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1814 George Peabody opens business in Georgetown, D.C. as Peabody, Riggs & Company operating the Georgetown Slave Market.

Heavy government borrowing to finance the War of 1812 leads to a shortage of capital reserves in existing banks which leads to the establishment of new banks, thus greatly expanding the money in circulation.

Duke of Wellington's attacks and eventually forces Napoleon Bonaparte to abdicate.

Louis XVIII is crowned King of France. Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to the tiny island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.

1815 Napoleon Bonaparte escapes exile and assembles an army which the Duke of Wellington defeats less than 90 days later at Waterloo.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild sends a trusted courier, Rothworth, to Waterloo where he stays on the edge of the battlefield.

Peabody, Riggs & Company move to Baltimore where they operated from 1815 to 1835.

George Peabody finds himself increasingly involved with business originating from London, and in 1835, he established the firm of George Peabody & Company in London.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds George Peabody's ascension into London society.

George Peabody operates in stock markets with a half million lb on hand, and became very astute in buying and selling on both sides of the Atlantic. Junius Spencer Morgan, father of John Pierpont Morgan, acts as George Peabody's American agent.

George Peabody later concieves of the idea of tax-exempt charitable foundation by founding the Peabody Fund established in 1867 with $2 million . The Peabody Fund was established to provide money for construction, endowments, scholarships, teacher and industrial education for newly freed slaves. The Fund would seek locations where there were sufficient numbers of students and cooperative public officials who would combine the relatively small grant with tax money to build the school. Northern merchantilists wanted to industrialize the South.

George Peabody is succeeded by Junius Spencer Morgan. Junius Spencer Morgan expands the firm's activities by shipping large quantities of railroad iron to the US from England.


1816 This unregulated expansion leads Congress in to pass a bill permitting yet another privately owned central bank to regulate the money supply.

This bank is called the, "Second Bank of the US," and it's charter is a carbon copy of its predecessor, the First Bank of the US.

The US government would once again supposedly owns 20% of the shares of the bank.

The Second Bank of the US calls a halt to the expansion of the money supply and launches the painful process of contraction which in turn creates the Panic of 1819.

Panic of 1819 Marks the end of the economic expansion that had following the War of 1812.

The first major financial crisis in the US after the depression of the late 1780s results in widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing.

1826 Talley stick is taken out of circulation in England.

1828 Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee is elected President.

1832 Second Bank of the US asks Congress to pass a renewal of the bank's charter four years early.

Congress complies and sends the bill to Andrew Jackson for signing.

Andrew Jackson vetoes the bill.

Congress is unable to override Andrew Jackson's veto.

Andrew Jackson stands for re-election and for the first time in American history he takes re-election campaign on the road.

His campaign slogan is, "Jackson And No Bank!"

1833 Andrew Jackson appoints Roger B. Taney as Secretary of State for the Treasury, with instructions to start removing the government's deposits from the Second Bank of the US.

Andrew Jackson's previous two Secretaries of State for the Treasury, William J. Duane and Louis McLane both refused to comply with Andrew Jackson's request and were fired as a result.

Nicholas Biddle blocks Roger B. Taney's nomination and threatens to cause a depression if the Bank is not re-chartered.

"This worthy President thinks that because he has scalped Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the Bank. He is mistaken."- Nicholas Biddle

Nicholas Biddle then went on to brazenly admit that the central bank was intending to make money scarce in order to force the hand of Congress into re-chartering the bank.

Second Bank of the United States sharply contracts the money supply by calling in old loans and refusing to issue new ones.

A financial panic ensues.

"In the fall of 1833 the removal of the deposits was made, and the Panic of 1834 followed. The bank, by October, 1834, had contracted it circulation nearly 20 per cent. When its attempt to coerce a restoration of the deposits and a renewal of the charter failed it commenced an expansion. The great expansion produced the disastrous excesses of 1835 and 1836. The bank is justly responsible for the whole amount of the expansion from the lowest point of contraction in 1834." - Samuel Jones Tilden

1835 Congress assembles what is called the, "Panic Session," and on March 27 Andrew Jackson is officially censured by Congress for withdrawing funds from the Second Bank of the US, in a vote which passed the Senate by 26 to 20.

Nicholas Biddle is caught boasting in public about the bank's plan to crash the American economy.

In a complete about turn on April 4, the House of Representatives voted 134 to 82 against re-chartering the Second Bank of the US.

Second Bank is responsible for receiving and maintaining all the deposits of the federal government including revenue generated from customs duties taken from foreign trade as well as sales of federal land in the West.

Second Bank notes are the only notes accepted by the federal government for payment of federal taxes.

A special committee is established to investigate whether the Second Bank of the US had caused the crash.

When the investigating committee arrives at the bank's door in Philadelphia with a subpoena authorizing them to inspect the books, Nicholas Biddle refuses to give them up, or allow inspection of correspondence with Congressmen relating to their personal loans and advancements he has made to them.

Nicholas Biddle also refuses to testify before the committee back in Washington.

Almost a third of Second Bank stock was held by foreigners, mostly in Great Britain.

Second Bank charter advantaged foreign holders of the Bank’s stock over domestic holders because foreigners were exempt from state and federal taxes on the dividends paid out to them.

"While the Second Bank did not directly control the nation’s monetary policy, the large amount of deposits and constant demand for its notes allowed it indirectly control the money supply of state and private banks. By accumulating large amounts of other banks’ notes in its vaults, the Second Bank of the United States could reduce the amount of credit these banks were capable of issuing by redeeming notes for specie to reduce the amount of deposits held within the bank. In the same vein, they could allow credit to expand by holding other banks’ notes in their vaults or depositing specie into state and private banks , thereby allowing those institutions to issue more credit. The sheer size of the bank’s balance sheet gave it a large rein of control over the inner workings of the nation’s state and private banks." - Kevin Mulcrone 2017

1836 Charter for the Second Bank of the US expires, and the bank ceases functioning as America's central bank.

Nicholas Biddle is later arrested and charged with fraud.

Nicholas Biddle is tried and acquitted but dies in 1844 still battling civil suits.

Panic of 1837

Bank of England increases the interest rate paid to depositors effectively curtailing investment in America in response to Andrew Jackson refusing to renew the central bank charter.

Lack of liquidity in the credit market due to the withdrawal of funds creates the Panic of 1837.

Out of 850 banks in the US, 343 closed entirely, 62 failed partially, and the system of state banks received a shock from which it never fully recovered.

Contraction of the currency immediately follows.

"The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by the Bank of England when it in one day threw out all the paper connected with the US." - Henry Clews

There was no expansion of the currency after 1837 until the discovery of the gold mines of California in 1849 and the silver mines in Nevada in 1859.

Brown Brothers withdraw from the domestic lending business.

1838 Andrew Jackson pays off the final installment of the national debt.

Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot Andrew Jackson, but both pistols misfire.

Richard Lawrence openly bragged that powerful people in Europe hired him and promised to protect him.

Richard Lawrence is found not guilty by reason of insanity.


1842

$64,000,000 of currency, a little over three dollars per capita, is in circulation.

A tide of bankruptcy without precedent sweeps the country.

From 1837 to 1850 the scarcity of money depressed prosperity and the wheat, cotton, pork and beef of the American farmer was purchased at depressed prices.

1850 State banks again began to expand, and once more America had fair prices for produce and prosperous times. The expansion continues until 1857. There was no inflation, the currency was not in excess of the legitimate needs of business and prices were not too high.

Jacob (James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600 million francs, which at the time was 150 million francs more than all the other bankers in France put together.

1855 Creditanstalt-Bankverein founded by Anselm Salomon Freiherr von Rothschild to finance industrialization projects in the Austrian Empire primarily in the field of railroad construction (Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway) and the iron industry (Prague Iron Industry Company).




slave market

"From the time I took office as Chancellor of the Exchequer, I began to learn that the State held, in the face of the Bank and the City, an essentially false position as to finance. The government itself was not to be a substantive power, but was to leave the Money Power supreme and unquestioned." - William Gladstone

Between 1854 to 1864, the Rothschilds furnished in loans, $200,000,000 to England, $50,000,000 to Austria, $40,000,000 to Prussia, $130,000,000 to France, $50,000,000 to Russia, $12,000,000 to Brazil, in all $482,000,000.

Panic of 1857 New York City branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company fails when the Bank of England called all loans to British investors in American banks.

Grain prices fell with the end of the Crimean War and Russian re-entry into global markets and land speculation based on forecasts of new railroads collapsed. More than 5,000 American businesses failed within a year.

(The Crimean War was fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church.)

The Bank of England lends George Peabody £ 5,000,000 during the Panic of 1857.

1861 American Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, after South Carolina leaves the Union.

Slavery has always been cited as the cause of the war but that is a fallacy.

"I have no purpose directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the state where it now exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. My paramount objective is to save the Union and it is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it." - Abraham Lincoln

The Southern States were in a dire economic situation due to the actions of the Northern States.

Northern industrialists had used trade tariffs to prevent the Southern States from buying cheaper European goods.

Europe subsequently retaliated by stopping cotton imports from the South.

The South, forced to pay more for goods, found income slashed.


"The division of the US into federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by the high financial powers of Europe, these bankers were afraid that the United States if they remained as one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence which would upset their financial domination over the world. They foresaw tremendous booty if they could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the Jewish financiers, to the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing. I fear that Jewish Banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America, and use it to systematically corrupt modern civilization. The Jew will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos, in order that the earth should become the inheritance of Israel." - Otto Von Bismark stated as Chancellor of Germany (1871 - 1890)

Only months after the first shots are fired in South Carolina the soulless central bankers loan Napoleon III of France (the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte ), 210 million francs to seize Mexico and station troops along the Southern border of the US, by taking advantage of the American Civil War to return Mexico to colonial rule.

This was in violation of the, "Monroe Doctrine," which was issued by President James Monroe during his seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress, in 1823.

In return, the US planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in wars between a European power and its colonies. However, if these latter type of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view such action as hostile toward itself.

While the French were breaching the, Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, the British followed suit by moving 11,000 troops into Canada and positioning them along the Canadian border.

1863 Allgemeine Österreichische Boden-Credit-Anstalt founded entirely independent from government. Austrian central bank policymakers are unhappy with the premium which has to be paid when exchanging Austrian banknotes for silver.

1864 Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank founded. During the "Grundentlastung," many members of the high nobility had a substantial amount of liquid funds at their disposal and were became the major shareholders many of the new joint stock corporate banks. These banks made the financial resources of the Viennese financial center increase rapidly.

Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank is given the sole right to increase currency and requires the Austrian government to a futures contract that securitizes the debt with bonds that bear interest after term.

The Austrian government relies on this to continue to fund the war.

1866 Alexander II of Russia narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev and Ferdinand Cohen-Blind fails to assassinate Otto von Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin. On June 14 the Austro-Prussian War begins.

Due to a breach of the provisions of the sole currency issuing right the government is obliged to pay compensation in the form of interest.





Panic of 1873

May 9th, 1873 Two dozen insurance undertakings go into liquidation or became bankrupt with the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange in Austria.

Speculation on future trade, previous debt amassed fighting the Austro-Prussian War, and large expenditures on the World Exposition held in the Austrian-Hungarian capital of Vienna create the failure.

On September 19, due to the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange, Jay Cooke, a major component of the American banking establishment, is unable to market several million dollars in Northern Pacific Railroad bonds which precipitates bankruptcy.

Panic sweeps the New York Stock Exchange precipitating the Panic of 1873.

Although the American branch of Jay Cooke goes bankrupt - the London branch suffers no ill effects.



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