image courtesy Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics

"Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education set a maximum workweek of 80 hours for residents, with a maximum shift of 30 hours."
Richard A. Friedman

Lack of REM sleep linked to higher dementia risk

Phrama Knowingly Designed Certain ADHD Drugs to be Addictive

1887 Amphetamine is synthesized in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu who named it phenylisopropylamine.

1893 Methamphetamine is synthesized from ephedrine in Japan by chemist Nagayoshi Nagai.

1933 Smith, Kline and French began selling it as an inhaler under the brand name Benzedrine as a decongestant.

1936 Benzedrine sulfate, Benzedrine®, introduced and used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity, low blood pressure, low libido, chronic pain and as an over-the-counter inhaler to treat asthma.

When Benzedrine® became a controlled substance, it was replaced by propylhexedrine, also known as hexahydromethamphetamine.

Amphetamines are "power drugs" that reduce fatigue, heighten aggression, and diminish human warmth and empathy.

When used chronically amphetamines induce stereotyped thought and behavior rather than creativity. Long-term use of amphetamines often exacerbates depression. Extended binges on methamphetamine leads to hallucinations, extreme anxiety and paranoia.

The combination of hallucinations and feelings of fear and paranoia is known as methamphetamine induced psychosis.

Methamphetamine induced psychosis is caused by methamphetamine's effect on at least three areas of the brain: the visual cortex, the auditory cortex, and the amygdala.

A large part of this induced psychosis is the by product of fatigue, a shutting down of the higher thought processes and the lack of dreaming to reset neurons.

Frontal lobes are often damaged by addiction to methamphetamine.

During World War II massive amounts of methamphetamines were produced by both the Allies and Axis powers.

John F. Kennedy and Adolf Hitler both received daily injections of methamphetamine.

Adolf Hitler's Wehrmacht distributed methamphetamine tablets to German fighting troops throughout World War II as did the US Army Air Forces.

The Japanese used methamphetamine to help the teen age suicide bombers (kamikaze) to complete their airplane flights to their intended American warship targets.

After World War II there were huge stockpiles of methamphetamines left in many countries, especially in Japan and throughout northern Europe.

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a huge surge in methamphetamine abuse was noted in Scandinavia and Japan following the dumping of these methamphetamine stocks onto the civilian market.

"In my time I have seen desperate heroin addicts, unable to find a workable vein to shoot their next fix and suffering from liver disease and God knows what else, recover physically 100% and go on to lead relatively decent lives. Stimulant abusers, too, can make remarkable physical recoveries although, in truth, it's much more difficult than recovering from heroin." - John J. Coleman

1967 31 million prescriptions in America for amphetamines.

1994 263 meth labs are seized in America.

2000 1,800 meth labs are seized by DEA, 4,600 meth labs are seized by local police in America.

2006 Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group reports that one in five resident-physicians admitted making a fatigue-related mistake that injured a patient. One in 20 admitted a fatigue-related mistake that resulted in a patient's death.

"Working day and night, rather than transferring patient care to a fresh doctor, increases serious medical errors in ICUs by 36%, including a 460% increase in serious diagnostic mistakes. Twenty-four hours without sleep slows reaction time comparably to alcohol intoxication. Physician-trainees routinely fall asleep during lectures, on patient rounds, while examining patients and even during surgery. After working more than 24 hours, resident physicians are 73% more likely to stab themselves with a needle and 168% more likely to crash driving home." - Charles A. Czeisler

"Partway through a 36-hour shift at Johns Hopkins Hospital, I was hungry and hadn't slept for 24 hours, but I was facing an overflowing intensive care unit and somehow needed to discharge five patients to make room for more. Mr. "Smith", who'd had esophageal surgery, was a borderline call. But because of the pressure I was under, I decided to remove his breathing tube and transfer him to another unit. That turned out to be a very bad decision. After six hours he still wasn't waking up. What had I done?" - Peter Pronovost

2007 A raid in Mexico yields $205 million in cash, mostly $100 dollar bills, weighing 4,500 lb earned selling methamphetamines.


The Drug War on Boys

"ADHD is a prime example of a fictitious disease"

Psychiatrist Leon Eisenberg,
born in 1922 the son of Russian Jewish immigrants,
the "scientific father of ADHD" said at the age of 87,
seven months before his death in his last interview

Ritalin®, Vyvanse®, Strattera®, and Adderall®

"People with attention deficit disorder (as well as those with dyslexia, depression, bipolar disorder or anxiety disorders) usually have extraordinary talents that get buried under troubles and disappointments. Getting enough sleep, eating right and getting lots of physical exercise help with attention deficit disorder (and everything else)." - Edward M. Hallowell, psychiatrist

"There are many children whose only problem in life is not doing their homework but are medicated with ADHD drugs; and the majority of their parents had no idea that they were giving their children amphetamines or amphetamine-like substances. The pharmaceutical-industrial complex is part of a wave of evil that includes the financial-industrial complex, the military-industrial complex, the energy-industrial complex, and predatory executives at AIG, Citibank, Halliburton, Blackwater/Xe, Enron, and Exxon." - Bruce Levine

2001 Marketing of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs legalized. Pharmaceutical manufactures began aggressively marketing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs.

2006 25 people - including 19 children - have died suddenly within the last 4 years while using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs which include Ritalin®, Concerta®, Methylin® and Metadate® - all stimulants; 43 people taking the drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder experienced serious cardiovascular events, including strokes, cardiac arrest and heart palpitations; 26 serious cardiovascular problems were reported in children, including two heart attacks and two strokes.

3.3 million Americans 19 or younger and nearly 1.5 million age 20 and older are taking attention deficit disorder medicines. From 2001 to 2006 usage of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs has increased 60%.

Children in America are prescribed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs at 10 times the rate that children are prescribed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs in Europe.

Nearly 1 in 10 12-year-old American boys take a stimulant.

2011 ADHD drugs and their generic equivalents are responsible for nearly 23,000 emergency room visits in America. Over a six-year span, there's been a 400% increase in ER visits due to side effects of these drugs.

"Patients are no longer just taking medications in childhood, but are encouraged to stay on them when they become adults. Vyvanse®, an amphetamine, and Concerta® were introduced in 2008 for treating adults. Students are taking the drugs to increase academic performance, and professionals such as doctors and lawyers are taking stimulants in hopes of boosting their productivity. These drugs have therefore become increasingly popular. According to a 2007 study, prescriptions for ADHD drugs in the methalphenidate and amphetamine categories rose by almost 12% per year between 2000 and 2005." - Paul Solomon

ritalin drug zone


Ritalin® acts much like cocaine."
American Medical Association

"It was kind of like weirdly amazing.
You get excited about monotonous work, honestly
Maggie Preston

Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics states that Ritalin® is "structurally related to amphetamines … Its pharmacological properties are essentially the same as those of the amphetamines."

1986 The International Journal of the Addictions published a most important literature review by Richard Scarnati. It was called "An Outline of Hazardous Side Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate") [v.21(7), pp. 837-841]. Scarnati listed over a hundred adverse affects of Ritalin® and indexed published journal articles for each of these symptoms. For every one of the following (selected and quoted verbatim) Ritalin® effects then, there is at least one confirming source in the medical literature:

• Convulsions
• Terrified affect
Toxic psychosis
• Started screaming
• Aggressiveness
• Paranoid delusions
• Paranoid psychosis
• Psychic dependence
• Extreme withdrawal
• Visual hallucinations
• Auditory hallucinations
Decreased REM sleep
• Activation of psychotic ideation
• Effects pathological thought processes
• High-abuse potential DEA Schedule II Drug
Can surpass LSD in producing bizarre experiences
• Brain damage may be seen with amphetamine abuse
• Hypomanic and manic symptoms, amphetamine-like psychosis
Ritalin® is an amphetamine-type drug, expect amphatamine-like effects
• When used with antidepressants one may see dangerous reactions including hypertension, seizures and hypothermia

In commenting on Dr. Lawrence Diller's book, Running on Ritalin, Dr. William Carey, Director of Behavioral Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, has written, "Dr. Diller has correctly described the disturbing trend of blaming children's social, behavioral, and academic performance problems entirely on an unproven brain deficit [ADHD]…"

1994 Textbook of Psychiatry, published by the American Psychiatric Press, contains this review (Popper and Steingard): "Stimulants [such as Ritalin®] do not produce lasting improvements in aggressivity, conduct disorder, criminality, education achievement, job functioning, marital relationships, or long-term adjustment."

In his book, Talking Back to Ritalin, Peter Breggin expands on the drug's effects: "Stimulants such as Ritalin® and amphetamine … have grossly harmful impacts on the brain-reducing overall blood flow, disturbing glucose metabolism, and possibly causing permanent shrinkage or atrophy of the brain."

psychiatric drug pushers

Charles B. Nemeroff*

Psychiatrist Charles B. Nemeroff*, editor in chief of the influential journal Neuropsychopharmacology, earned more than $2.8 million in consulting arrangements with drug makers from 2000 to 2007 and failed to report at least $1.2 million of that income. Charles B. Nemeroff was the principal investigator for a five-year $3.9 million grant financed by the National Institute of Mental Health for which GlaxoSmithKline provided drugs. From 2000 through 2006, Charles B. Nemeroff earned more than $960,000 from GlaxoSmithKline but listed earnings of less than $35,000. Charles B. Nemeroff failed to disclose conflicts of interest in trials of drugs from Merck, Eli Lilly and Johnson & Johnson.

Joseph Biederman*

Psychiatrist Joseph Biederman*, a renowned child psychiatrist at Harvard Medical School, and a colleague, Dr. Timothy E. Wilens, reported earning several hundred thousand dollars each in consulting fees from pharmaceutical manufactures from 2000 to 2007, when in fact they had earned at least $1.6 million each.

2007 Biederman is ranked as the second highest producer of high-impact papers in psychiatry overall throughout the world with 235 papers cited a total of 7048 times over the past 10 years as determined by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). The same organization ranked Dr. Biederman at #1 in terms of total citations to his papers published on ADD/ADHD in the past decade.

"Biederman appeared at a deposition on February 26, 2009, and was questioned by several lawyers for the states, who were claiming that makers of antipsychotic drugs defrauded state Medicaid programs by marketing their medicines improperly. At the deposition, Biederman was asked what rank he held at Harvard. "Full professor," he answered. "What's after that?" asked Fletch Trammell, one of the attorneys. "God," Biederman responded. "Did you say God?" Trammell asked. "Yeah," said Biederman.

The transcripts of this deposition call into question the mental state of the psychiatrist himself. It seems the good doctor is showing symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), which, according to the Mayo Clinic, is a mental disorder in which people have an inflated sense of their own importance. They believe they are superior to others, but in reality, they are masking their own fragile self-esteem, and are vulnerable to the slightest criticism.

"US-based child psychiatrist Joseph Biederman is under investigation for failing to disclose much of $US1.6 million he received from drug companies between 2000 and 2007. The draft guidelines governing Australian use of the drugs refer to Dr Biederman's research more than 50 times. Dr Biederman has been credited with helping to fuel a worldwide spike in the use of ADHD medicines in children. In Australia, more than 420,000 prescriptions are written each year for ADHD medicines, which are part of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. In 2007, about 60,000 patients were on ADHD drugs, about 47,000 of those being children. Despite the explosion in prescription of ADHD drugs, such as Ritalin®, there are no current guidelines for their use. The former guidelines, written in 1997, were scrapped four years ago as new drugs and research had become available. The Howard government appointed the Royal Australasian College of Physicians to draft new guidelines at a cost of $135,000. But last year it was revealed that seven of the 10 people in charge of drafting the guidelines had financial links to ADHD drug manufacturers such as Novartis, which manufactures Ritalin®." - Nicola Berkovic, November 24, 2009

Melissa P. DelBello

Psychiatrist Melissa P. DelBello claimed she earned about $100,000 from 2005 to 2007 from eight drug makers, but AstraZeneca alone paid her $238,000 during the period.

MKUltra experiments

Ecstacy or MDMA,

MDMA was legal in America until May 31, 1985.

For those that find ecstacy, MDMA, a stimulating drug it might interest them to know that MDMA was used in clandestine research during the 1950s. Project MKUltra was investigating new techniques of brainwashing, espionage and mind control.

Theodore John Kaczynski, the Unabomber, is one of the test subjects.

MDMA, code-named EA-1475, is tested at the US Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. The CIA hoped MDMA could be used as a chemical warfare agent designed to sow confusion, anxiety and fear in the unwilling recipient.

These experiments severely alter Theodore Kaczynski's brain. Theodore John Kaczynski quits teaching, takes to the woods and starts mailing bombs.

"A lot of the Ecstasy we see in Las Vegas comes from Israeli dealers." - Sergeant Blake Quackenbush, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police

"Oded Tuito was known as the world's largest trafficker of MDMA." - DEA administrator Karen Tandy before the US House of Representatives Appropriations Committee

Oded Tuito* imported more than 7 million "Ecstacy" pills into America before being arrested.

From 1994 to 2004 Israeli drug traffickers dominated the trans-Atlantic lines of shipment of MDMA.

Oded Tuito died mysteriously while incarcerated in a New York jail.

lines of methamphetaminesmoking meth

Gabriel Garcia Marquez describes perfectly the psychosis experienced by a methamphetamine user in his story about the insomnia plague.

The excess and continual use of methamphetamine while not necessarily causing excessive memory loss causes the human brain to run in a cyclic pattern of thought, like a viynl record stuck in a groove, that cycles back upon itself repeatedly interjected with hallucinogenic day dreams.

Frontal lobe functions no longer work.

After many hours of wakefulness the methamphetamine user is about as close to the zombies portrayed in horror movies as all higher brain functions cease. Chronic methamphetamine use could be called a form of insanity.

This is the fate of the user of methamphetamine when the drug becomes so pervasive that it consumes the methamphetamine users life.

dangers of smoking meth

unique library index

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