well ensconced in Alexandria.

"When in ancient times a pestilence arose in Egypt, the common people ascribed their troubles to the workings of a divine agency; for indeed with many strangers of all sorts dwelling in their midst and practicing different rites of religion and sacrifice, their own traditional observances in honor of the gods had fallen into disuse.

Hence the natives of the land surmised that unless they removed the foreigners, their troubles would never be resolved. At once, therefore, the aliens were driven from the country, and the most outstanding and active among them banded together and, as some say, were cast ashore in Greece and certain other regions; their leaders were notable men, chief among them being Danaus and Cadmus. But the greater number were driven into what is now called Judaea, which is not far distant from Egypt and was at that time utterly uninhabited.

The colony was headed by a man called Moses (Moshe Rabbenu), outstanding both for his wisdom and for his courage. On taking possession of the land he founded, beside other cities, one that is now the most renowned of all, called Jerusalem. In addition he established the temple that they hold in chief veneration, instituted their forms of worship and ritual, drew up their laws and ordered their political institutions.

He (Moshe Rabbenu) also divided them into twelve tribes, since this is regarded as the most perfect number and corresponds to the number of months that make up a year. He had no images whatsoever of the gods made for them, being of the opinion that God is not in human form; rather the Heaven that surrounds the earth is alone divine, and rules the universe.

The sacrifices that he established differ from those of other nations, as does their way of living, for as a result of their own expulsion from Egypt he introduced a kind of misanthropic and inhospitable way of life." - Aegyptiaca by Hecataeus of Abdera

The Gnostic Mystery of the Serapis included:

Creator made flesh, humanities Savior is the Son of the Creator = the Creator made flesh;

The Father of the Saviorresides in the ineffable heavens while the Savior's mother is a mortal virgin.

Serapis' birth was prophesized by a star in the heavens.

Serapis was born in a lean-to before three shepherds.

Serapis offers his followers the chance to be born again through the rites of baptism.

Serapis miraculously turned water into wine at the marriage ceremony.

Serapis was powerless to perform miracles in his own village.

Serapis rode triumphantly into town on a donkey while people waved palm leaves to honor him.

Serapis had 12 disciples, was accused of licentious behavior and hung on a tree.

Serapis dies at the Vernal Equinox as a sacrifice for the sins of the world, descends to hell after bodily death, and then on the third day his tomb is visited by three of his female followers, he rises from the dead and ascends to heaven in glory.

Serapis death and resurrection are celebrated by a ritual meal of bread and wine, which symbolize his body and blood.

Numerous Gnostic mystery groups existed in the eastern Mediterranean during the late classical antiquity period, including the Eleusinian mysteries, the Dionysian mysteries, the Orphic mysteries and the Mithraic mysteries as well as the Mystery of Serapis. Some of the many divinities that the Romans nominally adopted from other cultures also came to be worshiped in the Gnostic mysteries - for instance Egyptian Isis, Thracian/Phrygian Sabazius and Phrygian Cybele.

At the heart of the Gnostic Mystery of Christ was the myth of a Dying and Resurrecting God made into a Human, an Avatar, who was known by different names in different cultures: in Egypt he was Osiris and later Serapis, in Greece Dionysus, in Asia Minor Attis, in Syria Adonis, in Italy Bacchus, in Sumeria Tammuz , in Persia Mithras. This Dying and Resurrecting God had been popular throughout the ancient world for centuries and carried many local names but was mostly seen as a Bull as seen in the Canaanite god of fertility Baal. It was the cross pollination with Hellenism, which always modeled the gods in human form, that allowed, first, the Alexandrian followers of Serapis and, then, the Essenes to model the Dying and Resurrecting God on, first, the Greek ruler Alexander III of Macedonia, and, then, Jesus of Nazareth.

The name 'Osiris-Dionysus' was sometimes used to denote the universal composite nature of reality in much the same way that the term Serapis was used before being replace by the term Christ. Chrestus (Christus) was another name for the Egyptian god, Serapis. Chrestus may be translated as "Messiah".

"In the city on the borders of Egypt which boasts Alexander of Macedonia as its founder, Serapis and Isis are worshiped with a reverence that is almost fanatical. Evidence that the sun, under the name of Serapis, is the object of all this reverence is either the basket set on the head of the god or the figure of a three-headed creature placed by his statue. The middle head of this figure, which is also the largest, represents a lion's; on the right a dog raises its head with a gentle and fawning air; and on the left the neck ends in the head of a ravening wolf. All three beasts are joined together by the coils of a serpent whose head returns to the god's right hand which keeps the monster in check." - Macrobius, Saturnalia

Constantine was searching for a new State religion to unite the far flung reaches of the Roman Empire. To this end Constantine took existing fragmented and splintered Gnostic Mysteries synthesizing the Mysteries of the Serapis with the Mysteries of Mithras and codifying the structure of those Gnostic mysteries into a new religion with a new sacred text - the New Testament which was underlain by the previously devised mythology of the Sadducees found in the Old Testament.
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