US world hegemony

enterprise or commerce?
mercantilism !

"To you the Earth yields her Fruit,
and you shall not want if you but know how to fill your hands.
It is in exchanging the gifts of the Earth
that you shall find abundance and be satisfied.
Yet unless the exchange be in Compassion and kindly Justice,
it will but lead some to Greed and others to hunger."
- Khalil Gibran, The Prophet

Before the invention of the steam engine global commerce consisted mainly in the exchange of commodities between the Temperate zone and the Tropics.

The commodities desired were mostly articles of luxurious consumption - sugar, tea, coffee, indigo, opium, and the spices.

Individual countries produced sufficient food for local consumption. As all manufactured products were wrought by hand each country could supply its own needs.

Trade over land was restricted by the logistics of distances but those distances shrank when shipping goods over water.

Commerce enriched the countries surrounding the Mediterranean which carried on trade and made the merchants wealthy.

The Phoenicians, the pre-eminent merchants, possessed a monopoly on trade for two thousand years. Egypt's share of the trade traffic from central Africa forged its great wealth.

In the age of Solomon, the Jews possessed the Eastern end of the trade traffic for a generation and considered it the chief glory of Solomon's reign.

The power of the Assyrian Empire was largely based upon the possession of the Eastern end of this commerce. The conquests of the Assyrian Empire along the Mediterranean broke up the old line of the trade by way of the Red Sea.

620 BC To obtain possession of this commerce was the aim of the conquests of Nebuchadnezzar of the Chaldean Dynasty who freed the Babylonians from Assyrian rule, conquered Judah and Jeruselam, and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Nebuchadnezzar carried the trade commerce through Babylon, and up the Euphrates, across Syria and Asia Minor, and gave the Western end of the traffic to the Lydians and the Ionian Greeks.

The possession of the Western end of the trade commerce awakened the slumbering Greek culture which then flowered. The hostility of the Greeks to Persia, which caused the burning of Sardis, and led to the Persian wars, no doubt originated in the fact that Persia gave the trade commerce back to the Phoenicians, who restored it to its old route by way of the Red Sea.

After the Christian Era, the Venetians took possession of the trade commerce and it made them the great merchant princes of the Middle Ages.

The discovery of the passage around Cape Good Hope gave the world trade commerce into the hands of the Portuguese who closely guarded their topographic knowledge for a century.

Then the Dutch, the French and the English organized trading companies which competed with each other for the possession of the East India trade.

British Empire

global sea trade

1600 Royal Charter granted to "George, Earl of Cumberland, and 215 Knights, Aldermen, and Burgesses" to form an incorporation to trade with the East Indies.

The charter awarded the newly formed incorporation a monopoly on trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan for a period of fifteen years.
Anybody who traded in breach of the charter without a license from the incorporation was liable to forfeiture of their ships and cargo (half of which went to the Crown and the other half to the incorporation), as well as imprisonment at the "royal pleasure".

The well-established Dutch East India incorporation was competition.

The incorporation opened a factory in Bantam on the first voyage and imports of pepper from Java were an important part of the incorporation's trade for twenty years. English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean.

The incorporation benefited from the imperial patronage expanding its commercial trading operations eclipsing the Portuguese Estado da Índia, which had established bases in Goa, Chittagong, and Bombay, which Portugal later ceded to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza.
1612 The incorporation achieved a major victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally held at Suvali of Surat.

The East India incorporation launches multiple joint attacks with the Dutch United East India incorporation on Portuguese and Spanish ships off the coast of China, which helped secure their ports in China. The incorporation established trading posts in Surat (1619), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668), and Calcutta (1690).

1694 Under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the incorporation charter is revoked. Any English firm can now trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament.

1697 The admission of Solomon Dormido to membership in the English Royal Exchange led to a suspension of the law excluding Jews. They soon entered in such numbers that a special space, known as the Jews' Walk, was allotted to them. As the law had been abrogated for the Jews, a similar suspension as regards the taking of the oath had to be generally adopted; and in consequence the Exchange was soon overrun with doubtful characters.

"The Lord Mayor and the Aldermen have been busy this week in receiving petitions from a great number of persons, who put in to be Exchange brokers: they are to be 100 in number, 80 of whom are to be Englishmen and the rest foreigners and Jews, each of whom is to carry a medal in his pocket with his name on it, the King's effigy on one side and the city arms on the other, and they are to show it on the making of any bargains."

Abuses grew so rapidly that public clamor resulted in a reorganization of the Exchange and its laws.

1698 A new "parallel" East India incorporation (officially titled the English incorporation Trading to the East Indies) is floated under a state-backed indemnity of £2 million. The powerful stockholders of the old incorporation quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body. The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade.

1708 The companies merge by a tripartite indenture involving both companies and the state. Under this arrangement, the merged incorporation lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.

Twelve 'Jew brokers' licensed to operate in the City of London on the Jew's Walk tendered the British Treasury £3,200,000 in return for an exclusive grant of trading privileges with all countries of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, between Cape Horn and Cape Good Hope for the newly chartered amalgamated joint stock incorporation - the United incorporation of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.

{"Benjamin Levy, who may be reckoned the father of the congregation, left behind him three children: Menahem, Abigail, and Elias. The first-named, the son of his former marriage, was eighteen years of age at the time of his father's death, and inherited a comfortable fortune. As he was still a minor he could not take over his father's place and medal as one of the twelve licensed Jew Brokers, which passed to one Aaron Alvares. When Menahem came of age in 1707, he tried in vain to persuade his father's kinsman and associate Moses Hart (who had been admitted to 'Change in 1704, in succession to David de Faro) to retire in his favour, and went so far as to assert that he had paid him £1,000 on this understanding. The case gave rise to prolonged litigation and an enquiry by the Court of Aldermen, with the result that Moses was exonerated. In the following year Menahem Levy died, unmarried (October 14th, 1708). " - History of the Great Synagogue Chapter XII THE NEW GREAT SYNAGOGUE, 1790}

1715 United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies opens a trading station in Canton importing opium and tobacco into China.

The British wanted silk. The Chinese would only take silver bullion in trade for silk. British silver reserves became depleted.

The British start importing opium from India and obtain an opium monopoly by 1773 which virtually continued unchanged until 1947. By only excepting silver in exchange for opium British silver reserves were restored.

1729 Rising opium use in China prompts an imperial edict that forbides the sale of opium for smoking purposes. East India Company agency houses such as Jardine, Matheson & Co and Dent & Co imported amounts averaging 900 tons a year by 1799.

1764 The Trading incorporation exercises imperial sway in Bengal over a territory containing a population of forty million yielding larger revenue streams than those of the Austrian empire - at that time the greatest European power. The Trading incorporation, the wealthiest corporation in the world, rules a territorial empire.

The success of the Trading incorporation in India rested on trickery, wrong, extortion, theft, robbery and murder.

With the Mughal empire in the last stages of decay the Trading incorporation constantly shifted its ground as expediency required, sometimes treating the Princes of India as independent states, and sometimes, as dependencies of the Mughal empire.

The Trading incorporation provided mercenaries to a native prince, to enable him to conquer another - selling favors on every side.

When the opportunity came, the Trading incorporation devoured the treasures and the territory of friends and foes alike raping India in the process.

This set the stage for the corporations of the future giving them the ability to follow in the footsteps of the greatest criminal empire the world had ever known.

History presents no career of conquest, in which fraud, deceit and rapine were so well used as in the conquest of India by the Trading incorporation.

The Trading incorporation continued its occupation of India until the Sepoy mutiny at which time it got the Crown involved.

In a joint stock incorporation typically no individual is held responsible for the criminal acts of the incorporation !

1773 The Trading incorporation wins an opium monopoly in Bengal !

1774 James Watt improves the design of the Newcomen engine perfecting the steam engine which soon replaces the natural power sources of wind and water. The steam engine is set to work on the newly invented power loom, the spinning Jenny and the cotton gin, and in transportation. At this time Great Britain is the only country in Europe which has coal and iron for steam purposes. The power of steam opens up a new commercial era. Commerce and industry blossom.

1796 Trading incorporation stops importing opium directly into China and begins selling in Calcutta to private merchants, who then delivered the opium to China.

1788 Constitution of the US of America is ratified. The Contract Clause guarantees the inviolability of sales and financing contracts to encouraged an inflow of foreign capital by reducing the risk of loss to foreign merchants trading with and investing in the former colonies.

conquer the world

1800 Moses Haim Montefiore and Nathan Mayer Rothschild enter a counting house in the City of London, and became two of the twelve "Jew brokers" licensed by the city. Moses Haim Montefiore married Judith Cohen daughter of Levi Barent Cohen. Judith's sister Henriette Cohen married Nathan Mayer Rothschild.

1830 The incorporation wins an opium monopoly in Bombay.

1835 "We are to teach false history, false astronomy, false medicine, because we find them in incorporation with a false religion." - Minute by the Hon'ble T. B. Macaulay, 2nd February 1835

1838 With the amount of smuggled opium entering China rapidly increasing the Chinese impose a death penalty for opium smuggling and send a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu, to curb smuggling.

1839 First Opium War begins.

1842 Hong Kong island is ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opened to the opium traders of Britain and other nations.

1856 Second Opium War begins

Fought by Britain and France against China.

1857 Great Britain dispossessed France colonial possessions in the Seven Year War, from 1757 to 1764. Superior nautical skill gives British vessels so great an advantage in naval combats that Britain gained maritime supremacy.

The Battle of Plassey is a decisive victory of the Trading incorporation over the Nawab of Bengal.

1860 Treaty of Tientsin legalised the importation of opium. Legalisation stimulated domestic Chinese opium production and increased the importation of opium from Turkey and Persia.

Countries invaded by the British Empire

Resource Confiscation: Countries invaded by the British Empire

Money Power

divide and conquer

10 Evil Crimes Of The British Empire

How the British Empire seized and sold tea

British systematically starved to death 60 million Indians!

8-10 million Iranians died in Great Famine caused by the British

British engineered the worst genocide in human history for profit

British scientists granted permission to genetically modify human embryos

Long Kesh Concentration Camp

1810 Supreme Court rules in Fletcher v. Peck, the first ruling to overturn state law, that the Contract Clause of the Constitution could not be invalidated, even if the contract was illegally secured.

1837 During the Panic of 1837 Moses Taylor* doubles his fortune when many Americans go bankrupt during an abrupt contraction of credit - more than half the business' in New York fail.

1848 In every country of the Temperate zone, the demand for British manufactured goods was much greater than could be paid for by exports. The difference in the balance of trade was always systematically arranged by lending money on mortgage for that amount, or by spending the amount of the deficit in starting some business enterprise in that country.

In this way, the adverse balance of trade was not felt by the country falling behind. It bought all it wanted, and the adverse balance of trade actually made times better; for it caused the profits of the money power to be invested in the country, stimulating business into activity. The only disadvantage was that the business investment did not belong to the nation but to the money power. The prosperity forged was not national prosperity but was the bloated gains of the money power.

With profits growing faster than needed for use surplus profit was 'invested' in all over the world, in lands, in city houses, in building new railroads; and in buying vast bodies of lands in the Tropics to create immense plantations for the growth of coffee, tea, indigo, rice, opium, spices, and all tropical productions; tea plantations in China; coffee plantations in Java and Ceylon; sheep ranches in Australia, South Africa and South America; sugar plantations in the West Indies and the Sandwich Islands; gold and silver mines in California, the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Mexico, and South America; diamond mines in India, and South Africa and Brazil; ruby mines in Burma ; lumber mills in Canada, the US, Norway, Sweden and Poland; city building and city buildings in all countries; railroads all over the world.

Founding new manufacturing corporations, new shipping corporations, new trading corporations: getting in all the outside capital possible and then freezing out minority stockholders and throttling competitors; getting peoples and countries all ove the world in debt and making parasite investments to the amount of the deficit of the balance of trade.

A.T. Stewart, an Irishman, occupies a little narrow place on Broadway a few feet wide, where he peddles needles, and thread and tape for years. A.T. Stewart suddenly bloomes out in a palatial building, with a thousand clerks behind his counters, and twenty million dollars worth of goods upon his shelves.

At the same time, there was a branch store of A.T. Stewart & Co., in Glasgow, Scotland, and another in Germany; besides establishments in Belfast, Ireland, and in Paris. The peculiarity of his style of business was, that A.T. Stewart had in his store a number of departments; and, in the various departments, goods of every variety, of the best quality, and at the cheapest wholesale prices and - A.T. Stewart & Co. focused on customer service.

Propaganda was designed to deceive the public as to the means by which A.T. Stewart could sell such excellent goods so cheap. One story was that he bought his goods at auction, and very cheap, because they were the tail end of stocks, and damaged; and that Mrs. Stewart renovated them, and thus enabled him to fool the ladies of New York, and make them believe them new goods.

A.T. Stewart could not have kept up his stock by auction purchases; nor could he have obtained such goods at auction, nor could Mrs. Stewart renovate all the goods sold in Glasgow, Belfast and Germany. When A.T. Stewart died it was discovered that he was only worth about $8,000,000. A.T. Stewart owned no interest in the grand buildings erected by A.T. Stewart & Co. at Saratoga, no interest in A.T. Stewart & Co. in Glasgow, Scotland, nor in the Germany.

A.T. Stewart had no interest in the business except a commission on sales.

A.T. Stewart broke down one thousand retail merchants in New York City, many of whom became his clerks. After A.T. Stewart's death three immense establishments were started in New York City on the model of A.T. Stewart's, keeping in the various departments excellent goods retailed at wholesale prices.

1850 Construction on the Panama Railroad begins.

1853 Kansas City is planted as the outpost of Chicago, to take away the American trade of the Southwest from St. Louis and carry it to Chicago.

"If anyone wishes to see how these grand capitalists build up cities by the might of capital, such curiosity will be gratified by observations in Chicago and Kansas City . Every suburb is planted, not by pioneers, as in other new towns, but by capitalists, who spend millions before they invite a settler. A railroad is first built to the prospective town, the streets are graded, gas and water pipes installed, the sidewalks laid and then settlers are invited to make their homes in the new suburb." - L.B. Woolfolk

1855 Moses Taylor became president of National City Bank.

1857 During the Panic of 1857, City Bank profits by purchasing floundering competitors. Moses Taylor has an unlimited supply of cash for buying up distressed stocks as does George Peabody and Junius Spencer Morgan, John Pierpont Morgan's father. Moses Taylor purchases nearly all the stock of Delaware Lackawanna Railroad for $5 a share, seven years later, it is selling for $240 a share.

"For such qualities of conservatism and purity, George Peabody & incorporation, the old tree out of which the House of Morgan grew, was famous. In the Panic of 1857, when depreciated securities had been thrown on the market by distressed investors in America, Peabody and the elder Morgan, being in possession of cash, had purchased such bonds as possessed real value freely, and then resold them at a large advance when sanity was restored." - Matthew Josephson, The Robber Barons 1934

"One of the high water marks of the successful Rothschild-Peabody Morgan business venture was the Panic of 1857. It had been twenty years since the Panic of 1837: its lessons had been forgotten by hordes of eager investors who were anxious to invest the profits of a developing America. It was time to fleece them again. The stock market operates like a wave washing up on the beach. It sweeps with it many minuscule creatures who derive all of their life support from the oxygen and water of the wave. They coast along at the crest of the "Tide of Prosperity". Suddenly the wave, having reached the high water mark on the beach, recedes, leaving all of the creatures gasping on the sand. Another wave may come in time to save them, but in all likelihood it will not come as far, and some of the sea creatures are doomed. In the same manner, waves of prosperity, fed by newly forged money, through an artificial contraction of credit, recedes, leaving those it had borne high to gasp and die without hope of salvation." - Eustice Mullins

The mines of California, Australia, the Rocky Mountains, Mexico and South America add hundreds of millions of dollars to the circulating currency of the world.

The newly mined gold and silver currency circulation forged transportation building on a massive scale.

Ownership of railroads gave to the money power entire control of the internal traffic of any nation whose railroads they had mortgaged. Railroad ownership enabled them to make hundreds of millions of dollars in speculations on town lots at points on the railroads known beforehand only to the agents of the money power.

"The once pastoral landscape of America, quiet and undisturbed, was now pierced by the sight and sound of a mechanical marvel, the locomotive and its trailing cars... wherever tracks were hammered down, business was sure to follow. Sometimes whole towns were planned around a railroad track...buildings that had once been inns and taverns catering to the stagecoach trade became rail depots...a new social caste system was spreading in the wake of the railroad. Now there was a 'right side' and a 'wrong side' of the tracks. The right and wrong side of the tracks was determined by which way the wind blew the sooty, black engine smoke." - Leonard Everett Fisher

entrepreneurial spirit

The overthrow of the great New York wholesale merchants.

Transportation by Iron Horse

English manufactures and the mercantile shipping houses started branch houses in New York filled with high quality goods. In order to monopolize trade the drummer system, originated in England, was brought to America and most of the trade of the country ended up moving through the New York branch houses.

The Western and Southern merchants had been in the habit of visiting New York City, once or twice a year, to buy new stocks of goods. But now, the drummers offered the Southern and Western merchants goods of better quality at lower prices than they could get them in New York.

New York merchants failed and retired from business as they could no longer compete with the rock bottom prices.

Monopolized trade forged a cash shortage. Railroads had to be built with debt.

When two cities wished to link themselves with a railroad, they issued bonds to the extent of their credit: they induced all the counties along the line to issue bonds. When these bonds were sold the money power bought them up. When the road-bed, or a considerable part of it was completed, the money power would furnish the iron and rolling stock secured by first mortgage bonds.

1855 Panama Railroad, inter-oceanic railroad, opens to traffic.

"I recollect that in 1855 to 1857, one of our cities was making tremendous efforts to build a railroad reaching toward a great business center. After two or three efforts made with intervals of deep despondency, over one hundred miles of the road-bed was at last completed; and one of the most distinguished citizens of the state was sent to London, to negotiate for the iron for the road. He succeeded in his object; but, being a man of enlarged views, he came back astounded. He said he found men from all over the world in London on the same business as himself : all wishing to get iron for railroads, at $10,000 a mile, secured on first mortgage bonds: and they all got the iron . He said, " These London capitalists are sure to get the railroads for the first mortgage bonds; and no man can foresee the consequences . It will certainly work a mighty change in the condition of the earth, when these capitalists get possession of all the land transportation of the world." - L.B. Woolfolk

1859 Discovery of oil in Pennsylvania. Americans embark in the new enterprise; spending millions in prospecting for oil, and millions more in operating successful wells while engaged in active and healthy competition in the oil market.

A railroad is built to the oil regions, but not built to the oil wells. Its terminus is fifteen miles away. A few wells were purchased and a pipe line incorporation was organized. A pipe line was laid from the wells purchased, out to the railroad, with steam engines stationed at intervals, to force onward the sluggish flow of oil.

At that time, six thousand wagons were hauling oil over corduroy roads out to the railroad. The well owners hauling the oil in barrels on wagons could not compete with the pipeline. The profits of oil barely covered expenses. The individual well owners had to plug up their wells, waiting for another railroad to be built into the oil regions, over which they might ship. No other railroad was built.

1860 Armed with the immense capital derived from all its sources of wealth, the money power began investments in mortgages in real estate and began its career of monopolizing whole branches of industry and vast lines of trade. The massive capital of the money power had become so vast that they were able to expand into mortgaging and purchasing property including huge bodies of wild lands and to begin the purchase of sustenance industries - improved farms, breweries, flour mills, meat packing and lumber mills.

Two-thirds of the shipping tonnage leaving New York harbor is in American ships. Three years later foreign shipping, especially that of Great Britain, carries three-quarters of the trade. American commercial marine received the fair market price in the foreign port for American product. The profits were divided between the American producer, the American merchant who exported the product, and the American ship owner who carried it. After the Civil War the money power realized all profits beyond American shores.

"By the time the CSS Shenandoah lowered its flag, 715 American vessels had been transferred to the British flag to escape capture or bankruptcy." - Lynn Schooler

1862 The Homestead Act

A homestead was a 160 acre rectangle, a quater section, of public land in the West granted to any US citizen willing to settle on and farm the land for at least five years.

How the Feds Botched the Frontier Homestead Acts

Pacific Railroad Act

Theodore Judah lobbys for passage, Congress passes the act and Lincoln signs it.

At the time the Central Pacific Railroad project began, C. P. Huntingdon was a grocer with limited means in San Francisco. Theodore Judah, C. P. Huntingdon, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins built the Central Pacific Railroad. The US government aid was only paid when a stipulated number of miles of railway had been completed: the men in the construction incorporation had not the means to do so much work before receiving the government subsidy.

"The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 chartered the Union Pacific Railroad, and provided for it to build westward from the Missouri River in Nebraska to a meeting with the Central Pacific reaching eastward from Sacramento. It also granted the two railroads 10 square miles of public land (later increased to twenty) for every mile of track laid, and loans in Government bonds of $16,000 to $48,000 per mile, depending on the topography. The Union Pacific was being financed by a construction incorporation called "Credit Mobilier" headed up by Thomas C. Durant. The engineer designing the railroad gave Thomas C. Durant a price tag of 3 million dollars for the first 100 miles.

Thomas C. Durant then gave a contract to Credit Mobilier for 5 million dollars while "holding the incorporation only to the original 3 million dollar specifications." When the engineer resigned in protest, Major General Grenville M. Dodge was recruited from the US Army to replace him. Greed and corruption continued with a few key people becoming quite wealthy at the expense of the Union Pacific.

The financial wrangling of the Central Pacific was also quite questionable, but their books were never reviewed. C.P. Huntingdon claimed they had been destroyed when the construction incorporation disbanded. The investigators concluded, nevertheless, that the Big Four had benefitted excessively." - Charlton Ogburn

When C. P. Huntingdon appeared before a Congressional Committee, he insisted that the Central Pacific road was in dire circumstances. When a member of the Committee asked him if he shared the depressed financial condition of the road, he paused for a considerable time before answering with extreme caution, "No: I am said to be rich." C. P. Huntingdon insisted that he had made no money out of the Central Pacific; but that everything he was worth had been realized from other enterprises.

1864 We know from the Irish famines, that a modern famine is not a dearth of food, so much as the lack of means to buy bread. During one of the famines in Ireland, an American vessel entering the harbor of Cork with provisions sent by American charity to the starving Irish, met two vessels sailing out of the harbor laden with food sent from Ireland to a foreign market. The millions who have perished of hunger since the founding of the Trading incorporation were the victims of the money power decreasing the value of labor and increasing the value of commodities. With unlimited funds from "profitable investments" the money power made immense land investments in India purchasing the very rich delta lands along the streams of the alluvial plains of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers which stretched from the sea to the foot of the Himalaya Mountains. Offering the alternative of emigration to the new plantations or starvation the Indian populace was turned into a race of serfs who would till the soil for wages barely sufficient for subsistence. Produce grown at starvation wages flooded world markets forcing down the price of products all over the Earth to the pauper standard of labor.

"The current money system obliges us to incur debt collectively, and to compete with others in the community, just to obtain the means to perform exchanges between us." - Bernard Lietaer
"The man at whose house I boarded told me one day he had been rich, but had failed in business: he obtained support by taking boarders .

"Misery loves incorporation and the only consolation I have is that all the tall trees of the forest fell, when I went down . Why sir, not more than three or four business men in New York, who were prominent in business before the War, are in business now. They all failed. Nobody knew what hurt them, business took new channels, their business left them and they went broke. How business changed in New York since the War is incomprehensible to everybody." - L.B. Woolfolk

"If things go on, in a few years more the Money Kings will own a wider empire of farming lands in the US than in India; and the American farmer will be reduced to the condition of the Hindoo peasant laborer working for a few cents a day, or he may look on and see the lands he has lost cultivated by Chinese and Hindoo (or Mexican). We shall be reduced to the condition of slaves. There is a bottomless pit before us. The Money Power is preparing to plunge us into it." - L.B. Woolfolk

"There they are ceaselessly storing up the wealth that flows to them from the rest of the world . Men in strange climes, and in strange dresses, and speaking all manner of tongues, are seen preparing produce and luxuries of all kinds for the Temple, which flow thither in long streams across land and sea. And still the work of storing goes on: gold, silver, and all precious things, the delights of life, the cream of the earth's good things accumulate higher and higher in the chambers of the Temple." - quote from an article in Blackwood, 1864, in which the writer speaks of the Money Quarter of London as a Temple of Mammon

John Bidall Martin, Lombard street, London, gained ownership through foreclosure of the Erie railroad and the Wabash railroad systems. Most of these first mortgage bonds carried usurous rates - so high that all profits go directly to the bond holders as interest payments.

Rockefeller Rothschild

1870 John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil in Ohio.

John D. Rockefeller is financed by the Kuhn, Loeb & incorporation.

Chicago is rapidly becoming a railroad and business center for the Northwest. It was the city best adapted to become the trade center of the country with the exception of St. Louis which was being operated by American capital well established .

1871 Nobody ever knew how the fire originated. The fire started at about 9 p.m. on Sunday, October 8, in or around a small shed that bordered the alley behind 137 DeKoven Street. The myth of the origin of the fire is that it was started by a cow kicking over a lantern in the barn owned by Patrick and Catherine O'Leary.

Michael Ahern, the Chicago reporter who forged the cow myth, admitted in 1893 that he had made it up because he thought it would make colorful copy. A high wind prevailing at the time swept the flames through the center of the city, leaving a path of desolation three-fourths of a mile wide.

The business center of Chicago was reduced to ashes. The business community had been doing business in cheap two-story houses. The capital for building public improvements on a large scale could only be found in the City of London.

The Money Power then dictated the style of buildings to be erected - splendid structures, from six to ten stories high, the upper stories of which could only be rented for offices or lodgings.

When the Panic of 1873 occurred business was prostrate, renters were lacking for the upper stories, payments could not be made, mortgages were foreclosed, and the most of the grand Chicago business blocks became the property of the Money Power mortgage holders.

1872 Standard Oil absorbes or destroyes most of its competition in Cleveland in less than two months and later throughout the northeastern US. Standard Oil crushed all competitors and takes possession of the entire oil industry of America establishing a monopoly.

The only group to survive outside the Standard Oil Trust at that time were the Texas oilmen as the state of Texas issued an injunction against Standard Oil doing business in Texas.

Pork packing firms in all the great cities of the West were doing independent profitable business. After the Panic of 1873, pork packing became a losing business. Hogs were high at the time the packers in St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati were buying and killing; but by the time the bacon was put upon the market Philip Danforth Armour had flooded the market.

"I come from a long line of pig butchers and meat-packers: the Armour family. My not-too-distant relatives were responsible for such ingenious inventions as the refrigerated train car and the "kill floor," and ultimately the meat-oriented status of the modern American diet. In the late 1850's, my great-great-grandfather Herman Ossian ("H.O.") Armour and his brother Phillip Danforth ("P.D.") Armour owned a business which bought hogs from local farmers for delivery to slaughterers and packers. The demands of the hungry Union armies during the Civil War forged a boom in pork and the Armour brothers prospered - and profiteered. In a business move that might land you in jail today, and even then was considered "immoral" by his partners, P.D. took advantage of artificially swollen food prices toward the end of 1864 and sold futures to pork barrels he did not possess for delivery in the spring of 1865 when, he gambled, the War would be ending and prices would have fallen. His gamble paid off, and netted a $2,000,000 profit at the expense of disgruntled traders and government merchants." - Jeffrey Armour Nelson

Two years after Philip Danforth Armour's packing house is built in Chicago he is killing six thousand hogs a day, and operating his business with a capital of $120,000,000.

Kansas City packing houses in and Omaha almost as extensive as the Chicago establishment. Philip Danforth Armour has a bank with immense resources that, in a time of stringency in the money market, other banks in the city are compelled to lean upon it for support. Other packers, in St. Louis, Cincinnati and Louisville, lose money year after year until broke. Co. monopolizes meat packing. In their propaganda they claim they use every part of the hog "but the squeal." and it was speculated that his assembly line techniques was the source of his great wealth.

"Many employees worked as much as 18 hours a day in dangerous, unclean, unsanitary conditions. There always seemed to be another new young man available and willing to step in and take the hammer, knife or saw whenever an employee would lose a finger, hand, eye - or stomach for the job." - Jeffrey Armour Nelson

Philip Danforth Armour is a member of the Board of Trade which controls the price of pork, bacon, beef, wheat and grain.

Dealing in futures on the Board of Trade is a system originated for the purpose of enabling those with immense wealth to force stocks up or down without any regard to the actual value for monopolistic purposes.

1873 In order to accommodate the import merchants New York City the American tariff duties were payable, not when the goods were placed in the warehouse, but when they were taken out for sale.

The London merchants, under the American warehouse system, could store their goods in the New York warehouse, free of charge, and let them lie there for any length of time; and might if they chose withdraw them without payment of duty and ship them to any other market. It was cheaper to store their in the New York Custom House than in their own warehouses in London as the US government built the warehouse and offer them free use of it for the storage of their goods.

The New England Mill owners had to sell their goods as cheap as the English goods were offered in the custom house, at one-tenth of a cent a yard below the cost of production. They had to keep on running, even at a loss; for the delicate machinery, if suffered to lie idle for six months, would become lopsided and worthless. The New England Mill owners continued to run on at a loss until they all failed.

"It was in its devouring the mills of New England that I first came upon the track of the Money Power. I knew that the Money Power had brought on the Panic of 1873, by the failure of Jay Cooke, and I was sure that they were engineering it to suit their own interests. I then found that the New York merchants were putting down cotton goods to an extremely low price, one-tenth of a cent a yard below the cost of production. Drummers were everywhere urging merchants through the country to buy, on account of the low price, which they said would not last very long . I at first wondered how, with the protection of a high tariff, the price of cotton goods could be so very low. I knew it was not accidental, for the fixed price, one-tenth of a cent a yard below the cost of production in New England, showed that it was done by design." - L.B. Woolfolk

William Sprague IV, of Rhode Island, was the richest of the mill owners of New England. When A. & W. Sprague incorporation failed for ten million dollars a tide of bankruptcy swept over New England. The newspapers at the time were filled, not with business advertisements but, with bankruptcy notices. Amid the thousands of bankruptcies throughout the country the ruin of the New England mills attracted but little attention. Nobody in America wished to break down the New England mills.

The foreclosed New England mills did not cease operations. New joint stock incorporations were set up controlled by the Money Power and the mills were set in operation again, prices were stiffened up to a point that yielded a fair profit and the mills resumed their operation.

For five years all business is crushed and lifeless. As iron works fail the Money Power buys up iron mines, and foundries and machine shops; as lumber companies go broke from the long stagnation of business they buy the mills and the forested lands; the Money Power bought American products at extremely low prices, and made unusually large profits; and they had a grand harvest foreclosing mortgages and taking possession of mortgaged property.

To gain control of vast swaths of American land the money power, through their control of the Boards of Trade and by their monopoly of the traffic in all farming products, put down the price of farming products, until it was impossible for the farmers to pay off the mortgages on their farm.

"A few men buy all the wheat of the country. There is no competition; the railroads fix the price of wheat and grains to suit themselves, and grind the farm down into absolute poverty. And they not only plunder the farmer in the price, but they cheat in the measurement which fixes the quality of the wheat. For instance, several years ago, #1 wheat was 90 cents a bushel, #2 75 cents, and #3, 60 cents a bushel . The wheat was so graded by the buyers, that all wheat weighing 60 lbs. and over to the bushel was rated #1 ; all wheat weighing 56 lbs. and over, #2; and all wheat weighing 52 lbs. and over #3. Now, if the wheat were measured in the good old fashioned way in an honest half bushel measure, most of the wheat would weigh 60 lbs. to the bushel, and be rated as #1. But these monopolists cheat systematically in the measure. They use an oval gallon measure, easily battered, by accident, to diminish its capacity. Into such a small measure the wheat will not pack close, when poured very gently out of a pitcher into it. They then weigh the gallon and multiply by 8 to find the weight of a bushel. By this system of measurement little of the wheat rates as #1; and very much of it is rated as #3. In this way, when #1 wheat was selling at 90 cents a bushel, this system of measuring caused much of it to be rated as #3, which brought only 60 cents a bushel . But afterwards, when these monopolists sold the wheat out of the elevators, where it was under pressure, all of it would weigh 60 lbs. to the bushel, and was sold as #1!" - LB Woolfolk

"The Armours were ruthless competitors; they would open a retail outlet in every city and flood the market with their products, selling them at such ridiculously low prices the local butchers and outlets could not compete. Townsfolk took to Armour meat products with the intensity of addicts to heroin©. When the local competition was forced to close their doors and leave their business because they could not match Armour's prices and sell at a loss - Armour could (and did) then raise prices and control completely the availability and pricing of the city's meat and related products. Using this technique, Armour was successful in his efforts to deny opportunities in the meat business to thousands of smaller operators, and many who had been in the butchery business for years found themselves driven to bankruptcy and ruin.

The Armours' monopolistic business practices, the tumult caused when US soldiers in the Spanish-American War died from eating meat Armour sold to the War Department, and food scandals of the early twentieth Century (wherein Armour and their competitors permitted sawdust, rats, animal feces, and portions of animals heretofore considered inedible to be used in the production of "meat" products), eventually got the attention of the Congress of the US. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act and other legislation was enacted to protect the public from the unscrupulous business practices of the Armours and their fellow "robber barons."

Years after its enactment, the Armours were indicted for violations of the Sherman Act based on testimony they gave before Congress in which they revealed the very incriminating details of their business practices. A brilliant, silver-tongued lawyer of the day retained by the Armours argued that they should be able to invoke --retroactively -- their Fifth Amendment right not to implicate themselves, and thus prevent the introduction at trial of their own previous damning testimony before Congress, and prevent the introduction of all the evidence procured as a result of that testimony. On the eve of trial, after a jury had been empaneled, a judge accepted the lawyer's argument and dismissed the case against the Armours. The newspapers of the day proclaimed derisively that the Armours' lawyer had given them an "immunity bath." " - Jeffrey Armour Nelson

Jay Gould and Jim Fisk are full partners in ownership of the New York and Erie R.R. holding $23,000,000 of railroad stocks. Jim Fisk is killed holding $11,000,000 in railroad stock. At the settlement of Jim Fisk's estate his family receives a few thousand dollars.

1877 Supreme Court decision of Munn vs. Illinois approves state laws to regulate prices charged to farmers for the use of the grain elevators.

After the Civil War the fluctuation in the price of lumber, and the cuts in prices between different dealers was evidence of the war of the money power upon all independent lumber men. The ownership of the railroads gave such an advantage to the money power in shipping their lumber to market that all competitors were crushed.

1878 Jay Gould could hardly have been worth more than his partner, Jim Fisk and yet he went West with forty million dollars according to the newspapers and bought ten thousand miles of railroad.

The Wabash System is one-half of the ten thousand miles of railroad in the Gould System. Mr. Gould stated in an interview with a New York reporter that much the greater number of the stockholders of the Wabash System were in Great Britain and only a few in the US.
The rest of the ten thousand miles of the Gould System consists of the Missouri Pacific, the Missouri Kansas and Texas, the Texas Pacific, and the Iron Mountain Railroads. The Texas Pacific did not belong to Jay Gould, for its stockholders have had it taken out of the Gould System by process of law. The Missouri Kansas and Texas did not belong to him; for its stockholders also, have brought suit and withdrawn the railroad from the Gould System . Jay Gould stated in an interview with a reporter in that he held more stock in the Missouri Pacific than all his other investments put together. The Missouri Pacific is a railroad three hundred miles long, running from St. Louis to Kansas City.

"It was in the decades following our Civil War that our industries began to burgeon. We had great railroads to build. The oil, mining, steel, textile industries were bursting out of their swaddling-clothes. All of that called for vast financing; much of that financing had to come from abroad. That meant the House of Rothschild and that was when Jacob Schiff came into his own. He played a very crafty game.

Jacob Schiff became the patron-saint of John D. Rockefeller, EH Harriman, and Andrew Carnegie. Jacob Schiff financed Standard Oil for John D. Rockefeller, the Railroad Empire for EH Harriman, and the Steel Empire for Andrew Carnegie. Jacob Schiff opened the doors of the House of Rothschild to Morgan, Biddle, and Drexel through Kuhn & Loeb which provided the financing to build the industrial empires. At the time of his death Edward Henry Harriman controlled the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, the Saint Joseph and Grand Island, the Illinois Central, the Central of Georgia, the Pacific Mail Steamship incorporation, and the Wells Fargo Express incorporation.

At the turn of the century Jacob Schiff had a tight control of the entire banking-fraternity on Wall Street which by then included Lehman Brothers, Goldman-Sachs, and other international banks that where headed by men chosen by the Rothschilds. In short; that meant control of the nation's money-powers and he was then ready for the giant step - the entrapment of our national money-system." - Myron Fagan

"The operations of Vanderbilt, and Gould and others in Wall Street can only be accounted for by the fact that they were the agents of the money power and were supplied with sufficient capital to make their operations an assured success much like the success that Maxxam enjoyed with the help of an agent of the money power -" Michael Robert Milken

Commodore Vanderbilt was the manager of a line of steamers running in the Isthmus route from New York to San Francisco. Commodore Vanderbilt quit the shipping line and went into Wall Street speculation in railroad stocks with one million dollars. Commodore Vanderbilt was always buying railroad stocks and seemed to have an unlimited purse. Nobody knew where Commodore Vanderbilt got his money. Frequently Commodore Vanderbilt had the whole of Wall Street against him, but he was always able to put down any combination that was formed against him. Commodore Vanderbilt was constantly opposed by Daniel Drew, who was worth $15,000,000. It is idle to suppose that Commodore Vanderbilt was able to carry his vast operations through, with the one million dollars he was worth when he went into Wall Street.

Commodore Vanderbilt purchased sole ownership of the Harlem railroad some twenty odd miles long. Everyone was astonished that one man was able to buy and own an entire railroad. Commodore Vanderbilt soon afterwards bought the Hudson River railroad, and the New York Central; and he continued to purchase railroads, until he owned a grand system extending far into the Northwest. It was impossible for Commodore Vanderbilt to have conducted his immense operations with his own limited capital .

In his will Commodore Vanderbilt divided out only three and one half millions among his children, all he was really worth. On Commodore Vanderbilt's death his son, William Henry Vanderbilt, immediately transferred a controlling interest in the New York Central System to a syndicate of New York capitalists representing money power for $50,000,000; which William Henry Vanderbilt at once invested in four per cent US bonds.

"Damn the people! I do not run my roads for the benefit of the people."- William Henry Vanderbilt

Those 4% bonds were deposited in London, in the banking house of John Bidall Martin in Lombard street.

The money power can make hard times and low prices whenever they please, by withdrawing money from circulation. They only need to hold their cash, stop lending the cash back and stop investing their capital to paralyze an economy and put millions of people out of employment.

If a gold or silver mine proves to be rich, only the poorer levels nearer the surface are worked, till the outside stockholders become discouraged and sell out their stock cheap. If on the other hand, the mine proves to be a pocket, like the Emmy Mine in Utah, it is puffed in the newspapers until outsiders have bought the stock; then the true state of things is revealed.


This same scenario is repeated over and over - a joint stock incorporation is touted by the money power controlled press to be the "deal of the century" - an underpriced stock.

The value of the stock skyrockets and the original shareholders, members of the money power, sell for immense profits. Within a few years, it is discovered that the stock was vastly overpriced and all those who fell for the propaganda provided by the money power in the media they controlled go bankrupt.

margarine manufaturing
1885 The "Cotton Seed Oil Trust" took possession of the small American producers to manufacture bogus lard and cooking oils. The American producers had sold cotton seed oil as light weight lubricating oil.

National Linseed Oil Trust of St. Louis is formed to protect linseed interests in the US.

A "Sugar Trust" took possession of the sugar production and traffic .

A "Whiskey Trust" monopolized the manufacture and sale of distilled liquors.

How Jews Gained American Liquor Control

A "Cattle Trust" took possession of the cattle ranches, the raising of cattle and production of beef.

Trusts, each with millions of capital, began monopolizing production and traffic in salt, lead, cordage, nails, coke, lumber, sheet zinc, copper, crucible steel, and other products. All these "trusts" depress prices until competition is destroyed and then they will double the price of the articles they monopolize.

Trusts do not merely war upon individual competitors they war upon national prosperity. These trusts are really a conspiracy against the prosperity of any nation as they destroy individually enterprising men, one by one, through the slow torture of financial ruin.

Cumulative individual loss strikes a blow into the center of national prosperity and national life.

1886 Supreme Court decision of Wabash vs. Illinois abolishes 230 state laws passed to regulate rates charged by the railroads, rates for use of the grain elevator and other laws passed to regulate corporations.

1888 Southern cotton syndicate is formed to sustain the cotton market at the low price at which cotton was then held with a $15,000,000 stake. Southern cotton was delivered to the syndicate at the price offered until the $15,000,000 was spent, then cotton sank to one and one-half cents a pound.

American wheat crop is fifty million bushels short. A syndicate of Cincinnati capitalists organize capital of $12,000,000 to operate in the Chicago market. They had capital enough to make their operations a sure success under the rules of the Chicago Board of Trade, which only allowed wheat to be sold as it was delivered into the elevator.

The Chicago Board of Trade then rescinded the rule which prohibited the sale of wheat except as delivered into the elevators and allow it to be sold out of the rail cars. The Chicago Board of Trade sold the Cincinnati syndicate wheat at seventy cents a bushel, till their $12,000,000 was gone. Once the money was gone the price of wheat went to sixty cents a bushel! As the wheat crop was fifty million bushels short and the supply was inadequate to meet the demand it was expected that wheat would have gone up to at least one dollar a bushel.

57% of the cattle companies are broke. In order to destroy these American cattle companies, and also to crush the farmers raising cattle, the Money Power forced down the price of cattle in defiance of the law of supply and demand. Although cattle was bought for reduced prices those reduced prices never reached the consumer who continued to pay top dollar.

A "Coffee Trust" set to work to destroy all the coffee merchants. The Money Power reduced the price of coffee to break competitors of the trust and as soon as this was accomplished the trust doubled the original price.

The high price of flour in comparison with wheat showed that the agents of the money power had a large number of flour mills in their possession. The occasional sharp falls in the flour market, crushing mill owners of small capital, and the purchase of the flour mills in Minneapolis showed their desire to crush all competitors and get possession of the entire business.

"Boards of Trade are instruments controlled at will by the money power. The law of supply and demand is wholly abrogated as the will of the money power has become the sole regulator of prices. The law of supply and demand can only regulate prices when there is a free market, and the free competition of buyers and sellers operates to regulate prices. There is no such competition now; the agents of the money power are the only buyers of all produce. Boards of Trade are subdued by them, and answer to their manipulations. By the might of capital, they can regulate prices in any Board of Trade. The money power control absolutely the Chicago Board of Trade, and Chicago regulates the price of produce for the whole country in utter disregard of the law of supply and demand, and in utter violation of all the economic laws that regulate prices.

No Western farmer, at present prices of grain, and beef, and other produce, can pay wages, pay taxes, and support his family in comfort - much less pay off his mortgage. Some of the newspapers are already saying that the farm laborer of the Northwest must submit to a reduction of wages. Other newspapers declare that our farmers must lose their farm, and let us have the Tenant Farm System that prevails in Europe. Conversing with a banker in Kansas, a very clever gentleman, I spoke to him of the great evils that would follow the loss of the farm. He laughed pleasantly, and said, "I think the farmers will have to lose their farms." When the farms have been devoured, it will be an easy matter to finish the merchants and grocers of the country towns." - L.B. Woolfolk

Cecil Rhodes

1889 British Crown charters British South Africa incorporation to Cecil Rhodes.

1890 "I traveled widely through Missouri, and everywhere I found statements that two-thirds to three-fourths of the farm are under mortgage! In Iowa, the same state of fact exists. In some counties of that state, where farm used to sell for twenty-five dollars per acre, the farm were mortgaged for one-third of their value; and after a number of farms were bought in by the mortgagee for eight dollars an acre, the amount of the mortgage, all the lands receded to that price. In Kansas, a very large proportion of the farms are mortgaged - a much larger proportion than in Iowa or Missouri. A banker said to me, "The money line of these Land Loan Companies always has three points: the agent in the West, who loans the money; the intermediary in the East, from whom he gets it; but the third point in the line is always London. There is where the money comes from." Thus, a little bank in Connecticut can loan millions of dollars every year, when it is only making in its regular business some twenty thousand dollars a year. About two-thirds of the farm of the states of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri and Kansas were mortgaged by 1890 for one-third of their value, on five years time." - LB Woolfolk

The farmlands of the Great Plains pass into the hands of the money power much as the lands of the Southern plantations had passed into their hands in the years following the Civil War.

1911 The Standard Oil Trust is ruled illegal by the Supreme Court and fined $29,000,000 which is never paid.

Laws of Economics

LB Woolfolk

Principle I . In a normal state of things, all prices are regulated by two things - the amount of currency and the law of supply and demand.

Principle II . A large capital in business operations is a great advantage, and gives to its possessors a marked superiority over competitors having small capital.

Principle III . Persons established in business have an advantage over those just starting in the same business, other things equal.

Principle IV . A new man who starts in business poor is at a great disadvantage in competition with rich men who are already established.

Principle V . A new man who starts in business in antagonism with well established rich men will be at such a disadvantage that he will be almost certain to fail.

Principle VI . In business crises, which are all started by the calling of loans, established capital has a great advantage over newcomers without much capital.

Principle VII . In business crises, which create economic contractions, men without capital who have to borrow money are at a disadvantage and they are the first to go broke.

Principle VIII . Newcomers with little capital cannot enter into competition with well capitalized rich men already established and drive them out of business.

Principle IX . In business crises, new men of small capital can not successfully enter into competition with rich men well established and take their business from them.

Principle X . The superiority of a large capital is equally apparent in all operations.

Principle XI . The laws of chance varies within certain limits and in the long run conforms to regular law. In gambling operations the longest purse will win in the long run.

Principle XII . In operations in Boards of Trade, newcomers with less capital can not break better capitalized men and reduce them to bankruptcy.

Principle XIII . Economically a man can only make a reasonable amount of money in a given time.

Principle XIV . The wealth of a country, under the operation of the natural laws of political economy, will increase most rapidly in times of prosperity and will increase more slowly in eras of industrial depression.

The Principles of Political Economy are violated:

1. In the abnormal condition of prices - no longer regulated by the amount of currency or by the law of supply and demand;

2. In the abnormal condition of business - newcomers with borrowed capital take possession of everything;

3. In the rapid amalgamation of wealth in the hand of a newcomer who has sprung up from poverty into unprecedented wealth; and

4. In the anomalous fact that the wealth of our country has increased most rapidly when the general prosperity was at the lowest ebb. God does not choose to work miracles by setting aside the regular laws of nature, but leaves natural laws to work out their natural results. The heaviest capital carries with it power to crush smaller operators ; as surely as a thundercloud carries rain, or the North Wind cold.

"Businesses with one to 19 employees, nearly all of them family run, lost 757,000 jobs from the second quarter of 2007 through the third quarter of 2008, according to figures from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, broken down by incorporation size. That amounts to 53% of all private-sector losses for a group of companies with about 20% of all employees." - Damien Cave, July 13, 2009


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