stacks
unique-design

radicalized

visitation of violence - 20th century



condemnster war

"Demonstrators are once again condemning America in a foreign city. This time, it is in Kabul, Afghanistan. Shouting 'death to America,' burning our flag, and setting off bombings, the demonstrators express their hatred toward America.

America has just placed sanctions on yet another country to discipline those who do not obey American commands. The nerve of them. Do they not know America is the most powerful nation on Earth and America has to protect it's interests?

They should do as America says and obey American CIA directives.

This process is not new. It has been going on for 50 years, and it has brought us grief and multiplied our enemies. American foreign policy of military interventionism has brought American death and destruction to many foreign lands and loss of life for many Americans. From Korea and Vietnam to Serbia, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan and now Iraq again, Americans have ventured far from our shores in search of wars to fight. The most current anti-American demonstrations in Kabul were understandable and predictable.

America's one-time ally, Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden, when he served as a freedom fighter against the Soviets in Afghanistan and when American's bombed his Serbian enemies while siding with his friends in Kosovo, has not been fooled and desire that his cause cannot be promoted by America's fickle foreign policy. There is no evidence that this policy serves the interests of anyone on Earth but America's.

It certainly increases the danger to all American as America has become the number one target of terrorists. Conventional war against America is out of the question, but acts of terrorism, whether it is the shooting down of a civilian airliner or bombing a New York City building, are almost impossible to prevent in a reasonably open society. It is hard for the average citizen of these countries to understand why Americans must be so involve in their affairs, and resort so readily to bombing and boycotts in countries thousands of miles away from America. American foreign policy is deeply flawed and does not serve American national security interest. American foreign policy in the Middle East has endangered some of the moderate Arab governments and galvanized Muslim militants." - Ron Paul, excerpts of Nov. 17, 1999 speech


90,000 tons of diplomacy

Listing of Notable Deployments and/or Imperialist Misadventures of US Military Forces Overseas in the 20th century

1900

China

American troops participate in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer rebellion, particularly at Peking. For many years after this a permanent legation guard is maintained in Peking, and is strengthened at times as trouble threatened.

1901

Colombia (State of Panama)

US forces protect American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.

1902

Colombia

US forces protect American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.

Panama

US places armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.

1903

Honduras

US forces protect the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.

Dominican Republic

A detachment of marines ias landed to insure European creditors would not seize the island and hold it until Ulises 'Lilís' Heureaux debts are paid off under the leagl authority of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

Syria

US forces protect the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising is feared.

Abyssinia

Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiates a treaty.

Panama.

US forces protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, US Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.



Port Arthur


1904

Korea
A guard of Marines is sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russian-Japanese War.

Dominican Republic

American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.

Panama

US forces protect American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.

1906

Cuba

US forces seek to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after serious revolutionary activity.

Dominican Republic

US takes control of Dominican customs, then the chief source of income for the Dominican government.

1907

Honduras

Troops are stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma To protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua.

1910

Nicaragua

US forces protected American interests at Bluefields.

1911

China

Marines are deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces are sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.

Honduras

American naval detachments lands to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.

1912

Turkey

US forces guard the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.

China

Disorders begins with the overthrow of the dynasty during the Kuomintang rebellion which was redirected by the invasion of China by Japan. This led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of US interests in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941.

Nicaragua

US forces protect American interests during an attempted revolution.

Cuba

US forces protect American interests on the Province of Oriente, and in Havana.

Honduras

A small force lands to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortez.

Panama

Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.

1913

Mexico

Marines land at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.

1914

Mexico

Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed the Dolphin affair and Pancho Villa's raids These include the capture of Vera Cruz and, later, Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico.
Dominican Republic

During a revolutionary movement, US naval forces stop bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintain Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.


1915

Haiti

US forces occupy Haiti during a period of chronic political instability from July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934.

1916

China

American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.

Dominican Republic

American naval forces occupy the island after the default on foreign debt from May 1916 to September 1924.

Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, "El Jefe," is installed by the Americans. Trujillo and family amassed enormous wealth controlling and monopolizing cattle lands for domestic meat and milk production, salt, sugar, tobacco, lumber, and the lottery. At the 1938 Evian Conference the Dominican Republic was the only country willing to accept 100,000 Jews.

Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina ruled the Domican Republic with an iron fist killing an estimated 30,000 people in the process. "The 44", under its leader Miguel Angel Paulino drove through the streets in their red Packard death car (carro de la muerte). Later imprisonments and killings were handled by the SIM, the secret police, organized by Johnny Abbes. Churches were required to post the slogan, "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra" (God in Heaven, Trujillo on Earth).

In what is termed the Parsley Massacre Trujillo ordered an attack on the border areas were Haitians had crossed over and taken up residence. Tens of thousands of Haitians were slaughtered as they tried to escape.

Political dissenters disappeared. The Marabel sisters - Argentina Minerva, Antonia María Teresa and Patria Mercedes - also known as the "Butterflies" (Las Mariposas) were ruthlessly beaten to death in a sugarcane field on the orders of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina.

1917

On April 6, 1917, the US declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary.

Cuba

US forces protect American interests during an insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the US armed forces leave by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.

China

American troops land at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.

1918

Woodrow Wilson officially recognizes Korea as territory of the Japanese Empire, refuses to receive delegations from Korea and Vietnam demanding restoration of sovereignty.

The delegations proclaimed before both houses of Congress, as an addendum to his "Fourteen Points" of a day earlier:

"National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action…. that peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game, now forever discredited, of the balance of power; but that all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them."

The promise of "Fourteen Points" become known in the third world as an infamous, cruel and preposterous lie (the Japanese occupiers were deadly in punishing all those involved in the country-wide March 1st Korean Independence Movement).

Mexico

American and Mexican troops fight at Nogales. After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, US troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919.
Russia

Marines land 7,000 men at Vladivostok to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality is issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders.

5,000 American troops join the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and are partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements.

Panama

US forces are used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.

1919

Dalmatia
US forces land at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.

Turkey.
Marines from the USS Arizona land to guard the US Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.

Honduras
A landing force is sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.

1920
China
A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.

Guatemala
US forces protected the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
Russia (Siberia)
A Marine guard is sent to protect the US radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.

1921

Panama - Costa Rica
American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.

1922

Turkey A landing force is sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.

1922-24

China
Marines are landed six times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.

1924

Honduras
US forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.

1925

China
Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brings the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the CRS-14 International Settlement.

Honduras
US forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.

Panama
Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.

1926-33

Nicaragua The coup d'etat of General Chamorro arouses revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the US. US forces come and go intermittently until January 3, 1933.

1926

China
Nationalist attack on Hankow bring the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard is maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces are landed for the protection of foreigners.

1927 to 1934

China
US has 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. American naval forces and marines increase due to fighting at Shanghai . In March a naval guard is stationed at the American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval vessels are stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin. In 1932 American forces land to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai. In 1933 US has 3,027 armed men ashore. In 1934 Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.

1937 Emperor Hirohito, appointed his brother Prince Chichibu, to head Golden Lily, established in November 1937 before Japan's infamous Rape of Nanking, to accompany and follow the military. The Golden Lily operation carried out massive plunder throughout Asia and included an army of jewelers, financial experts and smelters.

After the Allied blockade, the Golden Lily treasure was moved from Singapore to Manila where 175 storage sites were built by slave laborers and POWs. Billions of dollars worth of gold and other plundered treasures were stockpiled in these underground caverns, some of which were discovered by Edward G. Lansdale who directed the recovery of some of the vaults.

A tiny portion of that treasure was the source of Ferdinand Marcos' vast wealth. Marcos worked with the CIA for decades using Golden Lily funds to bribe nations to support the Vietnam War. In return, Marcos was allowed to sell over $1 trillion in gold through Australian brokers.

In order to maintain secrecy about the Trust, Washington officials claimed that the Japanese did not plunder the countries they invaded.

1940 Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.

1941

Greenland
Greenland is taken under protection of the US in April.

Netherlands (Dutch Guiana)
American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam.

Iceland
Iceland is taken under the protection of the US, with consent of its government, for strategic reasons.

Germany
In the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July US warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect US military aid to Britain.

The US declares war against Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

Germany under Hitler declares a war against the US.

Italy under Mussolini declares a war against the US.

The US declares war against Italy and Germany.

Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania declare war against the US.

The US declares war against Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania.



interventions map
1945

China
50,000 US Marines assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This is in addition to approximately 60,000 US forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.


Korea
US State Department officials, arrive in Korea with the US Army, disband the government of the Korean People's Republic formed when Japan announce their intention to surrender. Without Korean authorization they immediately cut Korea into two parts to be occupied by US and Soviet troops and establish a military government, flying in from Washington DC (in General MacArthur's private plane), Singman Rhee. Persecution of members of the disallowed Korean Peoples Republic, communists, socialists, unionists and anyone against the the partition and demanding an independent Korea begins in earnest. Rhee's special forces and secret police take the lives of some 200,000 men, women and children as recently documented by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission set up by the National Assembly of the Republic of (South) Korea. On the Island of Cheju alone, within a year, as many as 60,000 of its 300,000 residents are murdered, while another 40,000 flee by sea to nearby Japan some two years before the Koreans from the north invade the South.

1946
Trieste
Truman orders the augmentation of US troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed US Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia. Earlier US naval units had been dispatched to the scene.

1948

Palestine

A marine consular guard is sent to Jerusalem to protect the US Consul General.

Berlin

Soviet Union establishes a land blockade of the US, British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the US and its allies airlift supplies to Berlin until the blockade is lifted in May 1949.

1949

China

Marines are dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when the city falls to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.

1950-53

Korean War

US responds to North Korean invasion of South Korea. US forces deployed in Korea exceed 300,000 during the last year of the conflict. Over 36,600 US military are killed in action. The US attacks by, air, sea and land, aiming at the southward invading army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North), which nevertheless unifies the peninsula in five short weeks (except for the US defended port city of Pusan); with little resistance from South Korea's ROK military as most of its soldiers either defect or go home; over the next three years US will commit dozens of high death toll documented atrocities (some recently apologized for) as American planes level to the ground almost every city and town of any appreciable size in the entire peninsula, north and south, in the end threatening to drop the atomic bomb, and be charged with germ warfare by some not easily dismissed sources.

June 1950

At the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman orders the US Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.


1956

Egypt

A marine battalion evacuated US nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis.

1958

Lebanon

Marines land in Lebanon at the invitation of its government to help protect against threatened insurrection purportedly supported from outside. The President's executive action is supported by a Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.

1959-60

The Caribbean

2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect US nationals during the Cuban crisis.
1962

Thailand

3d Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support the regime during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the 5,000 marines had been withdrawn.

Cuba

Kennedy institutes a "quarantine" on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He warns the Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring about US nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement is achieved in a few days.

1962-73

Laos

US bombs Laos and gains control of the Golden Triangle Herion trade.

Bombing Missions Over Laos From 1965-1973

1964

Congo

US sends four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.

1964 -73

Vietnam War
US military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government becomes weaker. After citing what he termed were attacks on US destroyers in the Tonkin Gulf, Lyndon Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing US determination to support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for "all necessary measures" to repel armed attack against US forces and prevent further aggression. Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a US installation in central Vietnam, the US escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.

1965

Dominican Republic
US intervenes to protect lives and property during a Dominican revolt and sends more troops as fears grow that the revolutionary forces are going to win.

1967

Congo

US sends three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.

1970

Cambodia
US troops are ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese purportedly attack US and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam.

1974

Cyprus.

US naval forces evacuated US civilians during hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.

Lebanon

On July 22 and 23, helicopters from five US naval vessels evacuat approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.

1975

Vietnam

On April 3, 1975, Gerald Ford sends US naval vessels, helicopters, and marines to assist in evacuation of refugees and US nationals from Vietnam. On April 30, 1975, Gerald Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 marines have evacuated about 1,400 US citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones near the US Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.

Cambodia

On April 12, 1975, Gerald Ford orders US military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of US citizens from Cambodia.

Mayaguez incident. On May 15, 1975, Gerald Ford orders military forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en route from Hong Kong to Thailand with a US citizen crew which was seized by Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.

1976

Korea

Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a tree.

1978 Zaire

US utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.




oil addcition

1980

Iran

On April 26, 1980 six US transport planes and eight helicopters are used in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue American hostages being held in Iran.

1981

El Salvador

After a guerilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional US military advisers are sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.

Libya

On August 19 US planes based on the carrier U.S.S. Nimitz shoot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The US periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the US.

1982

Sinai
The deployment of military personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force of Observers in the Sinai.

Lebanon

Dispatch of 80 marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. Deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty.
Honduras

Large-scale disappearances of left-leaning union members, students and others began to take place after Roberto Suazo Córdova takes office. Suazo relies on United States support including controversial social and economic development projects sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development. Honduras becomes host to the largest Peace Corps mission in the world.

1983

Egypt

After a Libyan plane purportedly bombs a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the US dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.

Libya denied any responsibility for the attack, blaming it on rebels in the Sudan Air Force.

Did Libya bomb Sudan? Answer may lie in the Sudanese rebellion

Honduras

US undertakes a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua.

1983

Chad Two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces are deployed to assist Chad against rebel forces.

Grenada

Grenada occupied by Marines and Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of law and order and at the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.

1984

Persian Gulf
Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence from a US AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a United States KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian CRS-19 fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.

1985

Italy

US Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and force it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.



military industrial complex of death

1986

Honduras

US military helicopters and crewmen ferry Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.

Libya

US forces, while engaged navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, are attacked by Libyan missiles and the US responds with missiles. US air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on military installations in Libya.

Bolivia

US Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.

1987-88

Persian Gulf

After the Iran-Iraq War results in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the US increased US joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopts a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf. US Navy ships are 'fired upon' or have 'struck mines' or taken other military action on multiple occasions.

Panama

US sends an additional 1,000 troops to supplement 10,000 US military personnel already in Panama to oust Panamanian military leader General Manuel Noriega.

1989

Libya US Navy F-14 aircraft based on the USS John F. Kennedy shoot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The US pilots claim the Libyan planes demonstrated hostile intentions.

Panama

HW Bush orders a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 US forces already in the area.

HW Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance will be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers under the authroity of the Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. By mid-September there were 50-100 US military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to train troops in the three countries.

HW Bush orders US military forces to despose General Manuel Noriega.

Philippines

US fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines assist the Aquino government in repeling a coup attempt. 100 marines are sent from the US Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the US Embassy in Manila.

1990

Liberia

Additional security is provide to the US Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated US citizens from Liberia.

Saudi Arabia

Deployment of substantial elements of the US armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to ensure an adequate offensive military option after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq.

1991

Iraq

US armed forces to commence combat operations on January 16 against Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a coalition of allies and UN Security Council resolutions.

HW Bush states on May 17 in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of US forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.

Zaire
US Air Force C-141s transport 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa after widespread looting and rioting break out. US planes also carry 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and haul back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside Zaire.

1992

Sierra Leone

US military planes evacuat Americans from Sierra Leone, where military leaders have overthrown the government.

Kuwait
US began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with UN inspection teams.

Iraq

US participation in the enforcement of a prohibition against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi compliance with the cease-fire resolution.

Somalia

US armed forces are deployed to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a UN Security Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to international peace. US forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the U.N. Security Council authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of peace.

1993

Iraq

US deploys a battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the continuing US commitment to Kuwaiti independence. US military action under the UN umbrella continues. US naval forces launch missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence Service's headquarters in Baghdad in response to a purported unsuccessful attempt to assassinate former President Bush in Kuwait.

Bosnia

US began an airdrop of relief supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia. US forces participate in a NATO air action to enforce a UN ban on all unauthorized military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina

Somalia

In response to attacks against UN forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the US Quick Reaction Force participates in military action to quell the violence.

Macedonia

350 US soldiers are deployed to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area.

Haiti

US ships begin to enforce a UN embargo against Haiti.

1994

Bosnia
US expands its participation in the conflict in former Yugoslavia. 60 US aircraft are available for participation in the authorized NATO missions. US planes patrolling the "no-fly zone" in former Yugoslavia under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization shoot down 4 Serbian Galeb planes. Warplanes under NATO command bomb Bosnian Serb forces shelling the "safe" city of Gorazde. US aircraft under NATO attack Bosnian Serb heavy weapons in the Sarajevo heavy weapons exclusion zone.

Rwanda

US military forces deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of US citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda, where widespread fighting has broken out.

Who was Behind the 1994 Rwanda Genocide?

Macedonia

US contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced company of 200 personnel.

Haiti

US naval forces continue enforcement of the UN embargo in the waters around Haiti and that 712 vessels had been boarded since October 20, 1993. 1,500 troops are deployed to protect the regime. Troop level is subsequently increased to 20,000.

1995

Somalia

1,800 combat-equipped US armed forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu, Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II).

Bosnia

United States combat-equipped fighter aircraft and other aircraft contribute to the enforcement of a NATO the no-fly zone in airspace over Bosnia-Herzegovina. 500 US soldiers continued to be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the UN Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). NATO air strikes are used against Bosnian Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were threatening the U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde - "some 300 sorties were flown against 23 targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and Mostar.""1,500 US military personnel" are deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia as part of a NATO "enabling force" to lay the groundwork for the prompt and safe deployment of the NATO led Implementation Force (IFOR)."3,000 other US military personnel are deployed to Hungary, Italy, and Croatia to establish infrastructure for the enabling force and IFOR.

On December 21, 1995, Clinton reports to Congress that he had ordered the deployment of approximately 20,000 US military personnel to participate in the NATO led Implementation Force (IFOR) in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and approximately 5,000 US military personnel would be deployed in other former Yugoslav states, primarily in Croatia. In addition, about 7,000 US support forces would be deployed to Hungary, Italy and Croatia and other regional states in support of IFOR's mission.



imperialism defined

1996

Haiti

A "phased reduction" in the number of United States personnel assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) leaves 309 US personnel "equipped for combat."

Liberia

US military forces are deployed if the need to evacuate "private US citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the US Embassy compound...." should occur.

Central African Republic

US military personnel are deployed to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of "private US citizens and certain US Government employees," and to provide "enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."

Bosnia

US forces totaling about 17,000 occupy Bosnia "under NATO operational command and control" as part of the NATO Implementation Force (IFOR). In addition, about 5,500 US military personnel were deployed in Hungary, Italy and Croatia, and other regional states to provide "logistical and other support to IFOR." 500 US soldiers remain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). US participation in an IFOR follow-on force in Bosnia, known as SFOR (Stabilization Force), under NATO command requires "about 8,500" personnel

1997

Albania

US military forces to evacuate certain US Government employees and private US citizens from Tirana, Albania, and enhance security for the US Embassy in that city.

Congo and Gabon

US military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security for American private citizens, government employees, and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.

Sierra Leone
US military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain US government employees and private US citizens.

Bosnia

US military personnel involved in SFOR are in Bosnia, near Tuzla, and about 2,800 US troops were deployed in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states to provide logistics and other support to SFOR. A US Army continent of about 500 also remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger* was National Security Advisor, under President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 2001. Samuel Richard Berger helped to formulate the foreign policy of the Clinton Administration advising Clinton regarding the Khobar Towers bombing, Operation Desert Fox, the NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia, responses to the terrorist bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the administration's policy of engagement with the People's Republic of China.

Cambodia

During a period of domestic conflict about 550 US military personnel are stationed at Utapao Air Base in Thailand. These personnel were to be available for possible emergency evacuation operations in Cambodia as deemed necessary.

1998

Guinea-Bissau

An army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangers the US Embassy, US government employees and citizens in that country. US military personnel are deployed to Dakar, Senegal, to remove such individuals, as well as selected third country nationals, from the city of Bissau. The deployment continued until the necessary evacuations were completed.

Kenya and Tanzania
Joint Task Force of US military personnel is deployed to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombings of the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. Teams of 50-100 security personnel had arrived in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the US Embassies and citizens there.

Albania
200 US Marines and 10 Navy SEALS are deployed to the US Embassy compound in Tirana, Albania, to enhance security against reported threats against US personnel.

Afghanistan and Sudan
Airstrikes are made against camps and installations in Afghanistan and Sudan used by Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden. It is claimed there is convincing information that al-Qa`ida was responsible for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

Liberia
Due to political instability and civil disorder in Liberia 30 additional US military personnel , are deployed as a stand-by response and evacuation force of to augment the security force at the US Embassy in Monrovia.

Iraq

US and UK conduct a bombing campaign termed Operation Desert Fox, against Iraqi industrial facilities and against other Iraqi military and security targets including a dry milk factory. Coalition forces enforce the "no-fly" zones over Iraq, conduct military operations against the Iraqi air defense systems on numerous occasions in response to potential threats.

1999

Bosnia

US Armed Forces in Bosnia and other states in the region as participants in and supporters of the NATO led Stabilization Force (SFOR) total about 6,900, with about 2,300 US military personnel deployed to Hungary, Croatia, Italy and other regional states. Also some 350 US military personnel remain deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Kenya

US military personnel provide security for the US embassy and American citizens in Nairobi, pending completion of renovations of the American embassy facility in Nairobi, subject of a terrorist bombing in August 1998.

Yugoslavia

US military forces in coalition with NATO allies commence air strikes against Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav government's campaign of violence and repression against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo. Clinton directs the deployment of about "7,000 US military personnel as the US contribution to the approximately 50,000-member, NATO led security force (KFOR)" currently being assembled in Kosovo, including several thousand additional US Armed Forces personnel to Albania in support of the deep strike force located there.



Bosnia

6,200 US military personnel are continuing to participate in the NATO led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia, and another 2,200 personnel are supporting SFOR operations from Hungary, Croatia, and Italy. He also noted that US military personnel remain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to support the international security presence in Kosovo (KFOR).



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This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their philosophical ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

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