"Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical
Education set a maximum workweek of 80 hours for residents, with a maximum
shift of 30 hours."
Richard A. Friedman
Amphetamine is synthesized in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu who
named it phenylisopropylamine.
Methamphetamine is synthesized from ephedrine in Japan by chemist Nagayoshi
1933 Smith, Kline and French began selling
it as an inhaler under the brand name Benzedrine as a
1936 Benzedrine sulfate,
Benzedrine®, introduced and used to treat a wide variety of medical
conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity, low blood pressure, low libido,
chronic pain and as an
over-the-counter inhaler to treat asthma.
became a controlled substance, it was replaced by propylhexedrine, also known
Amphetamines are "power drugs" that reduce
fatigue, heighten aggression, and diminish human warmth and empathy.
When used chronically amphetamines induce stereotyped thought and
behavior rather than creativity. Long-term use of amphetamines often
exacerbates depression. Extended binges on methamphetamine leads to
hallucinations, extreme anxiety and paranoia.
The combination of
hallucinations and feelings of fear and paranoia is known as methamphetamine
Methamphetamine induced psychosis is
caused by methamphetamine's effect on at least three areas of the brain: the
visual cortex, the auditory cortex, and the amygdala.
A large part of
this induced psychosis
is the by product of fatigue, a shutting down of the higher
processes and the lack of dreaming to reset neurons.
Frontal lobes are often
damaged by addiction to methamphetamine.
During World War II
massive amounts of methamphetamines were produced by both the Allies and Axis
John F. Kennedy and Adolf Hitler both received daily injections
Adolf Hitler's Wehrmacht distributed
methamphetamine tablets to German fighting troops throughout World War II as
did the US Army Air Forces.
The Japanese used methamphetamine to help
the teen age suicide bombers (kamikaze) to complete their airplane flights to
their intended American warship targets.
After World War II there were
huge stockpiles of methamphetamines left in many countries, especially in Japan
and throughout northern Europe.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a
huge surge in methamphetamine abuse was noted in Scandinavia and Japan
following the dumping of these methamphetamine stocks onto the civilian market.
"In my time I have seen desperate heroin addicts, unable to find a
workable vein to shoot their next fix and suffering from liver disease and God
knows what else, recover physically 100% and go on to lead relatively decent
lives. Stimulant abusers, too, can make remarkable physical recoveries
although, in truth, it's much more difficult than recovering from heroin." -
John J. Coleman
1967 31 million prescriptions in
America for amphetamines.
1994 263 meth labs are
seized in America.
2000 1,800 meth labs are
seized by DEA, 4,600 meth labs are seized by local police in America.
2006 Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety
Group reports that one in five resident-physicians admitted making a
fatigue-related mistake that injured a patient. One in 20 admitted a
fatigue-related mistake that resulted in a patient's death.
day and night, rather than transferring patient care to a fresh doctor,
increases serious medical errors in ICUs by 36 percent, including a 460 percent
increase in serious diagnostic mistakes. Twenty-four hours without sleep slows
reaction time comparably to alcohol intoxication. Physician-trainees routinely
fall asleep during lectures, on patient rounds, while examining patients and
even during surgery. After working more than 24 hours, resident physicians are
73 percent more likely to stab themselves with a needle and 168 percent more
likely to crash driving home." - Charles A. Czeisler
"Partway through a
36-hour shift at Johns Hopkins Hospital, I was hungry and hadn't slept for 24
hours, but I was facing an overflowing intensive care unit and somehow needed
to discharge five patients to make room for more. Mr. "Smith", who'd had
esophageal surgery, was a borderline call. But because of the pressure I was
under, I decided to remove his breathing tube and transfer him to another unit.
That turned out to be a very bad decision. After six hours he still wasn't
waking up. What had I done?" - Peter Pronovost
2007 A raid in Mexico yields $205 million in cash, mostly $100
dollar bills, weighing 4,500 pounds earned selling
"ADHD is a prime example of a fictitious
born in 1922 the son of
the "scientific father of ADHD" said at the age of 87,
months before his death in his last interview
Ritalin®, Vyvanse®, Strattera®, and
"People with attention deficit disorder (as well as
those with dyslexia, depression,
bipolar disorder or anxiety
disorders) usually have extraordinary talents that get buried under troubles
Getting enough sleep, eating right and getting lots of physical exercise help
with attention deficit disorder (and everything else)." - Edward M. Hallowell,
"There are many children whose
only problem in life is not doing their homework but are medicated with ADHD
drugs; and the majority of their parents had no idea that they were giving
their children amphetamines or amphetamine-like substances. The
pharmaceutical-industrial complex is
part of a wave of evil that includes the
financial-industrial complex, the
complex, the energy-industrial complex,
and predatory executives at AIG,
Exxon." - Bruce Levine 2001 Marketing of
hyperactivity disorder drugs legalized. Pharmaceutical manufactures began aggressively
marketing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs.
25 people - including 19 children - have died suddenly within the last 4 years
while using attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs which include Ritalin®,
Concerta®, Methylin® and Metadate® - all stimulants; 43 people
taking the drugs for
hyperactivity disorder experienced
serious cardiovascular events,
arrest and heart palpitations; 26 serious
problems were reported in children, including two
heart attacks and two
3.3 million Americans 19 or younger and nearly 1.5 million age
20 and older are taking
deficit disorder medicines. From 2001 to 2006 usage of
hyperactivity disorder drugs has increased 60%.
Children in America
are prescribed attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder drugs at 10 times the rate that children are
hyperactivity disorder drugs in Europe.
Nearly 1 in 10 12-year-old
American boys take a stimulant.
2011 ADHD drugs
and their generic equivalents are responsible for nearly 23,000 emergency room
visits in America. Over a six-year span, there's been a 400 percent increase in
ER visits due to side effects of these drugs.
"Patients are no longer just taking medications in
childhood, but are encouraged to stay on them when they become adults.
Vyvanse®, an amphetamine, and Concerta® were introduced in 2008 for
treating adults. Students are taking the drugs to increase academic
performance, and professionals such as doctors and lawyers are taking
stimulants in hopes of boosting their productivity. These drugs have therefore
become increasingly popular. According to a 2007 study, prescriptions for ADHD
drugs in the methalphenidate and amphetamine categories rose by almost 12
percent per year between 2000 and 2005." - Paul Solomon
"Ritalin® acts much like
"It was kind of like weirdly amazing.
excited about monotonous work, honestly."
1986 The International Journal of the Addictions
published a most important literature review by Richard Scarnati. It was called
"An Outline of Hazardous Side Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate")
[v.21(7), pp. 837-841]. Scarnati listed over a hundred adverse affects of
Ritalin and indexed published journal articles for each of these symptoms. For
every one of the following (selected and quoted verbatim) Ritalin effects then,
there is at least one confirming source in the medical
Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological
Basis of Therapeutics states that Ritalin is "structurally related to
Its pharmacological properties are essentially the same as
those of the amphetamines."
Activation of psychotic ideation
High-abuse potential DEA Schedule II Drug
surpass LSD in producing bizarre experiences
Brain damage may be seen
with amphetamine abuse
Hypomanic and manic symptoms, amphetamine-like
Since Ritalin is considered an amphetamine-type drug,
expect amphatamine-like effects
When used with antidepressants one
may see dangerous reactions including hypertension, seizures and hypothermia
In commenting on Dr. Lawrence Diller's book, Running on Ritalin,
Dr. William Carey, Director of Behavioral Pediatrics, Children's
Hospital of Philadelphia, has written, "Dr. Diller has correctly described
the disturbing trend of blaming children's social, behavioral, and academic
performance problems entirely on an unproven brain deficit [ADHD]
1994 Textbook of Psychiatry, published by
the American Psychiatric Press, contains this review (Popper and
Steingard): "Stimulants [such as Ritalin] do not produce lasting improvements
in aggressivity, conduct disorder, criminality, education achievement, job
functioning, marital relationships, or long-term adjustment."
book, Talking Back to Ritalin, Peter Breggin expands on the drug's
effects: "Stimulants such as Ritalin and amphetamine
harmful impacts on the brain-reducing overall blood flow, disturbing glucose
metabolism, and possibly causing permanent shrinkage or atrophy of the
psychiatric drug pushers
Charles B. Nemeroff*Psychiatrist Charles
B. Nemeroff*, editor in chief of the influential journal
Neuropsychopharmacology, earned more than $2.8 million in consulting
arrangements with drug makers from 2000 to 2007 and failed to report at least
$1.2 million of that income. Charles B. Nemeroff was the principal investigator
for a five-year $3.9 million grant financed by the
National Institute of Mental
Health for which GlaxoSmithKline provided drugs.
From 2000 through 2006, Charles B. Nemeroff earned more than $960,000 from
GlaxoSmithKline but listed earnings
of less than $35,000. Charles B. Nemeroff failed to disclose conflicts of
interest in trials of drugs from
Eli Lilly and Johnson &
Joseph Biederman*, a renowned child psychiatrist at
Harvard Medical School, and a
colleague, Dr. Timothy E. Wilens, reported earning several hundred thousand
dollars each in consulting fees from pharmaceutical manufactures from 2000 to 2007,
when in fact they had earned at least $1.6 million each.
2007 Biederman is ranked as the second highest producer of
high-impact papers in
overall throughout the world with 235 papers cited a total of 7048 times over
the past 10 years as determined by the Institute for Scientific
Information (ISI). The same organization ranked Dr. Biederman at #1 in
terms of total citations to his papers published on ADD/ADHD in the past
"Biederman appeared at a deposition on February 26, 2009, and
was questioned by several lawyers for the states, who were claiming that makers
drugs defrauded state Medicaid programs by marketing their medicines
improperly. At the deposition, Biederman was asked what rank he held at
Harvard. "Full professor," he answered. "What's after that?" asked Fletch
Trammell, one of the attorneys. "God," Biederman responded. "Did you say God?"
Trammell asked. "Yeah," said Biederman.
The transcripts of this
deposition call into question the mental state of the psychiatrist himself. It
seems the good doctor is showing symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
(NPD), which, according to the Mayo Clinic, is a mental disorder in which
people have an inflated sense of their own importance. They believe they are
superior to others, but in reality, they are masking their own
and are vulnerable to the slightest criticism.
psychiatrist Joseph Biederman is under investigation for failing to disclose
much of $US1.6 million he received from drug companies between 2000 and 2007.
The draft guidelines governing Australian use of the drugs refer to Dr
Biederman's research more than 50 times. Dr Biederman has been credited with
helping to fuel a worldwide spike in the use of ADHD medicines in children. In
Australia, more than 420,000 prescriptions are written each year for ADHD
medicines, which are part of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. In
2007, about 60,000 patients were on ADHD drugs, about 47,000 of those being
children. Despite the explosion in prescription of ADHD drugs, such as
Ritalin®, there are no current guidelines for their use. The former
guidelines, written in 1997, were scrapped four years ago as new drugs and
research had become available. The Howard government appointed the Royal
Australasian College of Physicians to draft new guidelines at a cost of
$135,000. But last year it was revealed that seven of the 10 people in charge
of drafting the guidelines had financial links to ADHD drug manufacturers such
as Novartis, which
manufactures Ritalin®." - Nicola Berkovic, November 24,
Melissa P. DelBelloPsychiatrist Melissa
P. DelBello claimed she earned about $100,000 from 2005 to 2007 from eight drug
makers, but AstraZeneca alone paid
her $238,000 during the period.
Ecstacy or MDMA,MDMA was
legal in America until May 31, 1985.
For those that find ecstacy, MDMA,
a stimulating drug it might interest them to know that MDMA was used in
clandestine research during the 1950s.
was investigating new techniques of brainwashing, espionage and mind
Kaczynski, the Unabomber, is one of the test subjects.
code-named EA-1475, is tested at the US Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland.
The CIA hoped MDMA could be used as a chemical warfare agent designed to sow
fear in the unwilling
These experiments severely alter Theodore Kaczynski's brain.
Theodore John Kaczynski quits
teaching, takes to the woods and starts mailing bombs.
"A lot of the
Ecstasy we see in Las Vegas comes from Israeli dealers." - Sergeant Blake
Quackenbush, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
"Oded Tuito was known as the world's largest trafficker
of MDMA." - DEA administrator Karen Tandy before the US House of
Representatives Appropriations Committee
Oded Tuito* imported more than
7 million "Ecstacy" pills into America before being arrested.
to 2004 Israeli drug traffickers dominated the trans-Atlantic lines of shipment
Oded Tuito died mysteriously while incarcerated in a New York
Marquez describes perfectly the psychosis experienced by a methamphetamine user
in his story about the insomnia plague.
The excess and continual use
of methamphetamine while not necessarily causing excessive memory loss causes
the human brain to run in a cyclic pattern of thought, like a viynl record
stuck in a groove, that cycles back upon itself repeatedly interjected with
functions no longer work.
After many hours of wakefulness the
methamphetamine user is about as close to
the zombies portrayed in horror
movies as all higher brain functions cease. Chronic methamphetamine use
could be called a form of insanity.
This is the fate of the user of
methamphetamine when the drug becomes so pervasive that it consumes the
methamphetamine users life.
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