Peabody opens business in Georgetown, D.C. as Peabody, Riggs & Company
operating the Georgetown Slave Market.
Heavy government borrowing
to finance the War of 1812 leads to a shortage of capital reserves in existing
banks which leads to the establishment of new banks, thus greatly expanding the
money in circulation.
Duke of Wellington's attacks and eventually forces
Napoleon Bonaparte to
Louis XVIII is crowned King of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to the
tiny island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.
Napoleon Bonaparte escapes
exile and assembles an army which the Duke of Wellington defeats less than 90
days later at Waterloo.
Rothschild sends a trusted courier, Rothworth, to Waterloo where he stays
on the edge of the battlefield.
Peabody, Riggs & Company move to
Baltimore where they operated from 1815 to 1835.
George Peabody finds himself increasingly
involved with business originating from London, and in 1835, he established the
firm of George Peabody & Company in London.
Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds George Peabody's
ascension into London society.
Peabody operates in stock markets with a half million lb on hand, and
became very astute in buying and selling on both sides of the Atlantic.
Junius Spencer Morgan, father of
John Pierpont Morgan, acts as
George Peabody's American agent.
Peabody later concieves of the idea of tax-exempt charitable foundation by
founding the Peabody Fund established in 1867 with $2 million . The Peabody
Fund was established to provide money for construction, endowments,
scholarships, teacher and industrial education for newly freed slaves. The Fund
would seek locations where there were sufficient numbers of students and
cooperative public officials who would combine the relatively small grant with
tax money to build the school. Northern merchantilists wanted to industrialize
George Peabody is
succeeded by Junius Spencer Morgan.
Junius Spencer Morgan expands the firm's
activities by shipping large quantities
of railroad iron to the US from England.
1816 This unregulated
expansion leads Congress in to pass a bill permitting yet another
privately owned central bank to regulate
the money supply.
is called the, "Second Bank of the US," and it's charter is a carbon copy of
its predecessor, the First Bank of the US.
The US government would once
again supposedly owns 20% of the shares of the bank.
The Second Bank of the US calls a halt to the expansion
of the money supply and
launches the painful process of
in turn creates the Panic of 1819.
Panic of 1819 Marks the end of
the economic expansion that had following the War of 1812.
major financial crisis in the US after the depression of the late 1780s results
in widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in
agriculture and manufacturing.
1826 Talley stick
is taken out of circulation in England.
Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee is elected President.
1832 Second Bank of the US asks Congress to pass a
renewal of the bank's
charter four years early.
Congress complies and sends the bill to
Andrew Jackson for signing.
Andrew Jackson vetoes the bill.
Congress is unable to override Andrew Jackson's veto.
Jackson stands for re-election and for the first time in American history he
takes re-election campaign on the road.
His campaign slogan is,
"Jackson And No Bank!"
1833 Andrew Jackson
appoints Roger B. Taney as Secretary of State for the Treasury, with
instructions to start removing the government's
deposits from the Second Bank of the
Andrew Jackson's previous two Secretaries of State for the
Treasury, William J. Duane and Louis McLane both refused to comply with Andrew
Jackson's request and were fired as a result.
Nicholas Biddle blocks
Roger B. Taney's nomination and threatens to cause a depression if the Bank is
"This worthy President thinks that because he has
scalped Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the Bank. He
is mistaken."- Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle then went on to brazenly
admit that the central bank was intending to make money scarce in order to
force the hand of Congress into re-chartering the bank.
Second Bank of the United States
sharply contracts the money supply by calling in
old loans and refusing to issue new ones.
A financial panic ensues.
"In the fall of 1833 the removal of the deposits was made, and the
Panic of 1834 followed. The bank, by October, 1834, had contracted it
circulation nearly 20 per cent. When its attempt to coerce a restoration of the
deposits and a renewal of
the charter failed it commenced an expansion. The great expansion produced the
disastrous excesses of 1835 and 1836. The bank is justly responsible for the
whole amount of the expansion from the lowest point of contraction in 1834." -
Samuel Jones Tilden
1835 Congress assembles what
is called the, "Panic Session," and on March 27 Andrew Jackson is officially
censured by Congress for withdrawing funds from the Second Bank of the US, in a
vote which passed the Senate by 26 to 20.
Nicholas Biddle is caught
boasting in public about the bank's plan to crash the American
In a complete about
turn on April 4, the House of Representatives voted 134 to 82 against
re-chartering the Second Bank of the US.
Second Bank is responsible for
receiving and maintaining all the deposits of the federal government including
revenue generated from customs duties taken from foreign trade as well as sales
of federal land in the West.
Second Bank notes are the only notes
accepted by the federal government for payment of federal taxes.
special committee is established to investigate whether the Second Bank of the
US had caused the crash.
When the investigating committee arrives at
the bank's door in Philadelphia with a subpoena authorizing them to inspect the
books, Nicholas Biddle refuses to give them up, or allow inspection of
correspondence with Congressmen relating to their personal loans and
advancements he has made to them.
Nicholas Biddle also refuses to
testify before the committee back in Washington.
Almost a third of
Second Bank stock was held by foreigners, mostly in Great
Second Bank charter advantaged foreign holders of the
Banks stock over domestic holders because foreigners were exempt from
state and federal taxes on the dividends paid out to them.
Second Bank did not directly control the nations monetary policy, the
large amount of deposits and constant demand for its notes allowed it
indirectly control the money supply of state and private banks. By accumulating
large amounts of other banks notes in its vaults, the Second Bank of the
United States could reduce the amount of credit these banks were capable of
issuing by redeeming notes for specie to reduce the amount of deposits held
within the bank. In the same vein, they could allow credit to expand by holding
other banks notes in their vaults or depositing specie into state and
private banks , thereby allowing those institutions to issue more credit. The
sheer size of the banks balance sheet gave it a large rein of control
over the inner workings of the nations state and private banks." - Kevin
1836 Charter for the Second Bank of
the US expires, and the bank ceases functioning as America's central bank.
Nicholas Biddle is later arrested and charged with fraud.
Nicholas Biddle is tried and acquitted but dies in 1844 still battling
Panic of 1837
England increases the interest rate paid to
depositors effectively curtailing
investment in America in response to Andrew Jackson refusing to
renew the central bank
Lack of liquidity in
the credit market due to the withdrawal of funds creates the Panic of 1837.
Out of 850 banks in the US, 343 closed entirely, 62 failed partially,
and the system of state banks received a shock from which it never fully recovered.
Contraction of the currency immediately
"The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by
the Bank of England when it in one
day threw out all the paper connected with the US." - Henry Clews
There was no expansion of the currency after 1837 until the discovery
of the gold mines of California in 1849
and the silver mines in Nevada in
Brothers withdraw from the domestic lending business.
Jackson pays off the final installment of the national
Richard Lawrence attempts to
shoot Andrew Jackson, but both pistols misfire.
openly bragged that powerful people in Europe hired him and
promised to protect him.
Richard Lawrence is found not guilty by
reason of insanity.
1850 State banks again began to expand, and once more America
had fair prices for produce and prosperous times. The expansion continues until
1857. There was no inflation, the
currency was not in excess of the legitimate needs of business and prices were
not too high.
Jacob (James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600
million francs, which at the time was 150 million francs more than all the
other bankers in France put together.
Creditanstalt-Bankverein founded by Anselm Salomon Freiherr von Rothschild to
finance industrialization projects in the
Austrian Empire primarily in
the field of railroad construction
(Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway) and the iron industry (Prague Iron
"From the time I took office as Chancellor of the
Exchequer, I began to learn that the State held, in the face of the Bank and
the City, an essentially false position as to finance. The government itself
was not to be a substantive power, but was to leave the Money Power supreme and
unquestioned." - William Gladstone
Between 1854 to 1864,
the Rothschilds furnished in
loans, $200,000,000 to England, $50,000,000
$40,000,000 to Prussia, $130,000,000 to
France, $50,000,000 to Russia,
$12,000,000 to Brazil,
in all $482,000,000. Panic of 1857 New York City branch of
the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company fails when the Bank of England
called all loans to British investors in American banks.
fell with the end of the Crimean War and Russian re-entry into
global markets and
land speculation based on forecasts
of new railroads collapsed. More than 5,000
American businesses failed within a
(The Crimean War was fought from October
1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the
Ottoman Empire, France,
Britain and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of
Christian minorities in the
Holy Land, which was a part of the
Ottoman Empire. The
French promoted the rights of
Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the
Eastern Orthodox Church.)
The Bank of
England lends George Peabody £
5,000,000 during the Panic of 1857.
1861 American Civil War begins at Fort
Sumter, South Carolina, after South Carolina leaves the Union.
Slavery has always been
cited as the cause of the war but that is a fallacy.
"I have no purpose directly or
indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the state where it
now exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no
inclination to do so. My paramount objective is to save the Union and it is
not either to save or destroy slavery. If I
could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it." -
Southern States were in a dire economic situation due to the actions of the
Northern industrialists had used trade
tariffs to prevent the Southern States from buying cheaper European goods.
retaliated by stopping cotton imports from the South.
forced to pay more for goods, found income slashed.
of the US into federations of equal force was decided long before the
Civil War by the high financial powers of
Europe, these bankers were afraid that the United States if they remained as
one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence
which would upset their
financial domination over the world. They foresaw tremendous booty if they
could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the Jewish financiers, to
the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing.
I fear that Jewish
Banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the
exuberant riches of America, and use it to systematically corrupt modern
civilization. The Jew will
not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos, in order
that the earth should become the inheritance of Israel." - Otto Von Bismark
stated as Chancellor of Germany (1871 - 1890)
Only months after the
first shots are fired in South Carolina the soulless central bankers loan
Napoleon III of France (the nephew of
Napoleon Bonaparte ), 210
million francs to seize Mexico and station troops along the Southern border of
the US, by taking advantage of the American Civil War to return Mexico to
This was in violation of the, "Monroe Doctrine," which was issued by
President James Monroe during his
seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress, in 1823.
return, the US planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in
wars between a European power and its colonies. However, if these latter type
of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view such action as hostile
While the French were breaching the,
Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, the
British followed suit by moving 11,000 troops into Canada and positioning them
along the Canadian border.
Österreichische Boden-Credit-Anstalt founded entirely independent from
government. Austrian central bank policymakers are unhappy with the premium
which has to be paid when exchanging Austrian banknotes for silver.
1864 Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank
founded. During the "Grundentlastung," many members of the high nobility had a
substantial amount of liquid funds at their disposal and were became the major
shareholders many of the new joint stock corporate banks. These banks made the
financial resources of the Viennese financial center increase rapidly.
Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank is given the sole right to increase
currency and requires the Austrian government to
a futures contract that
securitizes the debt with bonds that bear interest after term.
Austrian government relies on this to continue to fund the war.
1866 Alexander II of Russia narrowly
escaped an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev and Ferdinand Cohen-Blind
fails to assassinate Otto von
Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin. On June 14 the Austro-Prussian War
Due to a breach of the provisions of the sole currency issuing
right the government is obliged to pay compensation in the form of interest.
Panic of 1873
9th, 1873 Two dozen insurance undertakings
go into liquidation or became bankrupt
with the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange in Austria.
Speculation on future trade,
previous debt amassed fighting the
Austro-Prussian War, and large expenditures on the World
Exposition held in the
Austrian-Hungarian capital of Vienna create the failure.
September 19, due to the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange,
Jay Cooke, a major component of the
American banking establishment, is unable to market several million dollars in
Northern Pacific Railroad bonds which precipitates bankruptcy.
Panic sweeps the
New York Stock Exchange precipitating the
Panic of 1873.
Although the American
branch of Jay Cooke goes
bankrupt - the London
branch suffers no ill effects.
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author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
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agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
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This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of
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This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the
intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the
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and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
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