1814George Peabody opens
business in Georgetown, D.C. as Peabody, Riggs & Company operating the
Georgetown Slave Market.
Heavy government borrowing to finance
the War of 1812 leads to a shortage of capital reserves in existing banks which
leads to the establishment of new banks, thus greatly expanding the money in
Duke of Wellington's attacks and eventually forces
Napoleon Bonaparte to
abdicate. Louis XVIII is crowned King of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to the
tiny island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.
escapes exile and assembles an army which the Duke of Wellington defeats in
less than 90 days later at Waterloo. Nathan
Mayer Rothschild sends a trusted courier, Rothworth, to Waterloo where he
stays on the edge of the battlefield. Once the battle appears decided,
Rothworth crosses the Channel, and delivers the news of Wellington's victory to
Nathan Mayer Rothschild a full 24 hours before Wellington's own
Nathan Mayer Rothschild
hurries to the London Stockmarket and stands in his usual position. All eyes
were on him as the Rothschilds had a legendary communications network. Nathan
Mayer Rothschild stood there looking forlorn, suddenly started selling. The
other traders believed that this meant he had heard that
Napoleon Bonaparte had won so they all
started selling frantically. The market subsequently plummets as everyone
is selling their Consuls (British Government Bonds).
Rothschild secretly started buying them all up through his agents on the floor,
for a fraction of what they were worth only hours before. A lot of these
consuls are converted to Bank of
This is how Nathan Mayer Rothschild takes control of
the Bank of England and the
British money supply.
Rothschild married Hannah Barent-Cohen and is related by marriage to
Karl Heinrich Marx. Nathan Mayer
Rothschild openly bragged that in his 17 years in England he had increased his
initial £20,000 stake given to him by his father, 2500 times to
"If you will look back at
every war in Europe during the Nineteenth Century, you will see that they
always ended with the establishment of a 'balance of power.' With every
re-shuffling there was a balance of power in a new grouping around the House of
Rothschild in England, France, or Austria. They grouped nations so that if any
king got out of line a war would break out and the war would be decided by
which way the financing went." - Stuart Crane
Stuart Crane notes that there are two means used to collateralize loans to
governments and kings. Whenever a business firm borrows big
money its creditor obtains a
voice in management to protect the investment. Like a business, no government
can borrow big money unless willing to surrender to the creditor some
measure of sovereignty
as collateral." - Gary Allen
1815 Peabody, Riggs & Company move to
Baltimore where they operated from 1815 to 1835. George Peabody finds himself increasingly
involved with business originating from London, and in 1835, he established the
firm of George Peabody & Company in London. Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds
George Peabody's ascension into London society.
George Peabody operates in stock markets with a
half million pounds on hand, and became very astute in buying and selling on
both sides of the Atlantic. Junius Spencer
Morgan, father of John
Pierpont Morgan, acts as George Peabody's American agent.
George Peabody later concieves of the idea of
tax-exempt charitable foundation by founding the Peabody Fund established in
1867 with $2 million . The Peabody Fund was established to provide money for
construction, endowments, scholarships, teacher and industrial education for
newly freed slaves. The Fund would seek locations where there were sufficient
numbers of students and cooperative public officials who would combine the
relatively small grant with tax money to build the school. Northern
merchantilists wanted to industrialize the South.
George Peabody is succeeded by
Junius Spencer Morgan.
Junius Spencer Morgan expands the firm's
activities by shipping large quantities of railroad iron to the US from
unregulated expansion leads Congress in to pass a bill permitting yet another
privately owned central bank to regulate the
money supply. This bank is called the, "Second Bank of the US," and it's
charter is a carbon copy of its predecessor, the First Bank of the US. The US
government would once again supposedly own 20% of the shares of the bank.
The Second Bank of the US calls a halt to the expansion of
the money supply and launches the painful
process of contraction which in turn creates the Panic of 1819.
Panic of 1819 Marks the end of the economic expansion that had
following the War of 1812. The first major financial crisis in the US after the
depression of the late 1780s results in widespread foreclosures, bank failures,
unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing.
1826 Talley stick is taken out of circulation in England.
1828 Opponents of this central bank nominated
Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee to run for President. To illustrate how
deep this cancer is rooted in government, Andrew Jackson fires 2,000 of the
11,000 employees of the US government.
Second Bank of the US, asks Congress to pass a
renewal of the bank's charter,
four years early. Congress complies and sends the bill to Andrew Jackson for
Andrew Jackson vetoes the bill. Congress is unable to override
Andrew Jackson's veto. Andrew Jackson stands for re-election and for the first
time in American history he takes re-election campaign on the road. His
campaign slogan is, "Jackson And No Bank!"
Andrew Jackson appoints Roger B. Taney as Secretary of State for the Treasury,
with instructions to start removing the government's
deposits from the Second Bank of the
US. Andrew Jackson's previous two Secretaries of State for the Treasury,
William J. Duane and Louis McLane had both refused to comply with Andrew
Jackson's request and were fired as a result. However the head of the Second
Bank of the US, Nicholas Biddle, uses his influence to get the Senate to reject
Roger B. Taney's nomination and even threatens to cause a depression if the
Bank is not re-chartered.
"This worthy President thinks that because he
has scalped Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the Bank.
He is mistaken."- Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle then went on to
brazenly admit that the central bank was intending to make money scarce in
order to force the hand of Congress into re-chartering the bank.
Nicholas Biddle makes good on his word, and the Second Bank
of the United States, sharply contracts
the money supply by calling in
old loans and refusing to issue new ones. A financial panic ensued.
"In the fall of 1833 the removal of the deposits was made, and the
Panic of 1834 followed. The bank, by October, 1834, had contracted it
circulation nearly 20 per cent. When its attempt to coerce a restoration of the
deposits and a renewal of the
charter failed it commenced an expansion. The great expansion produced the
disastrous excesses of 1835 and 1836. The bank is justly responsible for the
for the whole amount of the expansion from the lowest point of contraction in
1834." - Samuel Jones Tilden
assembles what is called the, "Panic Session," and on March 27 Andrew Jackson
is officially censured by Congress for withdrawing funds from the Second Bank
of the US, in a vote which passed the Senate by 26 to 20.
Biddle had been caught boasting in public about the bank's plan to crash the
American economy. In a complete about turn
on April 4, the House of Representatives voted 134 to 82 against re-chartering
the Second Bank of the US. A special committee was established to investigate
whether the Second Bank of the US had caused the crash. When the investigating
committee arrived at the bank's door in Philadelphia with a subpoena
authorizing them to inspect the books, Nicholas Biddle refused to give them up,
or allow inspection of correspondence with Congressmen relating to their
personal loans and advancements he had made to them. Nicholas Biddle also
refused to testify before the committee back in Washington.
1836 Charter for the Second Bank of the US expires, and the
bank ceases functioning as America's central bank. Nicholas Biddle is later
arrested and charged with fraud. Nicholas Biddle was tried and acquitted but
died in 1844 still battling civil suits.
1837 Bank of England increases the interest rate paid to
depositors effectively curtailing
investment in America in response to Andrew Jackson refusing to
renew the central bank charter.
Lack of liquidity in the credit market
due to the withdrawal of funds creates the Panic of 1837. Out of 850 banks in the US,
343 closed entirely, 62 failed partially, and the system of state banks
received a shock from which it never fully recovered.
Contraction of the currency immediately follows.
"The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by
the Bank of England when it in one
day threw out all the paper connected with the US." - Henry Clews
There was no expansion of the currency after 1837 until the discovery
of the gold mines of California in 1849
and the silver mines in Nevada in
Brown Brothers withdraw from most of its
lending business. They chose to focus solely on currency exchange and
1838 Andrew Jackson pays
off the final installment of the national debt. Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot Andrew
Jackson, but both pistols misfire. Richard Lawrence openly bragged that
powerful people in Europe hired him and promised to protect him. Richard
Lawrence is found not guilty by reason of insanity.
1842 $64,000,000 of currency, a little
over three dollars per capita, is in circulation. A tide of bankruptcy without
precedent sweeps the country. From 1837 to 1850 the scarcity of money depressed
prosperity and the
cotton, pork and beef of the American
farmer was purchased at depressed prices.
1850 State banks again began to expand, and once
more America had fair prices for produce and prosperous times. The expansion
continues until 1857. There was no inflation, the currency was not in excess of
the legitimate needs of business and prices were not too high.
(James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600 million francs, which at
the time was 150 million francs more than all the other bankers in France put
1855 Creditanstalt-Bankverein founded
by Anselm Salomon Freiherr von Rothschild to finance industrialization projects
in the Austrian Empire primarily in the field of railroad construction
companies (Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway) and the iron industry
(Prague Iron Industry Company).
"From the time I took office as Chancellor of the
Exchequer, I began to learn that the State held, in the face of the Bank and
the City, an essentially false position as to finance. The government itself
was not to be a substantive power, but was to leave the Money Power supreme and
unquestioned." - William Gladstone
Between 1854 to 1864,
the Rothschilds furnished in
loans, $200,000,000 to England, $50,000,000 to Austria, $40,000,000 to Prussia,
$130,000,000 to France, $50,000,000 to Russia, $12,000,000 to Brazil, in all
$482,000,000. Panic of 1857 New York City branch of
the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company fails when the Bank of England
called all loans to British investors in American banks. Grain prices fell with
the end of the Crimean War and Russian re-entry into
global markets and
land speculation based on forecasts
of new railroads collapsed. More than 5,000 American businesses failed within a year.
The Bank of England lends
George Peabody & Company £
5,000,000 during the Panic of 1857.
Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, after South Carolina leaves
the Union. Slavery has always been cited as the cause of the war but this
was simply not the case.
"I have no purpose directly or indirectly to
interfere with the institution of slavery in the state where it now exists. I
believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. My
paramount objective is to save the Union and it is not either to save or
destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any
slave, I would do it." -
Southern States were in a dire economic situation due to the actions of the
Northern States. Northern industrialists had used trade tariffs to prevent the
Southern States from buying cheaper European goods.
Europe subsequently retaliated by
stopping cotton imports from the South. The South was being forced to pay
more for goods while having their income slashed.
"The division of the
US into federations of equal force was decided long before the
Civil War by the high financial powers of
Europe, these bankers were afraid that the United States if they remained as
one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence
which would upset their financial domination over the world. They foresaw
tremendous booty if they could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to
the Jewish financiers, to the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing.
I fear that Jewish Banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will
entirely control the exuberant riches of America, and use it to systematically
corrupt modern civilization. The Jew will not hesitate to plunge the whole of
Christendom into wars and chaos, in order that the earth should become the
inheritance of Israel." - Otto Von Bismark stated as Chancellor of Germany
(1871 - 1890)
Only months after the first shots are fired in South
Carolina the soulless central bankers loan Napoleon III of France (the nephew
of Napoleon Bonaparte ), 210
million francs to seize Mexico and station troops along the Southern border of
the US, by taking advantage of the American
Civil War to return Mexico to colonial rule.
This was in violation
of the, "Monroe Doctrine," which
was issued by President James
Monroe during his seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress, in
In return, the US planned to stay neutral in wars between
European powers and in wars between a European power and its colonies. However,
if these latter type of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view
such action as hostile toward itself.
While the French were breaching
the, Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, the
British followed suit by moving 11,000 troops into Canada and positioning them
along the Canadian border.
Österreichische Boden-Credit-Anstalt founded entirely independent from
government. Austrian central bank policymakers are unhappy with the premium
which has to be paid when exchanging Austrian banknotes for
1864 Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank founded.
During the "Grundentlastung," many members of the high nobility had a
substantial amount of liquid funds at their disposal and were became the major
shareholders many of the new joint stock corporate banks. These banks made the
financial resources of the Viennese financial center increase rapidly.
Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank is given the sole right to increase
currency and requires the Austrian government to a futures contract that
securitizes the debt with bonds that bear interest after term.
Austrian government relies on this to continue to fund the war.
1866 Alexander II of Russia narrowly
escaped an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev and Ferdinand Cohen-Blind
fails to assassinate Otto von
Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin. On June 14 the Austro-Prussian War
Due to a breach of the provisions of the sole currency issuing
right the government is obliged to pay compensation in the form of interest.
Panic of 1873
9th, 1873 Two dozen insurance undertakings go into liquidation or became
bankrupt with the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange in Austria.
Speculation on future trade,
previous debt amassed fighting the
Austro-Prussian War, and large expenditures on the World
Exposition held in the
Austrian-Hungarian capital of Vienna create the failure.
September 19, due to the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange,
Jay Cooke, a major component of the
American banking establishment, is unable to market several million dollars in
Northern Pacific Railroad bonds which precipitates
sweeps the New York Stock Exchange precipitating
the Panic of 1873.
American branch of Jay
Cooke goes bankrupt - the London branch suffers no ill effects.
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