visitation of violence - 19th
A new history of 19th-century America captures
how the United States was always an empire.
"The most important element of a free society,
where individual rights are held in the highest esteem, is the rejection of the
initiation of violence. All initiation of force is
a violation of someone else's
rights, whether initiated by an individual or the state, for the benefit of
an individual or group of individuals, even if it's supposed to be for the
benefit of another individual or group of individuals. Legitimate use of
violence can only be that which is required in self-defense."
Congressman Ron Paul
Listing of Notable Deployments and/or Imperialist
Misadventures of US Military Forces Overseas in the 19th century
1798-1800 Undeclared Naval War with France. This contest
included land actions, such as that
in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where marines captured a
French privateer under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military
action through a series of statutes.
1801-05 Tripoli. The First Barbary
War included the U.S.S. George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the
Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with US Agent William Eaton
to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the
Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the US, although Congress authorized
US military action by statute.
1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt.
Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the
headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made
prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present day Colorado,
taken to Mexico, and later released after
seizure of his papers.
1806-10 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans
against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under
Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.
1810 West Florida
(Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President,
occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi River as far
as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized
to seize as far east as the Perdido River.
1812 Amelia Island and other
parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was authorized by
President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power;
but possession was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so irregular a manner
that his measures were disavowed by the President.
of 1812 On June 18, 1812, the US declared war between the US and the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Among the issues leading to the
war were British interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United
States during British hostilities with France.
1813 West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by
Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A
small Spanish garrison gave way. The US advanced into disputed territory to the
Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.
Islands. United States forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect
three prize ships which had been captured from the British.
Spanish Florida. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with
whom the United States was at war.
Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took
place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo
Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were
reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a
squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and
two gunboats in the West Indies.
1815 Algiers. The second Barbary War
was declared against the US by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act
not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military
expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and
1815 Tripoli. After securing an agreement from
Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he
secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.
Florida. US forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which
harbored raiders making forays into US territory.
Florida - First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for
escaped slaves and border
ruffians, were attacked by troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines and pursued
into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British
citizens executed. In 1819 the
Floridas were ceded to the US.
1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory
off Florida). Under orders of President Monroe, US forces landed and expelled a
group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.
1818 Oregon. The
U.S.S. Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in
August took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded
sovereignty but Russia and
Spain asserted claims to the area.
1820-23 Africa. Naval units
raid the slave traffic
pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.
1822 Cuba. US naval forces land on the northwest coast of Cuba and
burn a pirate outpost.
1823 Cuba. Brief landings in
pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo
Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at
1824 Cuba. In October the U.S.S. Porpoise landed bluejackets
near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates.
1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish
territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of
Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval
officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore
Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.
Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La
Grande to capture pirates.
1827 Greece. In October and November
landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and
1831-32 Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the U.S.S.
Lexington investigates the capture of three American sealing vessels seeking to
protect business interests.
1832 Sumatra. February 6 to 9. A naval
force landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo
for plundering the American ship Friendship.
1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was
sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect business interests during an
1835-36 Peru. December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and
August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected business interests in Callao
and Lima during an attempted revolution.
1836 Mexico. General Gaines
occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory, from July to December during
the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the "imaginary boundary
line" if an Indian outbreak threatened.
1838-39 Sumatra. December 24,
1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns
of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for
depredations on corporate
1840 Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish
natives for attacking corporate exploring and surveying parties.
Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of
a seaman by the natives.
1841 Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed
and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.
1842 Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long
cruising off California, occupied Monterey, California, on October 19,
believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar
incident occurred a week later at San Diego.
1843 China. Sailors and
marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and
Chinese at the trading post in Canton.
1843 Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four US vessels demonstrated
and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage
piracy and the slave trade
along the Ivory coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on corporate seamen
1844 Mexico. President Tyler deployed US forces to
protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of
annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against
a Senate resolution of inquiry.
1846-48 Mexican War. On May 13, 1846, the US recognized the existence
of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the US
and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk deploys
forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.
1849 Smyrna. In July a
naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.
1851 Turkey. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at
Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered
along the Turkish (Levant) coast.
1851 Johanns Island (east of Africa).
August. Forces from the US sloop of war Dale exacted redress for the
unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.
1852-53 Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April
1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect business
interests during a revolution.
1853 Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. US
forces landed to protect business interests during political disturbances.
1853-54 Japan. Commodore Perry and his naval expedition made a
display of force leading to the "opening of Japan."
and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and
while waiting for a reply from Japan executed a naval demonstration, landing
marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on
Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing
facilities for corporate commerce.
1854 China. April 4 to June 15 to
17. American and English ships landed forces to protect business interests in
and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.
1854 Nicaragua. July 9
to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte (Greytown)
to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.
China. May 19 to 21. US forces protected business interests in Shanghai and,
from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.
1855 Fiji Islands.
September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek
reparations for depredations on
American residents and seamen.
1855 Uruguay. November 25 to 29. United
States and European naval forces landed to protect business interests during an
attempted revolution in Montevideo.
1856 Panama, Republic of New
Grenada. September 19 to 22. US forces landed to protect business interests
during an insurrection.
1856 China. October 22 to December 6. US forces
landed to protect business interests at Canton during hostilities between the
British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat
displaying the US flag.
1857 Nicaragua. April to May, November to
December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the US Navy, with some marines,
received the surrender of William Walker, who had been attempting to get
control of the country, and protected his men from the retaliation of native
allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year
US vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William
Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and
compelling the removal of Walker to the US, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary
of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.
Uruguay Forces from two US
warships land to protect American business property during a revolution in
A marine expedition
chastises natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.
The Secretary of State requested a
display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa
and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities of Turkey of the power of
Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek
redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River.
Two hundred American soldiers crossed the Rio
Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.
A naval force lands to protect business interests in
Portuguese West Africa
American residents at Kissembo called upon
American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with
land to protect business interests
during a revolution.
The USS Wyoming retaliates for a firing on the
American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.
Naval forces of the US, Great Britain,
France, and the Netherlands compel Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular
to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in
accordance with treaties already signed.
US forces protected the lives and
property of American residents during a revolution.
punish the locals for an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.
General Sedgwick and 100 men obtain
the surrender of Matamoras.
Marines occupied Managua and Leon.
Formosa A naval force lands and burns a number of huts to
punish the inhabitants for the presumed murder of the crew of a wrecked
US forces land in Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama,
and Negata to protect American corporate interests during the civil war in
US forces protect foreign
residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
US forces protect passengers and treasure in
transit at Colin during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion
of the death of the President of Colombia.
US forces destroy the pirate ship
Forward which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio
Campaign or Sinmi-yangyo
US naval force attack and capture five
Korean forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans,
particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the
schooner, and later, for firing on other American small boats taking soundings
up the Salee River. Adm. Rodgers, commanding five warships and a landing party
of over 1,230 men armed with Remington carbines and Springfield muskets attacks
Choji Fortress of Kanghwa-do, and proceeds to occupy the whole island (116.8 sq
mi), killing 350 Korean defenders of the island, and withdrawing to China only
when the Korean army sends in reinforcement armed with modern
US forces protected American interests during
hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of
US troops cross the Mexican border repeatedly in
pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands. There were some reciprocal
pursuits by Mexican troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently.
Notable cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875.
Washington orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico
and the US, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued
intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.
Legislature elects David Kalakaua king, resulting in a riot led by supporters
of Queen Emma. Detachments from American vessels land to preserve order and
protect American lives and interests during the coronation of David Laamea
Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalakaua.
US force lands to police the town of
Matamoras, a critical transportation hub of United Fruit Company temporarily
while it was without other government. US investors clash head on with dominant
US forces land to protect American corporate
interests during warfare between British and
Egyptians and looting of the
city of Alexandria by Arabs.
US forces guard valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad including the
safes and vaults of the United Fruit Company during revolutionary
David Lumialani Kalakaua is forced to sign a new constitution
making the monarchy little more than a figurehead. Local businessmen, sugar
planters and politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles force the dismissal of
the cabinet of controversial Walter M. Gibson and force the adoption of the
1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The new documents limited voting
rights exclusively to only the literate males of the following populations:
Hawaiian, European, and American descent.
A naval force was sent ashore to
protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when
an outbreak of the populace was expected.
A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government
to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of
US forces land to protect
American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.
Hawaiian Islands US forces
protect American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.
Argentina A naval party
lands to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.
Haiti US forces protect
American lives and property on Navassa Island.
Strait Naval forces attempt to stop seal poaching.
Chile US forces protect the American consulate and refugees
during a revolution in Valparaiso.
Hawaii Marines land to promote a provisional government
under Sanford B. Dole.
"Many Americans I don't think realize that Hawaii
was an independent country before it was brought into the US. In brief, this is
the story. In the early part of the 19th century, several hundred American
missionaries, most of them from New England, sailed off to what were then
called the Sandwich Islands to devote their lives to, as they would have put
it, raising up the heathen savages and teaching them the blessings of Christian
civilization. It wasn't long before many of these missionaries and their sons
began to realize that there was a lot of money to be made in Hawaii. The
natives had been growing sugar for a long time, but they had never refined it
and had never exported it. By dispossessing the natives of most of their
land, a group that came from what was
then called this missionary planter elite sort of left the path of God, went
onto the path of Mammon and established a series of giant sugar plantations in
Hawaii, and they became very rich from exporting sugar into the US. In the
early 1890s, the US passed a tariff that made it impossible for the Hawaiian
sugar growers to sell their sugar in the United States So they were in a panic.
They were about to lose their fortunes. And they asked themselves what they
could do to somehow continue to sell their sugar in the US They came up with a
perfect answer: We'll get into the US How will we do this? Well, the leader of
the Hawaiian revolutionaries, if you want to call them that, who were mostly of
American origin, actually went to Washington. He met with the Secretary of the
Navy. He presented his case directly to the President of the US, Benjamin
Harrison. And he received assurances that the US would support a rebellion
against the Hawaiian monarchy. So he went back to Hawaii and became part of a
triumvirate, which essentially carried out the Hawaiian revolution. He was one
part of the triumvirate. The second part was the American ambassador, who was
himself an annexationist and had been instructed by the State Department to do
whatever he could to aid this revolution. And the third figure was the
commander of the US naval vessel, which was conveniently anchored right off the
shores of Honolulu. This revolution was carried out with amazing ease. The
leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries, this missionary planter elite, simply
announced at a meeting one day, "We have overthrown the government of Hawaii,
and we are now the new government." And before the queen was able to respond,
the US ambassador had 250 Marines called to shore from the ship that was
conveniently off the coast of Honolulu and announced that since there had been
some instability and there seemed to be a change of government, the Marines
were going to land to protect the new
regime and the lives and property of all Hawaiians. So that meant that there
was nothing the queen could do. The regime was immediately recognized by the
US, and with that simple process, the monarchy of Hawaii came to an end, and
then ultimately Hawaii joined the US" - Stephen Kinzer
Brazil A display of naval
force protects American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a
Brazilian civil war.
1894 Nicaragua. July 6 to
August 7. US forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields
following a revolution.
Korea From July 24,
1894 to April 3, 1896 marines protect the American legation and American lives
and interests at Seoul during and following the
US forces protected American interests
during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
A naval vessel
is beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American
nationals. Marines are stationed at Tientsin and penetrate Peking during the
Nicaragua US forces protect American interests in Corinto
during political unrest.
On April 25, 1898, the US declares war with Spain. The
war followes a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the sinking of the
USS Maine in the harbor at Havana when her forward
"Americans have had their eye on Cuba for a long time, ever
since Thomas Jefferson
was president. But it was in 1898 that this attachment to the cause of Cuba
Libré really seized the hearts of many Americans. Bear in mind that in
1898, the Cuban economy was totally dominated by Americans. It was a big sugar
producer, and all the sugar plantations in Cuba were owned by Americans. Also,
it was a very big market for American manufactured goods. About 85% of anything
you could buy in Cuba had been made in the US, so American business had very
big interests there. Now, Cuban patriots spent much of the late 19th century
rebelling against Spanish colonial rule. In 1898 they seemed very close to
succeeding. This was a little bit troubling to some of the American interests
in Cuba, because the revolutionaries were also social reformers. They advocated
land reform, which would have meant
breaking up the big sugar plantations owned by Americans. They also supported a
tariff wall around Cuba to allow the growth of domestic manufacturing, which
would have made it more difficult for American companies to export their goods
In 1898, the American press, in some ways excited by
whisperings from American businessmen active in Cuba, began a campaign to
portray Spanish colonial rule in Cuba as the most unspeakably brutal tyranny
that could be imagined, and the American public was whipped up into a fervor
about this. The fervor intensified when the US battleship, Maine, was blown up
in Havana harbor. "Our Warship Was Blown Up by an Enemy's Infernal Machine."
That was the headline in the New York Journal that I reproduce in my book.
Actually, it wasn't until 75 years later that the Navy convened a board of
inquiry, which turned up the fact that the Maine was actually blown up by an
Congress, passed a law, the Teller Amendment, which
said very explicitly, "We promise Cuba that the moment independence is won, all
American troops will be withdrawn, and Cuba will be allowed to become fully
The Americans announced that they changed their mind, that
the Teller Amendment had been passed in a moment of irrational enthusiasm and
that actually Cuban independence was not a very good idea, so the American
troops were not withdrawn. We remained in Cuba for some decades, ruling it
directly under US military officers, and then, for a period after that, through
The press played a really shameful role in the run-up
to the Spanish-American War. The Americans had never been particularly fond of
the Spanish rule in Cuba, but it wasn't until the press, actually in a
circulation war, decided to seize on the brutality, as they called it, of
Spanish colonial rule in the summer of 1898 that Americans really went
Hearst was a crucial figure, who very cleverly realized that he
could push the circulation of his newspaper dramatically higher if he hammered
away on jingoistic issues by pointing at foreign nations as constantly seeking
to undermine the United States." - Stephen Kinzer
The US 'purchases'
'jurisdiction' of the Spanish Colonial Empire with the Treaty of Paris. Spain
relinquishes nearly all of the remaining Spanish Empire, Cuba, Puerto Rico,
Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The cession of the Philippines
involved a payment of $20 million from the United States to Spain. The treaty
was signed on December 10, 1898, and ended the SpanishAmerican War.
November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. US forces
provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin
during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.
February 7 US forces protected American lives and
property at San Juan del Sur.
On May 9, the US Naval War Board advised Secretary of
the Navy John Davis Long that the US should seize the Spanish possession of
Guam in Micronesia. June 20, the USS Charleston sailed into Guams Apra
Harbor and fires a few cannon shots.
American and British naval forces are
landed to protect corporate interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to
March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the
insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.
February-May 15. American and British naval forces land to protect corporate
interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the
Islands US forces protect corporate interests following the war with
Spain and conquer the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for
On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially
declared war against the United States.
The war officially ended on July
2, 1902 with a victory for the United States.
General Macario Sakay, a
veteran Katipunan member assumed presidency of the "Tagalog Republic" formed in
1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups continued
hostilities in remote areas and islands, including the Moro people and
Pulahanes people, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June
Spain lacked the wealth and interest to
develop its African colonies during the first half of the 20th century.
However, through a paternalistic system, particularly on Bioko Island, Spain
plantations for which thousands of Nigerian workers were imported as
In 1931, following the fall of
the monarchy, the Spanish African colonies including Spanish Guinea and Spanish
Morocco became part of the Second Spanish Republic. Five years later,
Francisco Franco, a general of
the Army of Africa, rebelled against the republican government and started the
Spanish Civil War (193639).
In 1956, when French Morocco became
independent, Spain surrendered Spanish Morocco to the new nation, but retained
control of Sidi Ifni, the Tarfaya region and Spanish Sahara.
the Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea was established with a status
similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain.
In 1968, under pressure
from nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant
the country independence. In 1969, under international pressure, Spain returned
Sidi Ifni to Morocco. Spanish control of Spanish Sahara endured until the 1975
Green March prompted a withdrawal, under Moroccan military pressure.
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is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a new
perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their philosophical ideology.
This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of
the Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which
requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church
buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a
personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the
knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has
enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are
spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against
individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate
This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the
intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the
international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The
international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system,
corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex
and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on
cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a gun.
social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as
the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power
rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media
by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population
through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been
the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do
not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world.
Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the
population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt
international elite that further consolidates their power and which further
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