Itzamna used magic to give man
writing, drawing, calendars, medicine and healing.
1500 BC Olmecs grind
cocoa beans, mixed them with water and add spices, chillies and
Theobroma cacoa processing
For the next 3000 years
first the Olmecs, then the Mayans (600 BC) and finally the Aztecs (400 AD)
develop successful methods for cultivating cocoa.
Chocolate is used in
religious rituals dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god responsible for
bringing the cocoa tree to man, to Chak ek Chuah, the Mayan patron saint
of cocoa and as an offering at the funerals of noblemen.
1502 Christopher Columbus and
his crew seize a large native canoe that contains, among other goods for trade,
Between the early 17th and late 19th centuries the
laborious and slow processing of the cacao bean was manual.
craze for chocolate brought with it
a thriving slave
Cacao plantations spread, as the English, Dutch, and French
colonized and planted.
With the depletion of Mesoamerican workers,
largely to disease, cocoa beans production was often the work of poor wage
laborers and enslaved Africans.
1585 First cargo
of cocoa beans arrived on the Iberian Peninsula from New Spain.
The Whole Process Of Making Chocolate
1650 Chocolate beverages first appeared in England coinciding
with the arrival of tea from China and coffee from the Middle
1674 First chocolate lozenge appears in
1729 The first mechanic cocoa grinder
is invented Walter Churchman in Bristol, UK where His Majesty King George II
grants a patent and sole use of an invention for the expeditious, fine
and clean making of chocolate by an engine.
1776 Doret invents a hydraulic process to grind cocoa beans
into a paste, facilitating the first large-scale production of chocolate.
1815 Dutch chemist
Coenraad van Houten introduces alkaline salts to chocolate to reduce its
Cocoa beans are fermented, dried, roasted, and separated
from their skins.
The beans are ground into cocoa mass (cocoa
The mass is melted and the 'liquor' is either separated into
cocoa solids and cocoa
butter, or cooled and molded into blocks of raw chocolate.
liquor, used at this point, means 'liquid' or 'fluid'.
(cocoa liquor) is pure cocoa mass in solid or semi-solid form.
liquor contains roughly 53 percent cocoa butter (fat), about 17 percent
carbohydrates, 11 percent protein, 6 percent tannins, and 1.5 percent
1828 Dutch are producing and selling
To make Dutch cocoa powder, chocolate liquor is pumped
into giant hydraulic presses, where about half of the cocoa butter is squeezed
Baking soda is added to the remaining material, which is called
Treated press cake is then cooled, pulverized, and sifted
to form cocoa powder.
1875 Daniel Peter invents
milk chocolate by mixing a powdered milk developed by Henri Nestlé with
the chocolate liquor.
1893 Milton Hershey spots
chocolate making equipment at the Worlds Fair in Chicago and begins production
at a factory in Pennsylvania.
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