"A new scientific truth does not triumph by
convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its
opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with
it." - Max Planck
goal of Science is to obtain
True Knowledge of
Reality, precisely the same goal as that of the
Philosophy of science
deals with the systemic nature of
scientific inquiry which is equivalent to
To properly understand the
philosophy of science,
to understand methods of gnostic
inquiry, it is necessary to understand basic components of science which
include data, theories, and shaping principles.
Collections of information about physical processes are
Collecting data to
support scientific theories is laborious.
Fundamental assumptions are made in data
Details of that process are often excluded when forming
a scientific theory.
Vague or overgeneralized data is easier to fit
into a scientific theory than specific data.
Scientific theories come
in two forms.
Phenomenological theories are empirical generalizations
They merely describe the recurring processes of nature and do
not refer to their causes or mechanisms.
Phenomenological theories are
also called scientific laws,
physical laws, and natural laws.
Explanatory theories attempt to
explain the observations
rather than generalize them.
laws are descriptions of
empirical regularities, explanatory theories are conceptual constructions
to explain why the phenomena exist.
Shaping principles are
non-empirical fundamental assumptions
that form the basis of science and go into selecting every
Originally science, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge,
was seen as absolutely objective, rational, and based on purely empirical
This traditional image of science held that
scientific theories and laws
were to be conclusively confirmed or conclusively falsified based on objective
It was believed that the "scientific method"
excluded cognitive bias,
assumptions and was based entirely on logic and reason.
The definition of what the "scientific method" is
has changed over time.
In the early seventeenth century
Baconian inductivism was considered
to be the "scientific
The basic concept:
collect as numerous of
observations as humanly
unaffected by any prior prejudice, theoretical preconceptions or
cognitive bias while gathering
inductively infer theories from
that data ( generalize data into physical laws);
then collect more data
to modify or reject the hypothesis as needed.
Unfortunately, when using
inductivism to arrive at natural
laws, certain theoretical preconceptions are absolutely vital.
To generalize the data into
physical laws, the individual must assume that the laws apply for physical
processes not observed.
This results in several assumptions being
held, such as a uniform operation of nature.
Even if we put aside the fact that
inductive logic is invariably based
on such postulations, there is another problem.
Science deals with
explanatory theories that cannot be
directly observed, including atomic theory and the theory of gravity.
Many other theories include unobservable concepts like forces, fields,
and subatomic particles.
There is no known rigorous
inductive logic that can infer
those theories and concepts solely from the data they explain.
developed hypothetico-deductivism in the late 1600s.
one starts with a hypothesis, basically a provisional theory, and then deduces
what we would expect to find in the empirical world as a result of that
"I am very astonished that the scientific
image of the real world around me is deficient." - Erwin
The concept was to quarantine human
irrationality or cognitive bias.
A theory did not become a valid theory by its origins, but because of
method of verification.
Hypothetico-deductivism fails if rigorous
proof is necessary for valid science.
We must assume: sense experience,
memory, and testimony are all generally
reliable; we have examined all the data and there is no possibility future
observations will behave
Unfortunately every theory has an infinite
number of expected empirical outcomes, and we are incapable of testing all of
As a result of the underdetermination of
theories and the risk of undiscovered, contradictory empirical evidence, a
scientific theory cannot be conclusively proven merely through the
Karl Popper recognized that one could not record everything
Some sort of selection is needed, and thus
observation is always
Karl Popper felt a hypothesis had to be forged first for
scientific investigation to begin as there is no other way to determine which
data is to be observed.
Karl Popper developed the idea of falsification
which suggests that if a prediction does not come true, then the scientific
theory must be false.
The necessity for a scientific theory to be
conclusively falsifiable is known as the demarcation criterion.
Surprisingly, the problem is that it is impossible to conclusively
falsify theories by empirical data.
Scientific theories, by themselves,
are incapable of making predictions.
Empirical results of an experiment
invariably rest on auxiliary assumptions - assumptions auxiliary to the
original fundamental assumptions.
Assume we have a particle theory
that says if we process a certain particle in a particular way, we will get
specified values on various measurements.
First we must assume that all
foundational theories involved in deriving the prediction are correct; the
models we are using in deriving the prediction are all correct; the predictions
derived from those theories and specific versions of those models are all
logically correct; some other things we'll skip
Predictions of future occurence of events
are dependent on the fundamental assumptions of previous scientific
theories cannot be conclusively proven.
dependence on foundational assumptions
to make predictions is sometimes called the Duhem-Quine
Theories can neither be conclusively proven nor conclusively
falsified by empirical data.
possible to salvage a troubled theory or make arguments against a well-supported theory
simply by altering auxiliary assumptions to produce different predictions
or change the meaning of
It is also possible to modify virtually
any theory so that it's consistent with whatever data that might come
The shaping principles used to build
theories form the foundation of
Examples of shaping
principles include: there exists an
external objective reality; uniformity
of nature - the belief that
natural processes operate in a fairly consistent manner;
our senses are generally
Due to the
underdetermination of theories, there is always an infinite number of competing
theories that can accommodate any given set of empirical data.
Ockham's Razor or the Law of
Parsimony, the fundamental shaping
principles of logic, states that, if all other aspects are equal,
the simplest theory is preferred over
other theories involving additional complexity.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational religion based on reason which
requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church
buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a
personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the
knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has
enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the
author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in
America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site in no way condones
violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is
already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control
the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world
economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military
entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the
elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems.
Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point
of a gun.
American social mores and values have declined precipitously
over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and
more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been
preprogrammed into the population through prior mass media psychological
operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the
destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
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