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1814George Peabody opens business in Georgetown, D.C. as Peabody, Riggs & Company operating the Georgetown Slave Market.

Heavy government borrowing to finance the War of 1812 leads to a shortage of capital reserves in existing banks which leads to the establishment of new banks, thus greatly expanding the money in circulation.

Duke of Wellington's attacks and eventually forces Napoleon Bonaparte to abdicate. Louis XVIII is crowned King of France. Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to the tiny island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.

1815 Napoleon Bonaparte escapes exile and assembles an army which the Duke of Wellington defeats in less than 90 days later at Waterloo. Nathan Mayer Rothschild sends a trusted courier, Rothworth, to Waterloo where he stays on the edge of the battlefield. Once the battle appears decided, Rothworth crosses the Channel, and delivers the news of Wellington's victory to Nathan Mayer Rothschild a full 24 hours before Wellington's own courier.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild hurries to the London Stockmarket and stands in his usual position. All eyes were on him as the Rothschilds had a legendary communications network. Nathan Mayer Rothschild stood there looking forlorn, suddenly started selling. The other traders believed that this meant he had heard that Napoleon Bonaparte had won so they all started selling frantically. The market subsequently plummets as everyone is selling their Consuls (British Government Bonds).

Nathan Mayer Rothschild secretly started buying them all up through his agents on the floor, for a fraction of what they were worth only hours before. A lot of these consuls are converted to Bank of England stock.

This is how Nathan Mayer Rothschild takes control of the Bank of England and the British money supply.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild marries Hannah Barent-Cohen and is related by marriage to Karl Heinrich Marx.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild openly bragged that in his 17 years in England he had increased his initial £20,000 stake given to him by his father, 2500 times to £50,000,000.

"If you will look back at every war in Europe during the Nineteenth Century, you will see that they always ended with the establishment of a 'balance of power.' With every re-shuffling there was a balance of power in a new grouping around the House of Rothschild in England, France, or Austria. They grouped nations so that if any king got out of line a war would break out and the war would be decided by which way the financing went." - Stuart Crane

"Economics Professor Stuart Crane notes that there are two means used to collateralize loans to governments and kings. Whenever a business firm borrows big money its creditor obtains a voice in management to protect the investment. Like a business, no government can borrow big money unless willing to surrender to the creditor some measure of sovereignty as collateral." - Gary Allen


1815 Peabody, Riggs & Company move to Baltimore where they operated from 1815 to 1835. George Peabody finds himself increasingly involved with business originating from London, and in 1835, he established the firm of George Peabody & Company in London. Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds George Peabody's ascension into London society.

George Peabody operates in stock markets with a half million pounds on hand, and became very astute in buying and selling on both sides of the Atlantic. Junius Spencer Morgan, father of John Pierpont Morgan, acts as George Peabody's American agent.

George Peabody later concieves of the idea of tax-exempt charitable foundation by founding the Peabody Fund established in 1867 with $2 million . The Peabody Fund was established to provide money for construction, endowments, scholarships, teacher and industrial education for newly freed slaves. The Fund would seek locations where there were sufficient numbers of students and cooperative public officials who would combine the relatively small grant with tax money to build the school. Northern merchantilists wanted to industrialize the South.

George Peabody is succeeded by Junius Spencer Morgan. Junius Spencer Morgan expands the firm's activities by shipping large quantities of railroad iron to the US from England.


1816 This unregulated expansion leads Congress in to pass a bill permitting yet another privately owned central bank to regulate the money supply. This bank is called the, "Second Bank of the US," and it's charter is a carbon copy of its predecessor, the First Bank of the US. The US government would once again supposedly own 20% of the shares of the bank.

The Second Bank of the US calls a halt to the expansion of the money supply and launches the painful process of contraction which in turn creates the Panic of 1819.

Panic of 1819 Marks the end of the economic expansion that had following the War of 1812. The first major financial crisis in the US after the depression of the late 1780s results in widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing.

1826 Talley stick is taken out of circulation in England.

1828 Opponents of this central bank nominated Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee to run for President. To illustrate how deep this cancer is rooted in government, Andrew Jackson fires 2,000 of the 11,000 employees of the US government.

1832 Second Bank of the US, asks Congress to pass a renewal of the bank's charter, four years early. Congress complies and sends the bill to Andrew Jackson for signing.

Andrew Jackson vetoes the bill. Congress is unable to override Andrew Jackson's veto. Andrew Jackson stands for re-election and for the first time in American history he takes re-election campaign on the road. His campaign slogan is, "Jackson And No Bank!"

1833 Andrew Jackson appoints Roger B. Taney as Secretary of State for the Treasury, with instructions to start removing the government's deposits from the Second Bank of the US. Andrew Jackson's previous two Secretaries of State for the Treasury, William J. Duane and Louis McLane had both refused to comply with Andrew Jackson's request and were fired as a result. However the head of the Second Bank of the US, Nicholas Biddle, uses his influence to get the Senate to reject Roger B. Taney's nomination and even threatens to cause a depression if the Bank is not re-chartered.

"This worthy President thinks that because he has scalped Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the Bank. He is mistaken."- Nicholas Biddle

Nicholas Biddle then went on to brazenly admit that the central bank was intending to make money scarce in order to force the hand of Congress into re-chartering the bank.

Nicholas Biddle makes good on his word, and the Second Bank of the United States, sharply contracts the money supply by calling in old loans and refusing to issue new ones. A financial panic ensued.

"In the fall of 1833 the removal of the deposits was made, and the Panic of 1834 followed. The bank, by October, 1834, had contracted it circulation nearly 20 per cent. When its attempt to coerce a restoration of the deposits and a renewal of the charter failed it commenced an expansion. The great expansion produced the disastrous excesses of 1835 and 1836. The bank is justly responsible for the for the whole amount of the expansion from the lowest point of contraction in 1834." - Samuel Jones Tilden

1835 Congress assembles what is called the, "Panic Session," and on March 27 Andrew Jackson is officially censured by Congress for withdrawing funds from the Second Bank of the US, in a vote which passed the Senate by 26 to 20.

Nicholas Biddle had been caught boasting in public about the bank's plan to crash the American economy. In a complete about turn on April 4, the House of Representatives voted 134 to 82 against re-chartering the Second Bank of the US. A special committee was established to investigate whether the Second Bank of the US had caused the crash. When the investigating committee arrived at the bank's door in Philadelphia with a subpoena authorizing them to inspect the books, Nicholas Biddle refused to give them up, or allow inspection of correspondence with Congressmen relating to their personal loans and advancements he had made to them. Nicholas Biddle also refused to testify before the committee back in Washington.

1836 Charter for the Second Bank of the US expires, and the bank ceases functioning as America's central bank. Nicholas Biddle is later arrested and charged with fraud. Nicholas Biddle was tried and acquitted but died in 1844 still battling civil suits.

Panic of 1837 Bank of England increases the interest rate paid to depositors effectively curtailing investment in America in response to Andrew Jackson refusing to renew the central bank charter. Lack of liquidity in the credit market due to the withdrawal of funds creates the Panic of 1837. Out of 850 banks in the US, 343 closed entirely, 62 failed partially, and the system of state banks received a shock from which it never fully recovered.

Contraction of the currency immediately follows.

"The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by the Bank of England when it in one day threw out all the paper connected with the US." - Henry Clews

There was no expansion of the currency after 1837 until the discovery of the gold mines of California in 1849 and the silver mines in Nevada in 1859.

Brown Brothers withdraw from most of its lending business. They chose to focus solely on currency exchange and international trade.

1838 Andrew Jackson pays off the final installment of the national debt. Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot Andrew Jackson, but both pistols misfire. Richard Lawrence openly bragged that powerful people in Europe hired him and promised to protect him. Richard Lawrence is found not guilty by reason of insanity.

1842 $64,000,000 of currency, a little over three dollars per capita, is in circulation. A tide of bankruptcy without precedent sweeps the country. From 1837 to 1850 the scarcity of money depressed prosperity and the wheat, cotton, pork and beef of the American farmer was purchased at depressed prices.

1850 State banks again began to expand, and once more America had fair prices for produce and prosperous times. The expansion continues until 1857. There was no inflation, the currency was not in excess of the legitimate needs of business and prices were not too high.

Jacob (James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600 million francs, which at the time was 150 million francs more than all the other bankers in France put together.

1855 Creditanstalt-Bankverein founded by Anselm Salomon Freiherr von Rothschild to finance industrialization projects in the Austrian Empire primarily in the field of railroad construction companies (Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway) and the iron industry (Prague Iron Industry Company).




slave market

"From the time I took office as Chancellor of the Exchequer, I began to learn that the State held, in the face of the Bank and the City, an essentially false position as to finance. The government itself was not to be a substantive power, but was to leave the Money Power supreme and unquestioned." - William Gladstone

Between 1854 to 1864, the Rothschilds furnished in loans, $200,000,000 to England, $50,000,000 to Austria, $40,000,000 to Prussia, $130,000,000 to France, $50,000,000 to Russia, $12,000,000 to Brazil, in all $482,000,000.

Panic of 1857 New York City branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company fails when the Bank of England called all loans to British investors in American banks. Grain prices fell with the end of the Crimean War and Russian re-entry into global markets and land speculation based on forecasts of new railroads collapsed. More than 5,000 American businesses failed within a year.
The Bank of England lends George Peabody & Company £ 5,000,000 during the Panic of 1857.

1861 American Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, after South Carolina leaves the Union. Slavery has always been cited as the cause of the war but this was simply not the case.

"I have no purpose directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the state where it now exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. My paramount objective is to save the Union and it is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it." - Abraham Lincoln

The Southern States were in a dire economic situation due to the actions of the Northern States. Northern industrialists had used trade tariffs to prevent the Southern States from buying cheaper European goods. Europe subsequently retaliated by stopping cotton imports from the South. The South was being forced to pay more for goods while having their income slashed.

"The division of the US into federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by the high financial powers of Europe, these bankers were afraid that the United States if they remained as one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence which would upset their financial domination over the world. They foresaw tremendous booty if they could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the Jewish financiers, to the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing. I fear that Jewish Banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America, and use it to systematically corrupt modern civilization. The Jew will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos, in order that the earth should become the inheritance of Israel." - Otto Von Bismark stated as Chancellor of Germany (1871 - 1890)

Only months after the first shots are fired in South Carolina the soulless central bankers loan Napoleon III of France (the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte ), 210 million francs to seize Mexico and station troops along the Southern border of the US, by taking advantage of the American Civil War to return Mexico to colonial rule.

This was in violation of the, "Monroe Doctrine," which was issued by President James Monroe during his seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress, in 1823.

In return, the US planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in wars between a European power and its colonies. However, if these latter type of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view such action as hostile toward itself.

While the French were breaching the, Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, the British followed suit by moving 11,000 troops into Canada and positioning them along the Canadian border.

1863 Allgemeine Österreichische Boden-Credit-Anstalt founded entirely independent from government. Austrian central bank policymakers are unhappy with the premium which has to be paid when exchanging Austrian banknotes for silver.

1864 Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank founded. During the "Grundentlastung," many members of the high nobility had a substantial amount of liquid funds at their disposal and were became the major shareholders many of the new joint stock corporate banks. These banks made the financial resources of the Viennese financial center increase rapidly.

Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank is given the sole right to increase currency and requires the Austrian government to a futures contract that securitizes the debt with bonds that bear interest after term.

The Austrian government relies on this to continue to fund the war.

1866 Alexander II of Russia narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev and Ferdinand Cohen-Blind fails to assassinate Otto von Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin. On June 14 the Austro-Prussian War begins.

Due to a breach of the provisions of the sole currency issuing right the government is obliged to pay compensation in the form of interest.


Panic of 1873

May 9th, 1873 Two dozen insurance undertakings go into liquidation or became bankrupt with the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange in Austria.

Speculation on future trade, previous debt amassed fighting the Austro-Prussian War, and large expenditures on the World Exposition held in the Austrian-Hungarian capital of Vienna create the failure.

On September 19, due to the meltdown of the Vienna Stock Exchange, Jay Cooke, a major component of the American banking establishment, is unable to market several million dollars in Northern Pacific Railroad bonds which precipitates bankruptcy.

Panic sweeps the New York Stock Exchange precipitating the Panic of 1873.

Although the American branch of Jay Cooke goes bankrupt - the London branch suffers no ill effects.



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