"A new scientific truth does not triumph by
convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its
opponents eventually die, and a
next generation grows up that is familiar with it." - Max Planck
"Efforts to communicate science are hampered by the
fact that perfectly intelligent
people are ignorant of the basic principles of science." - AA
The goal of Science is to
obtain True Knowledge
of Reality, precisely the same goal as that of the
Philosophy of science
deals with the
systemic nature of scientific inquiry which is equivalent to
properly understand the philosophy of science, to
understand methods of gnostic
inquiry, it is necessary to understand basic elements of science which
include data, theories, and shaping
information about physical processes are termed data.
Collecting data to support scientific theories is
assumptions are made in data collection.
Details of that process are
often excluded when forming a scientific theory.
is easier to fit into a scientific theory than specific data.
Scientific theories come in two forms.
Phenomenological theories are
empirical generalizations of
They describe recurring
processes of nature
and do not refer to causation.
Phenomenological theories are also called scientific laws,
physical laws, and
Explanatory theories attempt to explain the observations
rather than generalize them.
laws are descriptions of
empirical regularities, explanatory theories are
constructions to explain why the phenomena exist.
Shaping principles are
fundamental assumptions that form the basis of science and go into selecting
Originally science, a systematic way of acquiring
knowledge, was seen as absolutely objective, rational, and
based on purely empirical
This traditional image of science held that
scientific theories and laws were to be
conclusively confirmed or conclusively falsified based on objective data.
It was believed that the "scientific method"
bias, emotion, intuition, assumptions and was based entirely on
logic and reason.
The definition of what the "scientific method" is
has changed over time.
In the early seventeenth century Baconian
inductivism was considered to be the "scientific method."
The basic concept:
collect as numerous of observations as
unaffected by any prior prejudice, theoretical preconceptions or cognitive
bias while gathering the data;
inductively infer theories from
that data ( generalize data into physical laws);
then collect more data
to modify or reject the
hypothesis as needed.
Unfortunately, when using inductivism to arrive
at natural laws, certain
theoretical preconceptions are absolutely vital.
To generalize the data
into physical laws, the individual must assume that the laws apply for physical
processes not observed.
This results in several assumptions being held,
such as a uniform operation of nature.
Even if we put aside the fact
that inductive logic is invariably
based on such postulations,
there is another problem.
Science deals with
concepts and explanatory theories that
cannot be directly observed, including atomic theory and the theory of gravity.
Many other theories include unobservable concepts like forces, fields,
and subatomic particles.
There is no known rigorous
inductive logic that can infer
those theories and concepts solely from the data they explain.
Isaac Newton developed hypothetico-deductivism in the
Essentially, one starts with a hypothesis, basically a
provisional theory, and then deduces what we would expect to find in the
empirical world as a result of that hypothesis.
"I am very astonished that the scientific
image of the real world around me is deficient." - Erwin
was to quarantine
human irrationality or
A theory did not become a valid theory by its origins, but because of
method of verification.
Hypothetico-deductivism fails if rigorous
proof is necessary for valid science.
We must assume: sense experience,
memory, and testimony are all generally reliable; we have examined all the data
and there is no possibility
future observations will
every theory has an infinite number of expected empirical outcomes, and we are
incapable of testing all of those expectations.
As a result of the
underdetermination of theories and unknown unknowns,
empirical evidence, a scientific theory cannot be conclusively proven
merely through the data.
Karl Popper recognized that one could not
record everything observed.
Some sort of selection is needed, and thus
Karl Popper felt a hypothesis had to be forged first
for scientific investigation to begin as there is no other way to determine
which data is to be observed.
Karl Popper developed the idea of
falsification which suggests that if a prediction does not come true, then the
scientific theory must be false.
necessity for a scientific theory to be conclusively falsifiable is known as
the demarcation criterion.
Surprisingly, the problem is that
it is impossible to conclusively
falsify theories by empirical data.
Scientific theories, by themselves,
are incapable of making predictions.
Empirical results of an
experiment invariably rest on
auxiliary assumptions - assumptions auxiliary to the original fundamental
Assume we have a particle theory that says if we process a
certain particle in a particular way, we will get specified values on various
We must assume:
all foundational theories involved
in deriving the prediction are correct;
the models we are using in
deriving the prediction are all correct;
the predictions derived from
employing the theories and models to make the prediction are all logically
and, due to the nature of reality, most
variables we'll skip
Predictions of future probable
outcomes are dependent on the fundamental assumptions of previous
scientific theories and the models derived.
Unfortunately scientific theories cannot be
The dependence on foundational assumptions to
make predictions is sometimes called the Duhem-Quine problem.
can neither be conclusively proven nor conclusively falsified by empirical
It is possible to salvage a troubled
theory or make arguments against
a well-supported theory simply by altering
auxiliary assumptions to produce different predictions or
change the meaning of
It is also possible to modify virtually
any theory so that it's consistent with whatever data that might come
principles used to build theories form
the foundation of
Examples of shaping principles include:
there exists an external objective
reality; uniformity of nature - the
belief that natural processes operate in a fairly consistent manner;
our senses are generally
Due to the underdetermination of theories, there is always
an infinite number of competing theories that can accommodate any given set of
Razor or the Law of Parsimony, the
fundamental shaping principles of logic, states that, if all other aspects
are equal, the simplest theory is preferred over other theories involving
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that
the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace
unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done
purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish
to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance
occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious
beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the
founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie - a rational
religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no
tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every
individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and
Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing
the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of
the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
more information see: www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to
use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond
'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved