visitation of violence - 20th
"Demonstrators are once again
condemning America in a foreign
city. This time, it is
in Kabul, Afghanistan. Shouting 'death to America,' burning our flag, and
setting off bombings, the demonstrators express their hatred toward America.
America has just placed sanctions on yet another country to
discipline those who do not obey
American commands. The nerve of them. Do
they not know America is the most powerful nation on Earth and America has to
protect it's interests?
should do as America says and obey American CIA directives.
process is not new. It has been going on for 50 years, and it has brought us
grief and multiplied our enemies. American foreign policy of military
interventionism has brought American death and destruction to many foreign
lands and loss of life for many Americans.
From Korea and Vietnam to Serbia,
Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan
and now Iraq again, Americans have ventured far from our shores in search of
wars to fight. The most current anti-American demonstrations in Kabul were
understandable and predictable.
America's one-time ally,
Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden,
when he served as a freedom fighter against the Soviets in Afghanistan and when
American's bombed his Serbian enemies while
siding with his friends in Kosovo, has not been
fooled and desire that his cause
cannot be promoted by America's
fickle foreign policy. There is no evidence that this policy serves the
interests of anyone on Earth but America's.
It certainly increases the danger to all
American as America has become the number one target of terrorists.
Conventional war against America is out of the
question, but acts of terrorism, whether
it is the shooting down of a civilian airliner or bombing a New York City
building, are almost impossible to prevent in a
reasonably open society. It is hard for the average citizen of
these countries to understand why Americans must be so involve in their
affairs, and resort so readily to bombing and boycotts in countries thousands
of miles away from America.
policy is deeply flawed and does not serve American national security
interest. American foreign
policy in the Middle East has endangered some of the moderate Arab
governments and galvanized Muslim militants." - Ron Paul, excerpts of Nov. 17, 1999 speech
Listing of Notable Deployments and/or Imperialist
Misadventures of US Military Forces Overseas in the 20th
troops participate in operations to protect foreign lives during the
Boxer rebellion, particularly
at Peking. For many years after this a permanent legation guard is maintained
in Peking, and is strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
Colombia (State of Panama)
US forces protect American property on the Isthmus and kept transit
lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.
protect American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.
US places armed guards on all
trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships
on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
US forces protect the American consulate and
the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.
A detachment of
marines ias landed to insure European creditors would not seize the island and
hold it until Ulises 'Lilís' Heureaux debts are paid off under the leagl
authority of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
forces protect the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising is
were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiates a
US forces protect
American interests and lives during and following the revolution for
independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief
intermissions, US Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903,
to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.
A guard of
Marines is sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the
British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed
and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo
City during revolutionary fighting.
US forces protect American lives and property at
Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.
US forces seek
to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after
serious revolutionary activity.
US takes control of Dominican customs, then the chief
source of income for the Dominican government.
Troops are stationed in
Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma To protect
American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua.
protected American interests at Bluefields.
Marines are deployed in November to
guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces are sent for protection in
Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.
American naval detachments lands to protect American lives and
interests during a civil war in Honduras.
guard the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.
Disorders begins with the
overthrow of the dynasty during the Kuomintang rebellion which was redirected
by the invasion of China by Japan. This led to demonstrations and landing
parties for the protection of US interests in China continuously and at many
points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea
was maintained until 1941.
forces protect American interests during an attempted revolution.
US forces protect American interests on the
Province of Oriente, and in Havana.
A small force lands to prevent
seizure by the government of an
American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortez.
Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised
elections outside the Canal Zone.
Marines land at Ciaris Estero to aid in
evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous
for foreigners by civil strife.
Mexican-American hostilities followed the Dolphin affair and Pancho Villa's
raids These include the capture of Vera Cruz and, later, Pershing's expedition
into northern Mexico.
During a revolutionary movement, US naval forces stop
bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintain Santo Domingo City
as a neutral zone.
US forces occupy Haiti during a period of chronic
political instability from July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934.
forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.
American naval forces occupy the island after the
default on foreign debt from May 1916 to September 1924.
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
Molina, "El Jefe," is installed by the Americans. Trujillo and family
amassed enormous wealth controlling and monopolizing cattle lands for domestic
meat and milk production, salt, sugar, tobacco, lumber, and the lottery. At the
1938 Evian Conference the Dominican Republic was the only country willing to
accept 100,000 Jews.
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina ruled the Domican
Republic with an iron fist killing an estimated 30,000 people in the process.
"The 44", under its leader Miguel Angel Paulino drove through the streets in
their red Packard death car (carro de la muerte). Later imprisonments and
killings were handled by the SIM, the secret police, organized by Johnny Abbes.
Churches were required to post the slogan, "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra"
(God in Heaven, Trujillo on Earth).
In what is termed the Parsley
Massacre Trujillo ordered an attack on the border areas were Haitians had
crossed over and taken up residence. Tens of thousands of Haitians were
slaughtered as they tried to escape.
Political dissenters disappeared.
The Marabel sisters - Argentina Minerva, Antonia María Teresa and Patria
Mercedes - also known as the "Butterflies" (Las Mariposas) were ruthlessly
beaten to death in a sugarcane field on the orders of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
On April 6, 1917, the US
declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with
US forces protect
American interests during an insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions.
Most of the US armed forces leave by August 1919, but two companies remained at
Camaguey until February 1922.
American troops land at Chungking to protect American lives during a
Wilson officially recognizes Korea as territory of the
refuses to receive delegations from Korea and Vietnam demanding restoration of
The delegations proclaimed before both houses of Congress,
as an addendum to his "Fourteen Points" of a
"National aspirations must be respected; people may now be
dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not a
mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action
. that peoples and
provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if
they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game, now forever
discredited, of the balance of power; but that all well-defined national
aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded
The promise of "Fourteen Points"
become known in the third world as an infamous, cruel and preposterous lie (the
Japanese occupiers were deadly in punishing all those involved in the
country-wide March 1st Korean Independence Movement).
American and Mexican troops fight at Nogales.
After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, US troops entered Mexico in
pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919.
Marines land 7,000 men at Vladivostok to protect
the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik
troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A
joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality is issued by the
American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders.
American troops join the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained
until June 1919. These operations were in response to the
in Russia and are partly supported by Czarist or
US forces are used for police duty
according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during
election disturbances and subsequent
US forces land at Trau at the request of Italian
authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.
Marines from the USS Arizona land to guard the US
Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.
A landing force is sent ashore to maintain order
in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.
A landing force was
sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.
US forces protected the American
Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a
period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
A Marine guard is sent to protect the US
radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.
Panama - Costa
American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of
the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.
landing force is sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish
authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish
Nationalists entered Smyrna.
Marines are landed six times to protect
Americans during periods of unrest.
US forces protected American lives
and interests during election
Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots
and demonstrations in Shanghai brings the landing of American forces to protect
lives and property in the CRS-14 International Settlement.
US forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during
a political upheaval.
Strikes and rent
riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect
Nicaragua The coup d'etat of General Chamorro arouses
revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect
the interests of the US. US forces come and go intermittently until January 3,
Nationalist attack on Hankow bring the landing of American naval forces to
protect American citizens. A small guard is maintained at the consulate general
even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise,
when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces are landed for the
protection of foreigners.
US has 5,670 troops ashore
in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. American naval forces and marines
increase due to fighting at Shanghai . In March a naval guard is stationed at
the American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city.
American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and
other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval vessels
are stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin. In 1932 American forces
land to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
In 1933 US has 3,027 armed men ashore. In 1934 Marines landed at Foochow to
protect the American Consulate.
Hirohito, appointed his brother Prince Chichibu, to head Golden Lily,
established in November 1937 before Japan's infamous Rape of Nanking, to
accompany and follow the military. The Golden Lily operation carried out
massive plunder throughout Asia and included an army of jewelers, financial
experts and smelters.
After the Allied blockade, the Golden Lily
treasure was moved from Singapore to Manila where 175 storage sites were built
by slave laborers and POWs. Billions of dollars worth of gold and other
plundered treasures were stockpiled in these underground caverns, some of which
were discovered by Edward G. Lansdale who directed the recovery of some of the
A tiny portion of that treasure was the source of Ferdinand
Marcos' vast wealth. Marcos worked with the CIA for decades using Golden Lily
funds to bribe nations to support the Vietnam War. In return, Marcos was
allowed to sell over $1 trillion in gold through Australian brokers.
order to maintain secrecy about the Trust, Washington officials claimed that
the Japanese did not plunder the countries they invaded.
1940 Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica,
Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval
bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called
Greenland is taken under protection of the US in
Netherlands (Dutch Guiana)
troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government
in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite
mines in Surinam.
Iceland is taken
under the protection of the US, with consent of its government, for strategic
In the spring the President
ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July US warships were
convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the
Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect US military aid to Britain.
US declares war with Japan.
US declares war with Germany and
June 5, 1942
US declares war with
Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania.
The US declared war
against Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and against Germany and
Italy after those nations, under the dictators
Mussolini, declared war against
the US. The US declared war against Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania in response
to the declarations of war by those nations against the
Marines assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating
the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This
is in addition to approximately 60,000 US forces remaining in China at the end
of World War II.
US State Department officials, arrive in Korea with
the US Army, disband the government of the Korean People's Republic formed when
Japan announce their intention to surrender. Without Korean authorization they
immediately cut Korea into two parts to be occupied by US and Soviet troops and
establish a military government, flying in from Washington DC (in General
MacArthur's private plane), Singman Rhee. Persecution of members of the
disallowed Korean Peoples Republic, communists, socialists, unionists and
anyone against the the partition and demanding an independent Korea begins in
earnest. Rhee's special forces and secret police take the lives of some 200,000
men, women and children as recently documented by the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission set up by the National Assembly of the Republic
of (South) Korea. On the Island of Cheju alone, within a year, as many as
60,000 of its 300,000 residents are murdered, while another 40,000 flee by sea
to nearby Japan some two years before the Koreans from the north invade the
Truman orders the augmentation of US troops along the zonal occupation line
and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces
shot down an unarmed US Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia.
Earlier US naval units had been dispatched to the scene.
consular guard is sent to Jerusalem to protect the US Consul General.
Berlin Soviet Union establishes a
land blockade of the US, British, and
French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the US and its allies airlift
supplies to Berlin until the blockade is lifted in May 1949.
Marines are dispatched to Nanking to protect the
American Embassy when the city falls to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to
aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.
US responds to North Korean invasion of South Korea. US forces deployed
in Korea exceed 300,000 during the last year of the conflict.
Over 36,600 US military are
killed in action. The US attacks by, air, sea and
land, aiming at the southward
invading army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North), which
nevertheless unifies the peninsula in five short weeks (except for the US
defended port city of Pusan); with little resistance from South Korea's ROK
military as most of its soldiers either defect or go home; over the next three
years US will commit dozens of high death toll documented atrocities (some
recently apologized for) as American planes level to the ground almost every
city and town of any appreciable size in the entire peninsula, north and south,
in the end threatening to drop the atomic bomb, and be charged with germ
warfare by some not easily dismissed sources.
At the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman orders
the US Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and
Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.
battalion evacuated US nationals and other persons from
Alexandria during the Suez
Marines land in Lebanon at the invitation of
its government to help protect against threatened insurrection purportedly
supported from outside. The President's executive action is supported by a
Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that
area of the world.
2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed
to protect US nationals during the Cuban crisis.
Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support the regime during the
threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the 5,000 marines had
Kennedy institutes a
"quarantine" on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet
Union. He warns the Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba
against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring about US nuclear
retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement is achieved in a few
US bombs Laos and gains control of the Golden Triangle
Bombing Missions Over Laos From 1965-1973
four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a
rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.
US military advisers had been
in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the
military position of the Saigon government becomes weaker. After citing what he
termed were attacks on US destroyers in the
Tonkin Gulf, Lyndon Johnson
asked in August 1964 for a resolution
expressing US determination to
support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress responded with
the Tonkin Gulf Resolution,
expressing support for "all
necessary measures" to repel armed attack against US forces and prevent further
aggression. Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a US
installation in central Vietnam, the US escalated its participation in the war
to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.
US intervenes to protect lives and
property during a Dominican revolt and sends more troops as fears grow that the
revolutionary forces are going to win.
US sends three military transport
aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical
support during a revolt.
US troops are
ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong
and North Vietnamese purportedly attack US and South Vietnamese forces in
US naval forces evacuated US civilians during
hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.
On July 22 and 23, helicopters from five US
naval vessels evacuat approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon
during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation
had been blocked by hostilities.
3, 1975, Gerald Ford sends
US naval vessels, helicopters, and marines to assist in evacuation of refugees
and US nationals from Vietnam. On April 30, 1975, Gerald Ford reported that a
force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 marines have evacuated about 1,400
US citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing
zones near the US Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.
On April 12, 1975, Gerald Ford orders US
military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of US citizens from
Mayaguez incident. On May 15, 1975, Gerald Ford orders
military forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en route from Hong
Kong to Thailand with a US citizen crew which was seized by Cambodian naval
patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.
Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were
killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and
South Korea while cutting down a tree.
utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian
and French rescue operations in Zaire.
On April 26, 1980 six US transport planes and eight helicopters are
used in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue American hostages being held in Iran.
After a guerilla offensive against the
government of El Salvador, additional US military advisers are sent to El
Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training
government forces in counterinsurgency.
On August 19 US planes based on the carrier U.S.S. Nimitz shoot down
two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a
heat-seeking missile. The US periodically held freedom of navigation exercises
in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered
international waters by the US.
The deployment of military personnel
and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force of Observers in the
Dispatch of 80 marines to
serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the
Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. Deployment of 1200 marines to serve in
a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese
disappearances of left-leaning union members, students and others began to take
place after Roberto Suazo Córdova takes office. Suazo relies on United
States support including controversial social and economic development projects
sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development. Honduras
becomes host to the largest Peace Corps mission in the world.
Libyan plane purportedly bombs a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and
Egypt appealed for assistance, the US dispatched an AWACS electronic
surveillance plane to Egypt.
Libya denied any responsibility for the
attack, blaming it on rebels in the Sudan Air Force.
bomb Sudan? Answer may lie in the Sudanese rebellion
US undertakes a series of exercises in
Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua.
AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground
logistical support forces are deployed to assist Chad against rebel forces.
Grenada occupied by Marines and
Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of law and
order and at the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern
Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by
intelligence from a US AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a
United States KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian CRS-19 fighter planes over an
area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.
US Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner
and force it to land in Sicily. The
airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro
who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.
helicopters and crewmen ferry Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel
US forces, while
engaged navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, are attacked by Libyan
missiles and the US responds with missiles. US air and naval forces had
conducted bombing strikes on military installations in Libya.
US Army personnel and aircraft assisted
Bolivia in anti-drug operations.
After the Iran-Iraq War
results in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the US increased US
joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopts a policy of
reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil
tankers through the Gulf. US Navy ships are 'fired upon' or have 'struck mines'
or taken other military action on multiple occasions.
US sends an additional 1,000 troops to
supplement 10,000 US military personnel already in Panama to oust Panamanian
military leader General Manuel Noriega.
Libya US Navy F-14
aircraft based on the USS John F. Kennedy shoot down two Libyan jet fighters
over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The US pilots claim
the Libyan planes demonstrated hostile intentions.
HW Bush orders a brigade-sized force of
approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 US forces already in
HW Bush announced that
military and law enforcement
assistance will be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and
Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers under the authroity of the
Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. By mid-September there were 50-100 US
military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the
use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to
train troops in the three countries.
HW Bush orders US military forces
to despose General Manuel Noriega.
US fighter planes from Clark Air Base in
the Philippines assist the Aquino government in repeling a coup attempt. 100
marines are sent from the US Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the US Embassy
Additional security is provide to the US
Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated US citizens from
substantial elements of the US armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to
ensure an adequate offensive military option after the August 2 invasion of
Kuwait by Iraq.
US armed forces to commence combat operations on
January 16 against Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in
conjunction with a coalition of allies and UN Security Council resolutions.
HW Bush states on May 17 in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi
repression of the
Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of US forces into
northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.
US Air Force C-141s transport 100 Belgian troops and
equipment into Kinshasa after widespread looting and rioting break out. US
planes also carry 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and haul
back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside
US military planes evacuat Americans from Sierra Leone,
where military leaders have overthrown the government.
US began a series of military exercises in Kuwait,
following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United
Nations and refusal to cooperate with UN inspection teams.
US participation in
the enforcement of a
prohibition against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and
aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi compliance with the cease-fire
US armed forces are
deployed to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a U.N. Security
Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to
international peace. US forces continued to participate in the successor United
Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the U.N. Security Council
authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of
US deploys a battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the
continuing US commitment to Kuwaiti independence. US military action under the
UN umbrella continues. US naval forces launch missiles against the Iraqi
Intelligence Service's headquarters in Baghdad in response to a purported
unsuccessful attempt to assassinate former President Bush in
US began an airdrop of
relief supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia. US
forces participate in a NATO air
action to enforce a UN ban on all unauthorized military flights over
In response to
attacks against UN forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the US Quick
Reaction Force participates in military action to quell the
350 US soldiers are
deployed to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN
Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area.
US ships begin to enforce a UN embargo against
US expands its
participation in the conflict in former Yugoslavia. 60 US aircraft are
available for participation in the authorized
NATO missions. US planes
patrolling the "no-fly zone" in former Yugoslavia under the
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization shoot down 4 Serbian Galeb planes. Warplanes under
NATO command bomb Bosnian Serb
forces shelling the "safe" city of Gorazde. US aircraft under
NATO attack Bosnian Serb heavy
weapons in the Sarajevo heavy weapons exclusion zone.
US military forces deployed to Burundi to
conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of US citizens and other
third-country nationals from Rwanda, where widespread fighting has broken
Who was Behind the 1994 Rwanda Genocide?
US contingent in the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced company of 200
US naval forces
continue enforcement of the UN embargo in the waters around Haiti and that 712
vessels had been boarded since October 20, 1993. 1,500 troops are deployed to
protect the regime. Troop level is subsequently increased to 20,000.
1,800 combat-equipped US armed forces personnel
began deployment into Mogadishu, Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N.
forces assigned there to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM
United States combat-equipped
fighter aircraft and other aircraft contribute to the enforcement of a NATO the
no-fly zone in airspace over Bosnia-Herzegovina. 500 US soldiers continued to
be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the UN
Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). NATO air strikes are used against Bosnian
Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were threatening the
U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde - "some 300 sorties
were flown against 23 targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and
Mostar.""1,500 US military personnel" are deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Croatia as part of a NATO "enabling force"
to lay the groundwork for the prompt and safe deployment of the
NATO led Implementation Force
(IFOR)."3,000 other US military personnel are deployed to Hungary, Italy, and
Croatia to establish infrastructure for the enabling force and IFOR.
December 21, 1995, Clinton reports to Congress that he had ordered the
deployment of approximately 20,000 US military personnel to participate in the
NATO led Implementation Force (IFOR) in
the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and approximately 5,000 US military
personnel would be deployed in other former Yugoslav states, primarily in
Croatia. In addition, about 7,000 US support forces would be deployed to
Hungary, Italy and Croatia and other regional states in support of IFOR's
reduction" in the number of United States personnel assigned to the United
Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) leaves 309 US personnel "equipped for combat."
US military forces are deployed
if the need to evacuate "private US citizens and certain third-country
nationals who had taken refuge in the US Embassy compound...." should
Central African Republic
military personnel are deployed to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct
the evacuation from that country of "private US citizens and certain US
Government employees," and to provide "enhanced security for the American
Embassy in Bangui."
totaling about 17,000 occupy Bosnia "under NATO
operational command and control" as part of the NATO Implementation Force (IFOR). In addition, about
5,500 US military personnel were deployed in Hungary, Italy and Croatia, and
other regional states to provide "logistical and other support to IFOR." 500 US
soldiers remain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the
United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). US participation in an
IFOR follow-on force in Bosnia, known as SFOR (Stabilization Force), under
NATO command requires "about 8,500"
US military forces to evacuate certain US
Government employees and private US citizens from Tirana, Albania, and enhance
security for the US Embassy in that city.
US military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon
to provide enhanced security for American private citizens, government
employees, and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available
for any necessary evacuation operation.
US military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone,
to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain US government employees
and private US citizens.
military personnel involved in SFOR are in Bosnia, near Tuzla, and about 2,800
US troops were deployed in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states
to provide logistics and other support to SFOR. A US Army continent of about
500 also remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the
U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).
Samuel Richard "Sandy"
Berger* was National Security Advisor, under President Bill Clinton from 1997
to 2001. Samuel Richard Berger helped to formulate the foreign policy of the
Clinton Administration advising Clinton regarding the Khobar Towers bombing,
Operation Desert Fox, the NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia, responses
to the terrorist bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the
administration's policy of engagement with the People's Republic of
During a period of
domestic conflict about 550 US military personnel are stationed at Utapao Air
Base in Thailand. These personnel were to be available for possible emergency
evacuation operations in Cambodia as deemed necessary.
army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangers the US Embassy, US government employees
and citizens in that country. US military personnel are deployed to Dakar,
Senegal, to remove such individuals, as well as selected third country
nationals, from the city of Bissau. The deployment continued until the
necessary evacuations were completed.
Kenya and Tanzania
Joint Task Force of US
military personnel is deployed to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster
assistance related to the bombings of the US Embassies in
Kenya and Tanzania. Teams of 50-100 security
personnel had arrived in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar
es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the US Embassies and citizens
200 US Marines and 10 Navy
SEALS are deployed to the US Embassy compound in Tirana, Albania, to enhance
security against reported threats against US personnel.
Afghanistan and Sudan
Airstrikes are made against camps and
installations in Afghanistan and Sudan used by
Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden.
It is claimed there is convincing information that al-Qa`ida was responsible
for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the US Embassies in
Kenya and Tanzania.
Due to political instability and civil disorder in
Liberia 30 additional US military personnel , are deployed as a stand-by
response and evacuation force of to augment the security force at the US
Embassy in Monrovia.
US and UK
conduct a bombing campaign termed Operation Desert Fox, against Iraqi
industrial facilities and against other Iraqi military and security targets
including a dry milk factory. Coalition forces enforce the "no-fly" zones over
Iraq, conduct military operations against the Iraqi air defense systems on
numerous occasions in response to potential threats.
Forces in Bosnia and other states in the region as participants in and
supporters of the NATO led Stabilization Force
(SFOR) total about 6,900, with about 2,300 US military personnel deployed to
Hungary, Croatia, Italy and other regional states. Also some 350 US military
personnel remain deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).
personnel provide security for the US embassy and American citizens in Nairobi,
pending completion of renovations of the American embassy facility in Nairobi,
subject of a terrorist bombing in August 1998.
US military forces in coalition with
NATO allies commence air strikes against Yugoslavia
in response to the Yugoslav government's campaign of violence and
the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo. Clinton directs the deployment of
about "7,000 US military personnel as the US contribution to the approximately
50,000-member, NATO led security force (KFOR)"
currently being assembled in Kosovo, including several thousand additional US
Armed Forces personnel to Albania in support of the deep strike force located
6,200 US military
personnel are continuing to participate in the NATO
led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia, and another 2,200 personnel are
supporting SFOR operations from Hungary, Croatia, and Italy. He also noted that
US military personnel remain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to
support the international security presence in Kosovo
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