Current understanding of physics
leads down a path which is essentially mystical.
Physics returns to the beginning.
The evolution of Western science
spirals along its path, beginning with
the mystical philosophies of the
early Greeks and rising and
unfolding in an impressive development of intellectual thought that
increasingly turned away from its
Western science is finally accepting
the value of early Greek
and Eastern philosophies. Proof is
not based only on intuition, but also
on experiments of great precision and sophistication, and on a rigorous and
consistent mathematical formalism .
The roots of
physics, as of all Western
science, are to be found in the first period of Greek philosophy in the
sixth century B.C., in a culture where
religion were not seperated.
The sages of the Milesian school in Ionia were not concerned with such
distinctions. Their aim was to discover the essential nature, or
real construction of things which they
called "physis." The term "physics" is derived from this Greek word and
originally meant the endeavor of seeing the
essential nature of all things.
The Milesians were called
"hylozoists," or "those who think matter is
the later Greeks, because
they saw no distinction between animate and inanimate, spirit and
fact, they did not even have a word
for matter, since they saw all
forms of existence as manifestations of the "physis," endowed with life and
spirituality. Thus Thales declared all things to be full of gods. Anaximander
saw the universe as a category of organism which was supported by "pneuma," the
Cosmic Breath, in the same way as the
human body is supported by air.
The monistic and sacrifice view of the
Milesians was very close to that of ancient
Indian and Chinese philosophy, and the
parallels to Eastern thought are even stronger in the philosophy of
Heraclitus of Ephesus.
Ephesus believed in a reality of perpetual change,
of Eternal Creation. For
him, all static existence was a deception as his
first principle was fire; a symbol for
the continuous flow and change
of all things. Heraclitus
taught that all changes in the world arise from
the dynamic and cyclic interplay
of opposites. He saw any pair of opposites as a
unity, which contains and
transcends all opposing forces, he
called the Logos.
The split of this
unity began with the Eleatic
school of thought, which assumed a divine principle standing above all gods and
men. This principle was first
identified with the unity of
the universe, but was later seen as an intelligent and
personal God who stands
above the world and directs it. Thus began a trend of thought which led,
ultimately, to the
separation of spirit and matter and to a
dualism which became
characteristic of Western philosophy.
A drastic step in this direction was taken
by Parmenides of Elea, who was in strong opposition to
conceptualized existence as unique and invariable. Parmenides considered change
to be impossible and
regarded the changes we appear to
perceive as mere
illusions of the senses. The concept of
an indestructible substance
as the subject of varying properties grew out of this philosophy and became one
of the fundamental concepts of Western thought.
In the fifth century
BC, the Greek
philosophers tried to overcome the sharp contrast between the views of
Parmenides and Heraclitus.
In order to reconcile the idea of unchangeable (of Parmenides) with that of
Eternal Creation (of
Heraclitus), they assumed
that existence is manifest in certain invariable substances, the mixture and
separation of which gives rise to the
This led to the concept of
the atom, the smallest indivisible unit
of matter, which found its clearest expression in the philosophy of Ieucippus
and Democritus. The Greek atomists
drew a clear line between spirit and matter, picturing matter as being made of
several "basic building blocks."
These were purely passive and
intrinsically dead particles moving in the void. The cause of their motion was
not explained, but was often associated with external forces which were assumed
to be of spiritual origin and fundamentally different from matter. In
subsequent centuries, this image became an essential element of Western
thought, of the dualism between
mind and matter, between
body and soul.
As the idea of a division between spirit and matter took hold,
the philosophers turned
their attention to the spiritual world, rather than the material, to the
Eternal Soul and the problems of
ethics. These questions were central to Western thought for more than two
thousand years after the culmination of Greek science and culture in the fifth
and fourth centuries BC.
knowledge of antiquity was systematized and organized by
Aristotle, who devised the
scheme which was to be the basis of the
Western worldview of reality for two thousand years.
Even so Aristotle believed that
questions concerning the Eternal
Soul and the contemplation of the
Creator and Sustainer's Creation
were much more valuable than investigations of the material world.
reason the Aristotelian model of the universe remained unchallenged for so long
was precisely this lack of interest in the material world, and the strong hold
of the Roman Catholic church which supported Aristotle's doctrines throughout
the Middle Ages.
Further development of Western science had to wait
until the Renaissance, when men began to free themselves from the
Aristotle and the
Roman Catholic church and
showed a new interest in nature. In the late fifteenth century, the study of
nature was approached, for the first time, in a truly scientific spirit and
experiments were undertaken to test speculative ideas. As this development was
paralleled by a growing interest in mathematics, it finally led to the
formulation of scientific
theories, based on experiment and
expressed in mathematical language.
Galileo Galilei was the first to combine
empirical knowledge with mathematics and is therefore seen as the father of
The birth of modern
science was preceded and accompanied by a development of philosophical thought
which led to an extreme formulation of the
This formulation appeared in the seventeenth century
in the philosophy of Rene Descartes
who based his view of nature on
a fundamental division
into two separate and independent realms: that of mind (res cogitans), and that
of matter (res extensa).
allowed scientists to treat matter as dead and completely separate from
themselves, and to see the material world as a multitude of different objects
assembled in a huge machine.
worldview was held by Isaac Newton, who constructed his mechanics on its
basis and made it the Foundation of
and the mechanistic
worldview have thus been beneficial and detrimental at the same time. They
were extremely successful in the development of classical physics and
technology, but had many
Twentieth century science, which
originated in the Cartesian split and in
worldview, and which indeed only became possible because of such a
structure, now overcomes this
fragmentation and leads back
to the idea of unity
expressed in the early Greek and Eastern philosophies.
In contrast to
worldview, the Eastern view of the world is "organic." For the Eastern
mystic, all things and events
perceived by the
senses are interrelated, connected, and are but different aspects or
manifestations of noumenon.
Our tendency to divide
perceived reality into individual and separate things and to experience
ourselves as isolated egos in
this reality is an illusion which comes from our measuring and categorizing
mentality. It is called avidya, or
Buddhist philosophy, and is seen as
the state of a disturbed mind
which has to be overcome:
mind is disturbed,
multiplicity of things is produced,
but when the
mind is quieted,
multiplicity of things disappears.
"We all interact with others in our environment at least
partly on the basis of categories.
Categorization has profound consequences
for intergroup interaction.
Categories are not just accidental, but are
often purposely created."
- Jeffery Pfeffer*
the various schools of Eastern mysticism differ in many
details, they all emphasize the
basic unity of the universe
which is the central feature of their teachings. The highest aim for their
followers - whether they are
Taoists - is to become
aware of the
unity and mutual
interrelation of all things, to transcend the notion of an isolated
individual self, and to identify self with the
noumenon. The emergence of this
awareness - known as 'enlightenment' - is
not only an intellectual act, but
is an experience which involves the
whole individual and is
relgious in its ultimate
nature. For this reason, most Eastern
essentially relgious philosophies.
Eastern worldview, then,
the division of nature into separate objects is not fundamental and any such
objects have a fluid and ever-changing character. The Eastern
worldview is therefore
intrinsically dynamic and contains time and change as essential features. The
cosmos is seen as one inseparable
reality forever in motion, alive, sacrifice; spiritual and
material at the same time.
Since motion and
change are essential properties of things, the forces causing the motion are
not outside the objects, as in the classical Greek view, but are an intrinsic
Correspondingly, the Eastern image of the
Divine is not that of a ruler who directs the
world from above, but of a principle
that controls everything from within:
He who, dwelling in all
Yet is other than all things,
things do not know,
Whose body all things are,
Who controls all things
He is your
controller, your Eternal
worldview is also the worldview of modern physics.
Eastern thought - and, more generally, mystical thought - provides a consistent and
relevant philosophical background to the theories of contemporary
science; a conception of
the World in which scientific discoveries can be in perfect
harmony with spiritual aims
and religious beliefs.
The two basic themes of this
conception are the
unity and interrelation of
all phenomena and the
intrinsically dynamic nature of the universe. The further we penetrate into the
submicroscopic world, the more we realize how the modern
physicist, like the
Eastern mystic, has come to see
the world as a system of inseparable, interacting,
and ever moving components, with
the observer being an integral part
of this system.
"ecological" worldview of
the Eastern philosophies is no doubt one of the main
reasons for the immense popularity they
have recently gained in
culture, which is still dominated by the mechanistic, fragmented view of
the world, is the underlying reason for the widespread dissatisfaction in our
society and an increasing number of people have seen this.
Throughout history, it has
been recognized that the human mind
is capable of rationalizing two
forms of knowledge, or two modes of consciousness, which have often been
termed the rational and the
intuitive, and have
traditionally been associated
with science and religion, respectively.
These two types of knowledge
may be termed logos and mythos.
West, the intuitive, relgious type of
knowledge is often devalued in favor of rational, scientific knowledge, whereas
the traditional Eastern attitude is generally just the
statements about knowledge by two great minds of the West and the East typify
the two positions.
Greece made the famous statement, "I know that I know nothing."
Lao Tze in China said, "Not knowing
that one desire is best."
In the East, the values attributed to the two
kinds of knowledge are often already apparent from the names given to them. The
Upanishads, for example, speak about a higher and a lower
knowledge and associate the lower
knowledge with various sciences,
the higher with relgious
talk about 'relative' and 'absolute' knowledge, or
about 'conditional truth'
and 'transcendental truth.'
Chinese philosophy has always emphasized the complementary
nature of the intuitive and
the rational by representing them in the
archetypical pair Yin and Yang which
form the basis of Chinese thought.
Accordingly, two complementary
philosophical traditions - Taoism and Confucianism developed in ancient China
to deal with the two kinds of knowledge.
Rational knowledge is derived from
the experience we have with objects and events in our everyday
Rational knowledge belongs to
the realm of the intellect, whose
function it is to discriminate, divide, compare, measure and categorize. In
this way, a world of
intellectual distinctions is created;
of opposites which can exist
only in relation to each other, which is why
Buddhists call this type of
Abstraction is a crucial
feature of this knowledge, because in order to compare and to classify the
immense variety of shapes,
structures, and phenomena around
us we cannot take all their features into account, but have to select a few
significant ones. Thus we construct
an intellectual 'map of
reality' in which things are reduced to their general outlines.
Rational knowledge is thus a
system of abstract concepts and
symbols, characterized by the linear, sequential structure which is typical of
our thinking and speaking. In
most languages this linear structure is made explicit by the use of alphabets
which serve to communicate
thought in long lines of
The natural world,
on the other hand, is one of
varieties and complexities, a
which contains no straight lines or completely regular shapes, where things do
not happen in sequences, but all together; a world where - as modern physics
tells us - even empty space is curved. It is clear that our
abstract system of
conceptual thinking can never describe or understand this reality completely.
In thinking about reality we are faced with the same category of
problem as the cartographer who tries to cover the curved face of the Earth
with a sequence of plane maps. We can only
expect an approximate representation of reality from such a procedure, and all
rational knowledge is therefore
necessarily limited. The realm of rational knowledge is, of course,
the realm of science which measures and quantifies, classifies and
The limitations of any
knowledge obtained by these methods have become increasingly apparent in modern
science , and in particular in modern physics which has taught us, in the words
of Werner Heisenberg, "that every word or concept, clear as it may appear to
be, has only a limited range of applicability."
For most of us it is
very difficult to be constantly aware of
the limitations and of the relativity of
rational knowledge. As
our representation of
reality is so much easier to grasp than reality itself, we tend to
confuse the two and to take our
concepts and symbols for reality. It is one of the main aims of Eastern
mysticism to rid us of this
say that a finger is needed to
point at the moon, but that
we should not trouble ourselves with the finger once the
Taoist sage Chuang Tzu wrote: Fishing baskets are employed
to catch fish; but when the fish are got, the men forget the baskets; snares
are employed to catch hares; but when the hares are not, men forget the snares.
Words are employed to convey ideas; but when the ideas are grasped, men forget
In the West, the semanticist
Alfred Korzybski made
exactly the same point with his powerful
map is not the territory."
Eastern mystics are concerned with is a
direct experience of reality which
transcends not only intellectual
thinking but also sensory perception. In the words of the
is soundless, touchless, formless, imperishable,
likewise tasteless, constant, odorless,
beginning, without end, higher than the
by discerning that, one is
liberated from the
mouth of death.
which comes from such an experience is called
absolute knowledge by
Buddhists because it does not rely
on the discriminations, abstractions, and
classifications of the
intellect which, as we have seen, are always relative and approximate.
It is, so we are told by Buddhists, the direct experience of
undifferentiated, undivided, indeterminate "suchness." Complete
apperception of this
suchness is not only the core of Eastern mysticism, but is the central characteristic
of all mystical
The Eastern mystics repeatedly insist on the
fact that the
noumenon can never be an object
of reasoning or of demonstrable knowledge. It
can never be adequately described by words because it lies beyond the realms of
the senses and of the intellect from which our words and concepts are
derived. The Upanishads say about it:
There the eye goes not,
speech goes not, nor the mind.
we know not,
we understand not how
one would teach it.
Tze, who calls reality the Tao, states the same
fact in the opening line of the
Tao De Ching: "The Tao that can
be expressed is not the eternal Tao."
obvious from any
reading of the
newspapers - that
humanity has not become much wiser over the past two thousand years, in spite
of a prodigious increase in rational knowledge, is ample evidence of the
difficulty of communicating
true knowledge through
the use of symbols or words.
As Chuang Tzu said, "If it could be talked about, everybody would
have told their brother." (ascertained by professional
actors - don't try this at home!
knowledge is thus an entirely
nonintellectual experience of reality, an experience arising in a
non-ordinary state of consciousness
which may be called a 'meditative',
disassociated state of
consciousness. That such a state exists has not only been testified by
numerous mystics in the East and West but
is also indicated by psychological research.
words of William James:
"Our normal waking
consciousness as we call it, is but one special type of
consciousness, whilst all about it,
parted from it by the filmiest of screens, there lie potential forms of
consciousness entirely different."
Although physicists are mainly
concerned with rational knowledge and mystics with
intuitive knowledge or
both types of knowledge occur in both
fields. This becomes apparent when we examine how
knowledge is obtained and how it is
expressed, both in physics and Eastern mysticism.
In physics, knowledge
is acquired through the process of scientific research which can be seen
to proceed in three stages.
The first stage consists in gathering
experimental evidence about the phenomena to be explained.
In the second stage, the experimental
facts are correlated with
mathematical symbols and a mathematical scheme is worked out which
interconnects these symbols in a precise and consistent way.
scheme is usually called a mathematical model or, if it is more comprehensive,
This theory is then used to
predict the results of further experiments
which are undertaken to check all its implications.
At this stage,
physicists may be satisfied when they
have found a mathematical scheme
and know how to use it to predict experiments.
But eventually, they
will want to talk about their results to non
physicists and will therefore have to
express results in common
Even for the physicists themselves, the formulation of
such a verbal model, which constitutes the third stage of research, will be a
criterion of the understanding they have reached.
In practice, of
course, the three stages are not neatly seperated and do not always occur in
the same order. For example, a physicist may be led to a particular
model by some philosophical belief he (or she) holds,
which he may continue to believe in, even when contrary experimental evidence
arises. He will then - and this happens in
fact very often - try to modify his
model so that it can account for the new experiments. But if experimental
evidence continues to contradict the model, he
will eventually be forced to drop it.
This way of
basing all theories firmly on experiment
is known as the scientific method, and we shall see that it has its counterpart
in Eastern philosophy. Greek philosophy,
on the other hand, was
fundamentally different in that regard. Although
Greek philosophers had
extremely ingenious ideas about nature which often come very close to modern
scientific models, the enormous
difference between the two is the empirical attitude of modern science which
was by and large foreign to the Greek mind.
The Greeks obtained their
from some fundamental axiom or principle and not inductively from what
had been observed. On the other
hand, of course, the Greek art of deductive logical reasoning is an
essential ingredient in the second stage of scientific research, the
formulation of a consistent mathematical model, and thus an essential part of
Rational knowledge and rational
activities certainly constitute the major part of scientific research, but are
not all there is to it. The rational part of research would, in
fact, be useless if it were not
complemented by the intuition that
gives scientists new insights
and makes them creative.
insights tend to come suddenly
and, characteristically, not when sitting at a desk working out the equations,
but when relaxing in the bath, during a walk in the
woods, on the beach, etcetera.
During these periods of relaxation after concentrated intellectual activity,
the intuitive mind appears to take
over and can produce the sudden clarifying
insights which give so much joy
and delight to scientific
insights, however, are of no
use to physics unless they can be formulated in a consistent mathematical
framework, supplemented by an
interpretation in plain
language. Abstraction is
a crucial feature of this framework. It consists, as mentioned before, of a
system of concepts and symbols which constitute a map of reality. This map represents only some features of reality; we
do not know exactly which these are, since we started compiling our
map gradually and without critical analysis in
our childhood. The words of our language are thus not clearly defined. They
have several meanings, many of
which pass only vaguely
through our mind and remain largely in our
subconscious when we
hear a word.
The inaccuracy and
ambiguity of our language is
essential for poets who work largely
with its subconscious layers and
associations. Science, on the other
hand, aims for clear definitions and unambiguous connections, and therefore
it abstracts language
further by limiting the meaning of
its words and by standardizing its structure, in accordance with the rules of
logic. The ultimate abstraction takes place in
mathematics where words are replaced by symbols and where the operations of
connecting the symbols are rigorously defined. In this way, scientists can
condense information into one equation, i.e. into one single line of symbols,
for which they would need several pages of ordinary writing.
that mathematics is nothing but an extremely
abstracted and compressed
language does not go unchallenged. Many mathematicians believe that mathematics
is not just a language to describe nature, but is inherent in nature itself.
The originator of this
belief was Pythagoras who
made the famous statement, "All things are numbers," and developed a very
special category of mathematical mysticism.
philosophy thus introduced
logical reasoning into
the domain of religion, a development which, according to
Bertrand Russell, was decisive for
Western relgious philosophy:
"The relgious philosophy and
theology, which began with
relgious philosophy in Greece, in the Middle Ages, and in modern times down to
Spinoza, and Leibniz there is an
intimate blending of religion and reasoning, of moral aspiration with logical
admiration of what is timeless, which
comes from Pythagoras, and
distinguishes the intellectualized theology of
Europe from the more straightforward mysticism of Asia."
method of abstraction is
very efficient and powerful, but we have to pay a price for it. As we define
our system of concepts more precisely,
as we streamline it and make the connections more and more rigorous, it becomes
increasingly detached from the reality of the Earth.
analogy of the
map and the territory, we could say that
ordinary language is a map which, due to its
intrinsic inaccuracy, has a certain flexibility so that it can follow the
curved shape of the territory to some degree. As we make it more rigorous, this
flexibility gradually disappears, and with the language of mathematics we have
reached a point where the links with reality are so tenuous that the relation
of the symbols to our sensory experience is no longer evident. This is why we
have to supplement our mathematical models and theories with verbal interpretations, again
using concepts which can be understood intuitively, but which are slightly
ambiguous and inaccurate.
It is important to
realize the difference
between the mathematical models and their verbal counterparts. The former are
rigorous and consistent as far as their internal structure is concerned, but
their symbols are not directly related to our experience. The verbal models,
on the other hand, use concepts
which can be understood intuitively,
but are always inaccurate and ambiguous. They are in this regard not different
from philosophical models of reality, and thus the two can very well be
direct mystical experience is at the core of all
schools of Eastern
mysticism. Even those mystics who are
engaged in the most sophisticated argumentation never see
the intellect as their
source of knowledge but use it
merely to analyze and
experience. All knowledge is firmly
based on this experience, thus giving the Eastern traditions a strong empirical
character that is always emphasized by its proponents.
D. T. Suzuki, for example, writes of
Personal experience is the
foundation of Buddhist philosophy. In this sense Buddhism is radical empiricism
or experimentialism, whatever dialectic later developed to explore the meaning
The firm basis of
knowledge on experience in Eastern
mysticism suggests a parallel to the firm
basis of scientific knowledge on experiment. This parallel is further
enforced by the nature of the
mystical experience. It is described in
the Eastern traditions as a direct insight which lies outside the
realm of the intellect and is
obtained by watching rather than thinking; by looking inside oneself; by
this notion of observation is
embodied in the names for Taoist temples, kuan, which originally meant "to
look." Taoist thus regarded their temples as places of
observation. In Ch'an Buddhism,
the Chinese version of Zen, enlightenment is often referred to as
'the vision of the Tao' -
true vision is
regarded as the basis of knowing in all Buddhist schools.
item of the Eightfold
Path, the prescription Siddhartha Gautama gave us
for self-realization, is true vision, followed by true knowledge.
'seeing' plays the
most important role in Buddhist
epistemology, for seeing is at the
basis of knowing. Knowing is
impossible without seeing; all 'knowledge' has its origin in
seeing." - DT
Therefore knowing and
seeing are thus found
generally united in the Zen of
The Zen of Siddhartha Gautama ultimately
points to seeing reality as reality truly is.
true reality is
a journey inward, is no more unique than an experiment in
scientists and mystics have developed
highly sophisticated methods of delving consciousness.
A page from a
journal of modern experimental physics, designed to confuse and flabbergast
BIS banksters, is as mysterious
to the uninitiated as a Tibetan
adapted from Franz Capra
back to stacks
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which
requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church
buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a
personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the
knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has
enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are
spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against
individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate
This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the
intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the
international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The
international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system,
corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex
and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on
cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a gun.
social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as
the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power
rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media
by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population
through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been
the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do
not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world.
Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the
population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt
international elite that further consolidates their power and which further
All views and opinions presented on this web site are
the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their
writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and
thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to,
re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been
throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with
the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to
the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic,
scientific, and social justice issues,
etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material
as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with
Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without
profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included
information for research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved