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The Exchange of Violence

We have entered a spiral of anger, repression and despair, our only hope is moral honesty.

Most no longer know what it is to be moral, and haven't for a while.

For the last 200 years sensible people have contested fanatic materialistic ideologies as they lack significant content.

These fanatic materialistic ideologies ask little thought of anyone. These fanatic materialistic ideologies, follow the logic of submission to the political ideals of their leaders, are terrifying to critical thinkers - incomprehensible to many of us.

Confronted by this bleak reality, it will take a while for non-violent opposition to organize and for us to understand the price we will have to pay for our initial hubris. Many of us now understand what it is to burn with a sense of injustice over the oppression.

We incorrectly think of these state sponsored terrorist acts as being mad, random and criminal, rather than being part of a recognizable exchange of orgainized violence.

The injustice that many young people feel as they enter the adult world of double standards and dishonesty shocks and awes those who are not critical thinkers, causing them to descend into a Zombie like state of denial.

We tend to think of children being corrupted by video games - imitation violence making them immune to the reality of actual violence - but this is something that has already happened to our political leaders.

Some Americans find the honesty commendable in critically thinking young people but most are embarrassed by the duplicity of our political leaders and thus refuse to acknowledge it.

Consumer society, having already traded its moral ideals for satisfaction of the flesh, exports consumerism which, masquerades as "freedom and democracy," although the marketers keep silent about the consequences - addiction, alienation, fragmentation - of pursuing it.

We pretend that we are free to speak about everything, but we are reluctant to consider our own deaths, as well as the meaning of state sponsored mass murder .

The terrorizing acts of violence in our own neighborhoods are not unlike the terrorizing acts of violence that are outsourced to the poorest parts of the third world. It is time to disrupt the exquisitely smooth ideal of virtous war that has been adopted to conquer the consideration of sacrifical death.

Virtous wars, recently favoring the use of drones, are conflicts in which one can kill others without either witnessing their deaths or having to take moral responsibility for them.

The Iraq war, we were told, would be quick and few people would die and yet the conflict is ongoing since August 2, 1990.

The psychopaths in control believed that by pressing a button and eliminating "threats" far away the American public would not experience any guilt or suffering.

In conjuction with the media, corporations and governments can and do conceal the "ugly" part of any war, but only for a while.

Modern NATO politicians believe that they can murder others in faraway places without the same thing happening to them, and without any physical or moral suffering on their part.

This is a psychopathic ideal based on a false understanding of reality .

Time to pick a side - for or against life - as the only way out of this dilemma is to condemn ALL violence or to praise ALL violence as a useful and important moral option on this Earth.

In our self-deception, we are vaguely aware of how it appears necessary, at times, to kill others to achieve our own ends. When we take a position advocating violence, we cannot pretend it is moral and although we seek to evade the consequences they will not be evaded.

During wars ordinary citizens lack valid information making moral orientation nearly impossible while corporations and governments act decisively with brutality. A government may pretend to be representative, but they and the people are not the same. In our disillusionment, it is crucial that we remind ourselves of this.

Governments and corporations encourage and persuade individuals to behave in ways that individuals know are morally wrong. Therefore, governments and corporations do not speak for us, individually.

Communities and individuals, already corrupted by the corporations and the government, will find the only patriotism possible is one that refuses the banality of siding with a corporate or government sponsored ideology. That is why art was invented.

War debases our intelligence and derides what we call "civilization", "culture" and "freedom." Humanity has entered an imperialistic spiral of violence, repression and despair that will take years to unravel, our only hope is moral honesty about what what our psychopathis leaders have brought about.

If 'civilization' is to retain its own critical position toward violence, ideological groups have to purge themselves of their intolerant deeply authoritarian imperial aspects of making their ideology preeminent.

adapted from Hanif Kureishi



"People deeply hold on to their beliefs, they form an emotional attachment that gets wrapped up in their personal identity and sense of morality irrespective of the facts of the matter. So given that many people in the US believe that we are the world's best democracy it is likely that many will tend to seek self-serving justifications for wars and American misadventures and to ignore contradictory information." - Peter Phillips


central bankster war


"The most important element of a free society, where individual rights are held in the highest esteem, is the rejection of the initiation of violence. All initiation of force is a violation of someone else's rights, whether initiated by an individual or the state, for the benefit of an individual or group of individuals, even if it's supposed to be for the benefit of another individual or group of individuals. Legitimate use of violence can only be that which is required in self-defense." – Congressman Ron Paul



90,000 tons of diplomacy


Listing of Notable Deployments and/or Imperialist Adventures of United States Military Forces Overseas

1798-1800 Undeclared Naval War with France. This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.

1801-05 Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the U.S.S. George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with United States Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the United States, although Congress authorized United States military action by statute.

1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.

1806-10 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.

1810 West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi River as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.

1812 Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.

1812-15 War of 1812. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France.

1813 West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. The United States advanced into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.

1813-14 Marquesas Islands. United States forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.

1814 Spanish Florida. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with whom the United States was at war.

1814-25 Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.

1815 Algiers. The second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.

1815 Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.

1816 Spanish Florida. United States forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which harbored raiders making forays into United States territory.

1816-18 Spanish Florida - First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819 the Floridas were ceded to the United States.

1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of President Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.

1818 Oregon. The U.S.S. Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in August took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.

1820-23 Africa. Naval units raid the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.

1822 Cuba. United States naval forces land on the northwest coast of Cuba and burn a pirate outpost.

1823 Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.

1824 Cuba. In October the U.S.S. Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates.

1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.

1825 Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.

1827 Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.

1831-32 Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the U.S.S. Lexington investigates the capture of three American sealing vessels seeking to protect business interests.

1832 Sumatra. February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American ship Friendship.

1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect business interests during an insurrection.

1835-36 Peru. December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected business interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.

1836 Mexico. General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the “imaginary boundary line” if an Indian outbreak threatened.

1838-39 Sumatra. December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on corporate shipping.

1840 Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking corporate exploring and surveying parties.

1841 Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.

1841 Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.

1842 Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, California, on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.

1843 China. Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.

1843 Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on corporate seamen and shipping.

1844 Mexico. President Tyler deployed United States forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.

1846-48 Mexican War. On May 13, 1846, the United States recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk deploys forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.

1849 Smyrna. In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.

1851 Turkey. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) coast.

1851 Johanns Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the United States sloop of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.

1852-53 Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect business interests during a revolution.

1853 Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. United States forces landed to protect business interests during political disturbances.

1853-54 Japan. Commodore Perry and his naval expedition made a display of force leading to the “opening of Japan."

1853-54 Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan executed a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for corporate commerce.

1854 China. April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to protect business interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.

1854 Nicaragua. July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.

1855 China. May 19 to 21. United States forces protected business interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.

1855 Fiji Islands. September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek reparations for depredations on American residents and seamen.

1855 Uruguay. November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect business interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.

1856 Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. United States forces landed to protect business interests during an insurrection.

1856 China. October 22 to December 6. United States forces landed to protect business interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.

1857 Nicaragua. April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, who had been attempting to get control of the country, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding’s act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.

1858 Uruguay. January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships landed to protect American business property during a revolution in Montevideo.

1858 Fiji Islands. October 6 to 16. A marine expedition chastised natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.

1858-59 Turkey. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere “to remind the authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United States."

1859 Paraguay. Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River.

1859 Mexico. Two hundred American soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.

1859 China. July 31 to August 2. A naval force lands to protect business interests in Shanghai.

1860 Angola, Portuguese West Africa. March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.

1860 Colombia(Bay of Panama). September 27 to October 8. Naval forces land to protect business interests during a revolution.

1863 Japan. July 16. The U.S.S. Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.

1864 Japan. July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protect the United States Minister to Japan to impress the Japanese with American power.

1864 Japan. September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.

1865 Panama. March 9 and 10. United States forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.

1866 China. From June 20 to July 7, United States forces punished an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.

1866 Mexico. General Sedgwick and 100 men obtain the surrender of Matamoras in November.

1867 Nicaragua. Marines occupied Managua and Leon.

1867 Formosa. June 13. A naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.

1868 Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata). February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13. United States forces were landed to protect American interests during the civil war in Japan.

1868 Uruguay. February 7 and 8, 19 to 26. United States forces protected foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo. 1868 Colombia. April. United States forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.

1870 Mexico. June 17 and 18. United States forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.

1870 Hawaiian Islands. September 21. United States forces placed the American flag at half mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.

1871 Korea. June 10 to 12. A United States naval force attacked and captured five forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner, and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River. Adm. Rodgers, commanding five warships and a landing party of over 1,230 men armed with Remington carbines and Springfield muskets attack Choji Fortress of Kanghwa-do, and proceed to occupy the whole island (116.8 sq mi), killing 350 Korean defenders of the island while losing only three of their own, withdrawing to China when the Korean army sends in reinforcement armed with modern weapons. This war known in Korea as Sinmi-yangyo and as the 1871 US Korea Campaign in America.

1873 Colombia (Bay of Panama). May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. United States forces protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of Panama.

1873-96 Mexico. United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently. Notable cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the United States, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.

1874 Hawaiian Islands. February 12 to 20. Detachments from American vessels were landed to preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of a new king.

1876 Mexico. May 18. An American force was landed to police the town of Matamoras temporarily while it was without other government.

1882 Egypt. July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.

1885 Panama (Colon). January 18 and 19. United States forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity.

1888 Korea. June. A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.

1888 Haiti. December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.

1888-89 Samoa. November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889. United States forces were landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.

1889 Hawaiian Islands. July 30 and 31. United States forces protected American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.

1890 Argentina. A naval party landed to protect United States consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.

1891 Haiti. United States forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.

1891 Bering Strait. July 2 to October 5. Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching.

1891 Chile. August 28 to 30. United States forces protected the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaiso.

1893 Hawaii. January 16 to April 1. Marines were landed to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole.

"Many Americans I don’t think realize that Hawaii was an independent country before it was brought into the United States. In brief, this is the story. In the early part of the 19th century, several hundred American missionaries, most of them from New England, sailed off to what were then called the Sandwich Islands to devote their lives to, as they would have put it, raising up the heathen savages and teaching them the blessings of Christian civilization. It wasn’t long before many of these missionaries and their sons began to realize that there was a lot of money to be made in Hawaii. The natives had been growing sugar for a long time, but they had never refined it and had never exported it. By dispossessing the natives of most of their land, a group that came from what was then called this missionary planter elite sort of left the path of God, went onto the path of Mammon and established a series of giant sugar plantations in Hawaii, and they became very rich from exporting sugar into the United States. In the early 1890s, the United States passed a tariff that made it impossible for the Hawaiian sugar growers to sell their sugar in the United States So they were in a panic. They were about to lose their fortunes. And they asked themselves what they could do to somehow continue to sell their sugar in the United States They came up with a perfect answer: We’ll get into the United States How will we do this? Well, the leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries, if you want to call them that, who were mostly of American origin, actually went to Washington. He met with the Secretary of the Navy. He presented his case directly to the President of the United States, Benjamin Harrison. And he received assurances that the United States would support a rebellion against the Hawaiian monarchy. So he went back to Hawaii and became part of a triumvirate, which essentially carried out the Hawaiian revolution. He was one part of the triumvirate. The second part was the American ambassador, who was himself an annexationist and had been instructed by the State Department to do whatever he could to aid this revolution. And the third figure was the commander of the United States naval vessel, which was conveniently anchored right off the shores of Honolulu. This revolution was carried out with amazing ease. The leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries, this missionary planter elite, simply announced at a meeting one day, “We have overthrown the government of Hawaii, and we are now the new government." And before the queen was able to respond, the United States ambassador had 250 Marines called to shore from the ship that was conveniently off the coast of Honolulu and announced that since there had been some instability and there seemed to be a change of government, the Marines were going to land to protect the new regime and the lives and property of all Hawaiians. So that meant that there was nothing the queen could do. The regime was immediately recognized by the United States, and with that simple process, the monarchy of Hawaii came to an end, and then ultimately Hawaii joined the United States" - Stephen Kinzer

1894 Brazil. January. A display of naval force sought to protect American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.

1894 Nicaragua. July 6 to August 7. United States forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.

1894-95 China. Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the Sino-Japanese War.

1894-95 China. A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.

1894-96 Korea. July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896. A guard of marines was sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War.

1895 Colombia. March 8 to 9. United States forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.

1896 Nicaragua. May 2 to 4. United States forces protected American interests in Corinto during political unrest.

1898 Nicaragua. February 7 and 8. United States forces protected American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.

1898 The Spanish-American War. On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in the harbor at Havana.{The U.S.S. Maine sank when her forward gunpowder magazines exploded. It is more than likely this was accidentally caused and not an act of aggression by Spain but it was a convenient excuse to start a war with Spain and take control of Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Cuba.}

"Americans have had their eye on Cuba for a long time, ever since Thomas Jefferson was president. But it was in 1898 that this attachment to the cause of Cuba Libré really seized the hearts of many Americans. Bear in mind that in 1898, the Cuban economy was totally dominated by Americans. It was a big sugar producer, and all the sugar plantations in Cuba were owned by Americans. Also, it was a very big market for American manufactured goods. About 85% of anything you could buy in Cuba had been made in the United States, so American business had very big interests there. Now, Cuban patriots spent much of the late 19th century rebelling against Spanish colonial rule. In 1898 they seemed very close to succeeding. This was a little bit troubling to some of the American interests in Cuba, because the revolutionaries were also social reformers. They advocated land reform, which would have meant breaking up the big sugar plantations owned by Americans. They also supported a tariff wall around Cuba to allow the growth of domestic manufacturing, which would have made it more difficult for American companies to export their goods to Cuba.

In 1898, the American press, in some ways excited by whisperings from American businessmen active in Cuba, began a campaign to portray Spanish colonial rule in Cuba as the most unspeakably brutal tyranny that could be imagined, and the American public was whipped up into a fervor about this. The fervor intensified when the United States battleship, Maine, was blown up in Havana harbor. “Our Warship Was Blown Up by an Enemy’s Infernal Machine." That was the headline in the New York Journal that I reproduce in my book. Actually, it wasn’t until 75 years later that the Navy convened a board of inquiry, which turned up the fact that the Maine was actually blown up by an internal explosion.

Congress, passed a law, the Teller Amendment, which said very explicitly, “We promise Cuba that the moment independence is won, all American troops will be withdrawn, and Cuba will be allowed to become fully independent."

The Americans announced that they changed their mind, that the Teller Amendment had been passed in a moment of irrational enthusiasm and that actually Cuban independence was not a very good idea, so the American troops were not withdrawn. We remained in Cuba for some decades, ruling it directly under United States military officers, and then, for a period after that, through local dictators.

The press played a really shameful role in the run-up to the Spanish-American War. The Americans had never been particularly fond of the Spanish rule in Cuba, but it wasn’t until the press, actually in a circulation war, decided to seize on the brutality, as they called it, of Spanish colonial rule in the summer of 1898 that Americans really went crazy.

Hearst was a crucial figure, who very cleverly realized that he could push the circulation of his newspaper dramatically higher if he hammered away on jingoistic issues by pointing at foreign nations as constantly seeking to undermine the United States." - Stephen Kinzer

1898-99 China. November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. United States forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.

1899 Nicaragua. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.

1899 Samoa. February-May 15. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the throne.

1899-1901 Philippine Islands. United States forces protected American interests following the war with Spain and conquered the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for independence.

1900 China. May 24 to September 28. American troops participated in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer rebellion, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.

1901 Colombia (State of Panama). November 20 to December 4. United States forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.

1902 Colombia - April 16 to 23. United States forces protected American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.

1902 Colombia (State of Panama). September 17 to November 18. The United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.

1903 Honduras. March 23 to 30 or 31. United States forces protected the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.

1903 Dominican Republic. March 30 to April 21. A detachment of marines was landed to insure European creditors would not seize the island and hold it until Ulises 'Lilís' Heureaux debts were paid off under the leagl authority of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

1903 Syria. September 7 to 12. United States forces protected the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising was feared.

1903-04 Abyssinia. Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the United States Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.

1903-14 Panama. United States forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.

1904 Dominican Republic. January 2 to February 11. American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting. In 1906 the United States takes control of Dominican customs, then the chief source of income for the Dominican government.

1904 Tangier, Morocco. “We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead." A squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to protect the consul general.

1904 Panama. November 17 to 24. United States forces protected American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.

1904-05 Korea. January 5, 1904, to November 11, 1905. A guard of Marines was sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War. US President Theodore Roosevelt cuts all relations with Koreans, turns the American legation in Seoul over to the Japanese military, deletes the word “Korea” from the State Department’s Record of Foreign Relations and places it under the heading of “Japan," approving of what will be a brutal, too often murderous, forty year occupation, during much of which, Koreans are forbidden even to speak their language; an unconstitutional act of the US president, said to have been in exchange for acceptance of the continuing US occupation of the Philippines by Japan, recognized as a half-brother empire of the European colonial powers.

1906-09 Cuba. September 1906 to January 23, 1909. United States forces sought to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after serious revolutionary activity.

1907 Honduras. March 18 to June 8. To protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma.

1910 Nicaragua. May 19 to September 4. United States forces protected American interests at Bluefields.

1911 Honduras. January 26. American naval detachments were landed to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.

1911 China. As the nationalist revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow. Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.

1912 Honduras. A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortez. The forces were withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action. 1912 Panama. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.

1912 Cuba. June 5 to August 5. United States forces protected American interests on the Province of Oriente, and in Havana.

1912 China. August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at Camp Nicholson. United States forces protected Americans and American interests during revolutionary activity.

1912 Turkey. November 18 to December 3. United States forces guarded the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.

1912-25 Nicaragua. August to November 1912. United States forces protected American interests during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, 1925.

1912-41 China. The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of United States interests in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 the United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.

1913 Mexico. September 5 to 7. A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.

1914 Haiti. January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19. Intermittently United States naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution.

1914 Dominican Republic. June and July. During a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.

1914-17 Mexico. Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed the Dolphin affair and Villa’s raids and included capture of Vera Cruz and later Pershing’s expedition into northern Mexico.

1915-34 Haiti. July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. United States forces maintained order during a period of chronic political instability.

1916 China. American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.

1916-24 Dominican Republic. May 1916 to September 1924. American naval forces occupy the island after the default on foreign debt.{Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, "El Jefe," is installed by the Americans. Trujillo and family amassed enormous wealth controlling and monopolizing cattle lands for domestic meat and milk production, salt, sugar, tobacco, lumber, and the lottery. At the 1938 Evian Conference the Dominican Republic was the only country willing to accept 100,000 Jews. Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina ruled the Domican Republic with an iron fist killing an estimated 30,000 people in the process. "The 44", under its leader Miguel Angel Paulino drove through the streets in their red Packard death car (carro de la muerte). Later imprisonments and killings were handled by the SIM, the secret police, organized by Johnny Abbes. Churches were required to post the slogan, "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra" (God in Heaven, Trujillo on Earth). In what is termed the Parsley Massacre Trujillo ordered an attack on the border areas were Haitians had crossed over and taken up residence. Tens of thousands of Haitians were slaughtered as they tried to escape. Political dissenters disappeared. The Marabel sisters - Argentina Minerva, Antonia María Teresa and Patria Mercedes - also known as the "Butterflies" (Las Mariposas) were ruthlessly beaten to death in a sugarcane field on the orders of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina.}

1917 China. American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.

1917-18 World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the United States into the war was precipitated by Germany’s submarine warfare against neutral shipping.

1917-22 Cuba. United States forces protected American interests during an insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.

1918-19 Mexico. After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, United States troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales.

1918-20 Panama. United States forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.

1918-20 Soviet Russia. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements.

1918 — President Woodrow Wilson officially recognizes Korea as territory of the Japanese Empire, refuses to receive delegations from Korea and Vietnam demanding restoration of sovereignty, delegations mistakenly hopeful for Wilson having proclaimed before both houses of Congress, as an addendum to his ‘Fourteen Points“ of a day earlier, “National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action…. that peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game, now forever discredited, of the balance of power; but that all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them;" a promise become known in the third world as an infamous, cruel and preposterous lie (the Japanese occupiers were deadly in punishing all those involved in the country-wide March 1st Korean Independence Movement).

1919 Dalmatia. United States forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.

1919 Turkey. Marines from the U.S.S. Arizona were landed to guard the United States Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.

1919 Honduras. September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.

1920 China. March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.

1920 Guatemala. April 9 to 27. United States forces protected the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala. 1920-22 Russia (Siberia). February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.

1921 Panama - Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.

1922 Turkey. September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.

1922-23 China. Between April 1922 and November 1923 marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.

1924 Honduras. February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. United States forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.

1924 China. September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.

1925 China. January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the CRS-14 International Settlement.

1925 Honduras. April 19 to 21. United States forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.

1925 Panama. October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.

1926-33 Nicaragua. May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926 to January 3, 1933. The coup d’etat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.

1926 China. August and September. The Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.

1927 China. February. Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and marines to be increased. In March a naval guard was stationed at the American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval vessels were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.

1932 China. American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.

1933 Cuba. During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made.

1934 China. Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.

1940 Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.

1941 Greenland. Greenland was taken under protection of the United States in April.

1941 Netherlands (Dutch Guiana). In November the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam.

1941 Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of its government, for strategic reasons.

1941 Germany. In the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July United States warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect United States military aid to Britain.

1941-45 World War II. On December 8, 1941, the United States declared war with Japan, on December 11 with Germany and Italy, and on June 5, 1942, with Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania. The United States declared war against Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and against Germany and Italy after those nations, under the dictators Hitler and Mussolini, declared war against the United States. The United States declared war against Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania in response to the declarations of war by those nations against the United States.


interventions map


1945 China. In October 50,000 United States Marines were sent to North China to assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was in addition to approximately 60,000 United States forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.

1945, September 8 — US State Department officials, arrive in Korea with the US Army, disband the government of the Korean People’s Republic created September 6, in Seoul, by delegates from local peoples’ offices from all provinces throughout the peninsula formed when Japan announced intention to surrender (August 10), proceed without any Korean authorization whatsoever, to immediately cut Korea into two parts to be occupied by US and Soviet troops and establishing a military government, flying in from Washington DC (in General MacArthur’s private plane), Singman Rhee, to head it; eventually installing him as president of a separate South Korea Government that will include collaborators, and will outlaw all strikes, declare the KPR and all its activities illegal and begin a deadly terror of persecution of members of the disallowed Korean Peoples Republic, communists, socialists, unionists and anyone against the the partition and demanding an independent Korea.

1946-1949 — The US in effect declares war on the popular movement of Korea south of the 38th Parallel and sets in motion a repressive campaign dismantling the Peoples’ Committees and their supporters throughout the south, becoming massively homicidal as Rhee’s special forces and secret police take the lives of some 200,000 men, women and children as documented recently by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission set up by the National Assembly of the Republic of (South) Korea; on the Island of Cheju alone, within a year, as many as 60,000 of its 300,000 residents are murdered, while another 40,000 fled by sea to nearby Japan some two years before the Koreans from the north invade the South.

1946 Trieste. President Truman ordered the augmentation of United States troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed United States Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia. Earlier United States naval units had been dispatched to the scene.

1948 Palestine. A marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect the United States Consul General. 1948 Berlin. After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the United States, British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United States and its allies airlifted supplies to Berlin until after the blockade was lifted in May 1949.

1948-49 China. Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.

1950-53 Korean War. The United States responded to North Korean invasion of South Korea by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions. United States forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict. Over 36,600 United States military were killed in action. The US attacks by, air, sea and land, aiming at the southward invading army of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North), which nevertheless unifies the peninsula in five short weeks (except for the US defended port city of Pusan); with little resistance from South Korea’s ROK military as most of its soldiers either defect or go home; over the next three years US will commit dozens of high death toll documented atrocities (some recently apologized for) as American planes level to the ground almost every city and town of any appreciable size in the entire peninsula, north and south, in the end threatening to drop the atomic bomb, and be charged with germ warfare by some not easily dismissed sources.

1950-55 Formosa (Taiwan). In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman ordered the United States Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.

1954-55 China. Naval units evacuated United States civilians and military personnel from the Tachen Islands.

1956 Egypt. A marine battalion evacuated United States nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis. 1958 Lebanon. Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of its government to help protect against threatened insurrection supported from the outside. The President’s action was supported by a Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.

1959-60 The Caribbean. 2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect United States nationals during the Cuban crisis.

1962 Thailand. The 3d Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support that country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the 5,000 marines had been withdrawn.

1962 Cuba. On October 22, President Kennedy instituted a “quarantine” on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned the Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring about United States nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.

1962-75 Laos. From October 1962 until 1975, the United States played an important role in military support of anti-Communist forces in Laos. 1964 Congo. The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.

1964-73 Vietnam War. United States military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government became weaker. After citing what he termed were attacks on United States destroyers in the Tonkin Gulf, President Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing United States determination to support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for “all necessary measures” the President might take to repel armed attack against United States forces and prevent further aggression. Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a United States installation in central Vietnam, the United States escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.

1965 Dominican Republic. The United States intervened to protect lives and property during a Dominican revolt and sent more troops as fears grew that the revolutionary forces were coming increasingly under Communist control.

1967 Congo. The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.

1970 Cambodia. United States troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked United States and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which lasted from April 30 to June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal of American forces from South Vietnam and to assist the program of Vietnamization.

1974 Evacuation from Cyprus. United States naval forces evacuated United States civilians during hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.

1975 Evacuation from Vietnam. On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported United States naval vessels, helicopters, and marines had been sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and United States nationals from Vietnam.2 1975 Evacuation from Cambodia. On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported that he had ordered United States military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of United States citizens from Cambodia. 1975 South Vietnam. On April 30, 1975, President Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 marines had evacuated about 1,400 United States citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones near the United States Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.

1975 Mayaguez incident. On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had ordered military forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en route from Hong Kong to Thailand with a United States citizen crew which was seized by Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.

1976 Lebanon. On July 22 and 23, 1974, helicopters from five United States naval vessels evacuated approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.

1976 Korea. Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a tree.

1978 Zaire. From May 19 through June 1978, the United States utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.

1980 Iran. On April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six United States transport planes and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue American hostages being held in Iran. CRS-18 1981 El Salvador. After a guerilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional United States military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.

1981 Libya. On August 19, 1981, United States planes based on the carrier U.S.S. Nimitz shot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the United States.

1982 Sinai. On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of military personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai.

1982 Lebanon. On August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of 80 marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left September 20, 1982.

1982-1983 Lebanon. On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty.

1983 Egypt. After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.

1983-89 Honduras. In July 1983 the United States undertook a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986, unarmed United States military helicopters and crewmen ferried Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops. 1983 Chad. On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.

1983 Grenada. On October 25, 1983, President Reagan reported a landing on Grenada by Marines and Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of law and order and at the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.

1984 Persian Gulf. On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence from a United States AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a United States KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian CRS-19 fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.

1985 Italy. On October 10, 1985, United States Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.


military industrial complex of death

1986 Libya. On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported to Congress that, on March 24 and 25, United States forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded with missiles.

1986 Libya. On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that United States air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in Libya.

1986 Bolivia. United States Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.

1987-88 Persian Gulf. After the Iran-Iraq War resulted in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the United States increased United States joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf. President Reagan reported that United States Navy ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 23, October 10, and October 20, 1987 and April 19, July 4, and July 14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its forces after a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988.

1988 Panama. In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as pressure grew for Panamanian military leader General Manuel Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to “further safeguard the canal, United States lives, property and interests in the area." The forces supplemented 10,000 United States military personnel already in Panama.

1989 Libya. On January 4, 1989, two United States Navy F-14 aircraft based on the U.S.S. John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The United States pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile intentions.

1989 Panama. On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega’s disregard of the results of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 United States forces already in the area.

1989 Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. On September 15, 1989, President Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers. By mid-September there were 50-100 United States military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to train troops in the three countries.

1989 Philippines. On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on December 1 United States fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines had assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from the United States Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the United States Embassy in Manila.

1989-90 Panama. On December 21, 1989, President Bush reported that he had ordered United States military forces to Panama to protect the lives of American citizens and bring General Noriega to justice. By February 13, 1990, all the invasion forces had been withdrawn.

1990 Liberia. On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the United States Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated United States citizens from Liberia.

1990 Saudi Arabia. On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he had ordered the forward deployment of substantial elements of the United States armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. On November 16, 1990, he reported the continued buildup of the forces to ensure an adequate offensive military option.

1991 Iraq. On January 18, 1991, President Bush reported that he had directed United States armed forces to commence combat operations on January 16 against Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a coalition of allies and U.N. Security Council resolutions.

1991 Iraq. On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of United States forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.

1991 Zaire. On September 25-27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in Kinshasa, United States Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa. United States planes also carried 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and hauled back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside Zaire.

1992 Sierra Leone. On May 3, 1992, United States military planes evacuated Americans from Sierra Leone, where military leaders had overthrown the government.

1992 Kuwait. On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with U.N. inspection teams.

1992 Iraq. On September 16, 1992, President Bush stated in a status report to Congress that he had ordered United States participation in the enforcement of a prohibition against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi compliance with the cease-fire resolution.

1992 Somalia. On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had deployed United States armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a U.N. Security Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to international peace. United States forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the U.N. Security Council authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of peace.

1993 Iraq. On January 19, 1993, President Bush said in a status report that on December 27, 1992, United States aircraft had shot down an Iraqi aircraft in the prohibited zone; on January 13 aircraft from the United States and coalition partners had attacked missile bases in southern Iraq; and further military actions had occurred on January 17 and 18. Administration officials said the United States was deploying a battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the continuing United States commitment to Kuwaiti independence.

1993 Iraq. On January 21, 1993, shortly after his inauguration, President Clinton said the United States would continue the Bush policy on Iraq, and United States aircraft fired at targets in Iraq after pilots sensed Iraqi radar or anti-aircraft fire directed at them. 1993 Bosnia. On February 28, 1993, the United States began an airdrop of relief supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia.

1993 Bosnia. On April 13, 1993, President Clinton reported United States forces were participating in a NATO air action to enforce a U.N. ban on all unauthorized military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina. 1993 Iraq. In a status report on Iraq of May 24, President Clinton said that on April 9 and April 18 United States planes had bombed or fired missiles at Iraqi anti-aircraft sites that had tracked United States aircraft.

1993 Somalia. On June 10, 1993, President Clinton reported that in response to attacks against U.N. forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the United States Quick Reaction Force in the area had participated in military action to quell the violence. On July 1 President Clinton reported further air and ground military operations on June 12 and June 17 aimed at neutralizing military capabilities that had impeded U.N. efforts to deliver humanitarian relief and promote national reconstruction, and additional instances occurred in the following months.

1993 Iraq. On June 28, 1993, President Clinton reported that on June 26 United States naval forces had launched missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence Service’s headquarters in Baghdad in response to an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate former President Bush in Kuwait in April 1993.

1993 Iraq. In a status report of July 22, 1993, President Clinton said on June 19 a United States aircraft had fired a missile at an Iraqi anti-aircraft site displaying hostile intent. United States planes also bombed an Iraqi missile battery on August 19, 1993.

1993 Macedonia. On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment of 350 United States soldiers to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the U.N. Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.

1993 Haiti. On October 20, 1993, President Clinton reported that United States ships had begun to enforce a U.N. embargo against Haiti.

1994 Bosnia. On February 17, 1994, President Clinton reported that the United States had expanded its participation in United Nations and NATO efforts to reach a peaceful solution to the conflict in former Yugoslavia and that 60 United States aircraft were available for participation in the authorized NATO missions.

1994 Bosnia. On March 1, 1994, President Clinton reported that on February 28 United States planes patrolling the “no-fly zone” in former Yugoslavia under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) shot down 4 Serbian Galeb planes.

1994 Bosnia. On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that on April 10 and 11, United States warplanes under NATO command had fired against Bosnian Serb forces shelling the “safe” city of Gorazde. 1994 Rwanda. On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that combat-equipped United States military forces had been deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of United States citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda, where widespread fighting had broken out. By September 30, 1994, all United States troops had departed from Rwanda and surrounding nations.

1994 Macedonia. On April 19, 1994, President Clinton reported that the United States contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced company of 200 personnel.

1994 Haiti. On April 20, 1994, President Clinton reported that United States naval forces had continued enforcement of the U.N. embargo in the waters around Haiti and that 712 vessels had been boarded since October 20, CRS-23 1993.

1994 Bosnia. On August 22, 1994, President Clinton reported the use on August 5 of United States aircraft under NATO to attack Bosnian Serb heavy weapons in the Sarajevo heavy weapons exclusion zone upon request of the U.N. Protection Forces.

1994 Haiti. On September 21, 1994, President Clinton reported the deployment of 1,500 troops to Haiti to restore democracy in Haiti. The troop level was subsequently increased to 20,000. 1994 Bosnia. On November 22, 1994, President Clinton reported the use of United States combat aircraft on November 21, 1994, under NATO, to attack bases used by Serbs to attack the town of Bihac in Bosnia.

1994 Macedonia. On December 22, 1994, President Clinton reported that the United States Army contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia continued its peacekeeping mission and that the current contingent would soon be replaced by about 500 soldiers from the 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Armored Division from Kirchgons, Germany.

1995 Somalia. On March 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that on February 27, 1995, 1,800 combat-equipped United States armed forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu, Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II). This mission was completed on March 3, 1995.

1995 Haiti. On March 21, 1995, President Clinton reported that United States military forces in Haiti as part of a U.N. Multinational Force had been reduced to just under 5,300 personnel. He noted that as of March 31, 1995, approximately 2,500 United States personnel would remain in Haiti as part of the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH).

1995 Bosnia. On May 24, 1995, President Clinton reported that United States combat-equipped fighter aircraft and other aircraft continued to contribute to NATO’s enforcement of the no-fly zone in airspace over Bosnia-Herzegovina. United States aircraft, he noted, were also available for close air support of U.N. forces in Croatia. Roughly 500 United States soldiers continued to be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). United States forces continued to support U.N. refugee and embargo operations in this region.

1995 Bosnia. On September 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that “United States combat and support aircraft” had been used beginning on August 29, 1995, in a series of NATO air strikes against Bosnian Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were threatening the U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde. He noted that during the first day of operations, “some 300 sorties were flown against 23 targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and Mostar."

1995 Haiti. On September 21, 1995, President Clinton reported that currently the United States had 2,400 military personnel in Haiti as participants in the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). In addition, 260 United States military personnel were assigned to the United States Support Group Haiti.

1995 Bosnia. On December 6, 1995, President Clinton reported to Congress, that he had “ordered the deployment of approximately 1,500 United States military personnel” to Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia as part of a NATO “enabling force” to lay the groundwork for the prompt and safe deployment of the NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR)," which would be used to implement the Bosnian peace agreement after its signing. The President also noted that he had authorized deployment of roughly 3,000 other United States military personnel to Hungary, Italy, and Croatia to establish infrastructure for the enabling force and the IFOR.

1995 Bosnia. On December 21, 1995, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had ordered the deployment of approximately 20,000 United States military personnel to participate in the NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and approximately 5,000 United States military personnel would be deployed in other former Yugoslav states, primarily in Croatia. In addition, about 7,000 United States support forces would be deployed to Hungary, Italy and Croatia and other regional states in support of IFOR’s mission.

imperialism defined

1996 Haiti. On March 21, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that beginning in January 1996 there had been a “phased reduction” in the number of United States personnel assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). As of March 21, 309 United States personnel remained a part of UNMIH. These United States forces were “equipped for combat."

1996 Liberia. On April 11, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that on April 9, 1996 due to the “deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to American citizens” in Liberia he had ordered United States military forces to evacuate from that country “private United States citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the United States Embassy compound...."

1996 Liberia. On May 20, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress the continued deployment of United States military forces in Liberia to evacuate both American citizens and other foreign personnel, and to respond to various isolated “attacks on the American Embassy complex” in Liberia. The President noted that the deployment of United States forces would continue until there was no longer any need for enhanced security at the Embassy and a requirement to maintain an evacuation capability in the country.

1996 Central African Republic. On May 23, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress the deployment of United States military personnel to CRS-25 Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of “private United States citizens and certain United States Government employees," and to provide “enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."

1996 Bosnia. On June 21, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that United States forces totaling about 17,000 remain deployed in Bosnia “under NATO operational command and control” as part of the NATO Implementation Force (IFOR). In addition, about 5,500 United States military personnel were deployed in Hungary, Italy and Croatia, and other regional states to provide “logistical and other support to IFOR." The President noted that it was the intention that IFOR would complete the withdrawal of all troops in the weeks after December 20, 1996, on a schedule “set by NATO commanders consistent with the safety of troops and the logistical requirements for an orderly withdrawal." He also noted that a United States Army contingent (of about 500 United States soldiers) remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

1996 Rwanda and Zaire. On December 2, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that to support the humanitarian efforts of the United Nations regarding refugees in Rwanda and the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Zaire, he had authorized the use of United States personnel and aircraft, including AC-130U planes to help in surveying the region in support of humanitarian operations, although fighting still was occurring in the area, and United States aircraft had been subject to fire when on flight duty.

1996 Bosnia. On December 20, 1996, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had authorized United States participation in an IFOR follow-on force in Bosnia, known as SFOR (Stabilization Force), under NATO command. The President said the United States forces contribution to SFOR was to be “about 8,500” personnel whose primary mission is to deter or prevent a resumption of hostilities or new threats to peace in Bosnia. SFOR’s duration in Bosnia is expected to be 18 months, with progressive reductions and eventual withdrawal.

1997 Albania. On March 15, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that on March 13, 1997, he had utilized United States military forces to evacuate certain United States Government employees and private United States citizens from Tirana, Albania, and to enhance security for the United States Embassy in that city. 1997 Congo and Gabon. On March 27, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on March 25, 1997, a standby evacuation force of United States military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security for American private citizens, government employees, and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.

1997 Sierra Leone. On May 30, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that on May 29 and May 30, 1997, United States military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain United States government employees and private United States citizens.

1997 Bosnia. On June 20, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that United States Armed Forces continued to support peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and other states in the region in support of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). He reported that currently most United States military personnel involved in SFOR were in Bosnia, near Tuzla, and about 2,800 United States troops were deployed in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states to provide logistics and other support to SFOR. A United States Army continent of about 500 also remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

1997 Cambodia. On July 11, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that in an effort to ensure the security of American citizens in Cambodia during a period of domestic conflict there, he had deployed a Task Force of about 550 United States military personnel to Utapao Air Base in Thailand. These personnel were to be available for possible emergency evacuation operations in Cambodia as deemed necessary.

1997 Bosnia. On December 19, 1997, President Clinton reported to Congress that he intended “in principle” to have the United States participate in a security presence in Bosnia when the NATO SFOR contingent withdrew in the summer of 1998.

1998 Guinea-Bissau. On June 12, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on June 10, 1998, in response to an army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangering the United States Embassy, United States government employees and citizens in that country, he had deployed a standby evacuation force of United States military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to remove such individuals, as well as selected third country nationals, from the city of Bissau. The deployment continued until the necessary evacuations were completed.

1998 Bosnia. On June 19, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress regarding activities in the last six months of combat-equipped United States forces in support of NATO’s SFOR in Bosnia and surrounding areas of former Yugoslavia.

1998 Kenya and Tanzania. On August 10, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had deployed, on August 7, 1998, a Joint Task Force of United States military personnel to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombings of the United States Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. He also reported that teams of 50-100 security personnel had arrived in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the United States Embassies and citizens there.

1998 Albania. On August 18, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had, on August 16, 1998, deployed 200 United States Marines and 10 Navy SEALS to the United States Embassy compound in Tirana, Albania, to enhance security against reported threats against United States personnel.

1998 Afghanistan and Sudan. On August 21, 1998, by letter, President Clinton reported to Congress that he had authorized airstrikes on August 20th against camps and installations in Afghanistan and Sudan used by the Osama bin Laden terrorist organization. The President did so based on what he viewed as convincing information that the bin Laden organization was responsible for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the United States Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

1998 Liberia. On September 29, 1998, President Clinton reported to Congress that on September 27, 1998 he had, due to political instability and civil disorder in Liberia, deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 United States military personnel to augment the security force at the United States Embassy in Monrovia, and to provide for a rapid evacuation capability, as needed, to remove United States citizens and government personnel from the country.

1998 Iraq. During the period from December 16-23, 1998, the United States, together with the United Kingdom, conducted a bombing campaign, termed Operation Desert Fox, against Iraqi industrial facilities deemed capable of producing weapons of mass destruction, and against other Iraqi military and security targets.

1998-1999 Iraq. Beginning in late December 1998, and continuing during 1999, the United States, together with forces of the coalition enforcing the “no-fly” zones over Iraq, conducted military operations against the Iraqi air defense system on numerous occasions in response to actual or potential threats against aircraft enforcing the “no-fly” zones in northern and southern Iraq.

1999 Bosnia. On January 19, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that he was continuing to authorize the use of combat-equipped United States Armed Forces in Bosnia and other states in the region as participants in and supporters of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). He noted that the United States SFOR military personnel totaled about 6,900, with about 2,300 United States military personnel deployed to Hungary, Croatia, Italy and other regional states. Also some 350 United States military personnel remain deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as part of the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). 1999 Kenya. On February 25, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that he was continuing to deploy United States military personnel in that country to assist in providing security for the United States embassy and American citizens in Nairobi, pending completion of renovations of the American embassy facility in Nairobi, subject of a terrorist bombing in August 1998.

1999 Yugoslavia. On March 26, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress that, on March 24, 1999, United States military forces, at his direction, and in coalition with NATO allies, had commenced air strikes against Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav government’s campaign of violence and repression against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo.

1999 Yugoslavia/Albania. On April 7, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress, that he had ordered additional United States military forces to Albania, including rotary wing aircraft, artillery, and tactical missiles systems to enhance NATO’s ability to conduct effective air operations in Yugoslavia. About 2,500 soldiers and aviators are to be deployed as part of this task force. The President also reported the deployment of United States military forces to Albania and Macedonia to support humanitarian disaster relief operations for Kosovar refugees.

1999 Yugoslavia/Albania. On May 25, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress, “consistent with the war Powers Resolution” that he had directed “deployment of additional aircraft and forces to support NATO’s ongoing efforts [against Yugoslavia], including several thousand additional United States Armed Forces personnel to Albania in support of the deep strike force located there." He also directed that additional United States forces be deployed to the region to assist in “humanitarian operations."

1999 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On June 12, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that he had directed the deployment of about “7,000 United States military personnel as the United States contribution to the approximately 50,000-member, NATO-led security force (KFOR)" currently being assembled in Kosovo. He also noted that about “1,500 United States military personnel, under separate United States command and control, will deploy to other countries in the region, as our national support element, in support of KFOR."

1999 Bosnia. On July 19, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that about 6,200 United States military personnel were continuing to participate in the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia, and that another 2,200 personnel were supporting SFOR operations from Hungary, Croatia, and Italy. He also noted that United States military personnel remain in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to support the international security presence in Kosovo (KFOR).

1999 East Timor. On October 8, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that he had directed the deployment of a limited number of United States military forces to East Timor to support the U.N. multinational force (INTERFET) aimed at restoring peace to East Timor. United States support has been limited initially to “communications, logistics, planning assistance and transportation." The President further noted that he had authorized deployment of the amphibious ship USS BELLEAU WOOD, together with its helicopters and her complement of personnel from the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) (MEU SOC) to the East Timor region, to provide helicopter airlift and search and rescue support to the multinational operation. United States participation was anticipated to continue until the transition to a U.N. peacekeeping operation was complete.

1999 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On December 15, 1999, President Clinton reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that United States combat-equipped military personnel continued to serve as part of the NATO-led security force in Kosovo (KFOR). He noted that the American contribution to KFOR in Kosovo was “approximately 8,500 United States military personnel.”United States forces were deployed in a sector centered around “Urosevac in the eastern portion of Kosovo." For United States KFOR forces, “maintaining public security is a key task." Other United States military personnel are deployed to other countries in the region to serve in administrative and logistics support roles for United States forces in KFOR. Of these forces, about 1,500 United States military personnel are in Macedonia and Greece, and occasionally in Albania.

1999-2000 Iraq. At various times during 1999, and continuing throughout 2000 the United States, together with forces of the coalition enforcing the “no-fly” zones over Iraq, conducted military operations against the Iraqi air defense system on numerous occasions in response to actual or potential threats against aircraft enforcing the “no-fly” zones in northern and southern Iraq.

2000 Bosnia. On January 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that the United States continued to provide combat-equipped United States Armed Forces to Bosnia-Herzegovina and other states in the region as part of the NATO led Stabilization Force (SFOR). The President noted that the United States force contribution was being reduced from “approximately 6,200 to 4,600 personnel," with the United States forces assigned to Multinational Division, North, centered around the city of Tuzla. He added that approximately 1,500 United States military personnel were deployed to Hungary, Croatia, and Italy to provide “logistical and other support to SFOR," and that United States forces continue to support SFOR in “efforts to apprehend persons indicted for war crimes."

2000 East Timor. On February 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that he had authorized the participation of a small number of United States military personnel in support of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), which has a mandate to maintain law and order throughout East Timor, and to facilitate establishment of an effective administration there, delivery of humanitarian assistance and support the building of self-government. The President reported that the United States contingent was small: three military observers, and one judge advocate. To facilitate and coordinate United States military activities in East Timor, the President also authorized the deployment of a support group (USGET), consisting of 30 United States personnel. United States personnel would be temporarily deployed to East Timor, on a rotational basis, and through periodic ship visits, during which United States forces would conduct “humanitarian and assistance activities throughout East Timor." Rotational activities should continue through the summer of 2000.

2000 Sierra Leone. On May 12, 2000, President Clinton, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” reported to Congress that he had ordered a United States Navy patrol craft to deploy to Sierra Leone to be ready to support evacuation operations from that country if needed. He also authorized a United States C-17 aircraft to deliver “ammunition, and other supplies and equipment” to Sierra Leone in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations there.

2000 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On June 16, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide military personnel to the NATO-led KFOR security force in Kosovo. United States forces were numbered at 7,500, but were scheduled to be reduced to 6,000 when ongoing troop rotations were completed. United States forces in Kosovo are assigned to a sector centered near Gnjilane in eastern Kosovo. Other United States military personnel are deployed to other countries serving in administrative and logistics support roles, with approximately 1,000 United States personnel in Macedonia, Albania and Greece.

2000 Bosnia. On July 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that combat-equipped United States military personnel continued to participate in the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, being deployed to Bosnia, and other states in the region in support of peacekeeping efforts in former Yugoslavia. United States military personnel levels have been reduced from 6,200 to 4,600. Apart from the forces in Bosnia, approximately 1,000 United States personnel continue to be deployed in support roles in Hungary, Croatia, and Italy.

2000 East Timor. On August 25, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress,”consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was currently contributing three military observers to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) that is charged by the U.N. with restoring and maintaining peace and security there. He also noted that the United States was maintaining a military presence in East Timor separate from UNTAET, comprised of about 30 United States personnel who facilitate and coordinate United States military activities in East Timor and rotational operations of United States forces there. United States forces currently conduct humanitarian and civic assistance activities for East Timor’s citizens. United States rotational presence operations in East Timor are presently expected, the President said, to continue through December 2000.

2000 Yemen. On October 14, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that on October 12, 2000, in the wake of an attack on the USS COLE in the port of Aden, Yemen, he had authorized deployment of about 45 military personnel from United States Naval Forces Central Command to Aden to provide “medical, security, and disaster response assistance." The President further reported that on October 13, 2000 about 50 United States military security personnel arrived in Aden, and that additional “security elements” may be deployed to the area, to enhance the ability of the United States to ensure the security of the USS COLE and the personnel responding to the incident. In addition, two United States Navy surface combatant vessels are operating in or near Yemeni territorial waters to provide communications and other support, as required.

2000 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On December 18, 2000, President Clinton reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide approximately 5,600 United States military personnel in support of peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). An additional 500 United States military personnel are deployed as the National Support Element in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Albania and Greece. United States forces are assigned to a sector centered around Gnjilane in the eastern portion of Kosovo. The President noted that the mission for these United States military forces is maintaining a safe and secure environment through conducting “security patrols in urban areas and in the countryside throughout their sector."

2001 East Timor. On March 2, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U. S. armed forces were continuing to support the United Nations peacekeeping effort in East Timor aimed at providing security and maintaining law and order in East Timor, coordinating delivery of humanitarian assistance, and helping establish the basis for self-government in East Timor. The United States currently has three military observers attached to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). The United States also has a separate military presence, the United States Support Group East Timor (USGET), of approximately 12 United States personnel, including a security detachment, which “facilitates and coordinates” United States military activities in East Timor. 2001 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On May 18, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution,”that the United States was continuing to provide approximately 6,000 United States military personnel in support of peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). An additional 500 United States military personnel are deployed as the National Support Element in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Greece and Albania. United States forces in Kosovo are assigned to a sector centered around Gnjilane in CRS-32 the eastern portion. President Bush noted that the mission for these United States military forces is maintaining a safe and secure environment through conducting security patrols in urban areas and in the countryside through their sector.

2001 Bosnia. On July 25, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution, about 3,800 combat-equipped United States Armed Forces continued to be deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and other regional states as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). Most were based at Tuzla in Bosnia. About 500 others were based in Hungary, Croatia, and Italy, providing logistical and other support. 2001 Iraq. At various times throughout 2001, the United States, together with forces of the coalition enforcing the “no-fly” zones over Iraq, conducted military operations against the Iraqi air defense system on numerous occasions in response to actual or potential threats against aircraft enforcing the “no-fly” zones in northern and southern Iraq.

2001 East Timor. On August 31, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U. S. armed forces were continuing to support the United Nations peacekeeping effort in East Timor aimed at providing security and maintaining law and order in East Timor, coordinating delivery of humanitarian assistance, and helping establish the basis for self-government in East Timor. The United States currently has three military observers attached to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). The United States also has a separate military presence, the United States Support Group East Timor (USGET), of approximately 20 United States personnel, including a security detachment, which “facilitates and coordinates” United States military activities in East Timor, as well as a rotational presence of United States forces through temporary deployments to East Timor. The President stated that United States forces would continue a presence through December 2001, while options for a United States presence in 2002 are being reviewed, with the President’s objective being redeployment of USGET personnel, as circumstances permit.

2001 Terrorism threat. On September 24, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," and “Senate Joint Resolution 23” that in response to terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon he had ordered the “deployment of various combat-equipped and combat support forces to a number of foreign nations in the Central and Pacific Command areas of operations." The President noted in efforts to “prevent and deter terrorism" he might find it necessary to order additional forces into these and other areas of the world...." He stated that he could not now predict “the scope and duration of these deployments," or the “actions necessary to counter the terrorist threat to the United States."

2001 Afghanistan. On October 9, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," and “Senate Joint Resolution 23” that on October 7, 2001, United States Armed Forces “began combat action in Afghanistan against Al Qaida terrorists and their Taliban supporters." The President stated that he had directed this military action in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on United States “territory, our citizens, and our way of life, and to the continuing threat of terrorist acts against the United States and our friends and allies.”This military action was “part of our campaign against terrorism" and was “designed to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a terrorist base of operations."

2001 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On November 19, 2001, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States was continuing to provide approximately 5,500 United States military personnel in support of peacekeeping efforts in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). An additional 500 United States military personnel are deployed as the National Support Element in Macedonia, with an occasional presence in Greece and Albania. United States forces in Kosovo are assigned to a sector centered around Gnjilane in the eastern portion. President Bush noted that the mission for these United States military forces is maintaining a safe and secure environment through conducting security patrols in urban areas and in the countryside through their sector.

2002 Bosnia. On January 21, 2002, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that about 3,100 combat-equipped United States Armed Forces continued to be deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and other regional states as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). Most American forces were based at Tuzla in Bosnia. About 500 others were based in Hungary, Croatia, and Italy, providing logistical and other support.

2002 East Timor. On February 28, 2002, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that U. S. Armed Forces were continuing to support the United Nations peacekeeping effort in East Timor aimed at providing security and maintaining law and order in East Timor, coordinating delivery of humanitarian assistance, and helping establish the basis for self-government in East Timor. The United States currently has three military observers attached to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). The United States also has a separate military presence, the United States Support Group East Timor (USGET), comprised of approximately 10 United States personnel, including a security detachment, which “facilitates and coordinates” United States military activities in East Timor, as well as a rotational presence of United States forces through temporary deployments to East Timor. The President stated that United States forces would continue a presence through 2002. The President noted his objective was to gradually reduce the “rotational presence operations," and to redeploy USGET personnel, as circumstances permitted.

2002 Terrorism threat. On March 20, 2002, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution,”on United States efforts in the “global war on Terrorism." He noted that the “heart of the al-Qa`ida training capability” had been “seriously degraded," and that the remainder of the Taliban and the al-Qa`ida fighters were being “actively pursued and engaged by the United States, coalition and Afghan forces." The United States was also conducting “maritime interception operations...to locate and detain suspected al-Qa`ida or Taliban leadership fleeing Afghanistan by sea." At the Philippine Islands Government’s invitation, the President had ordered deployed “combat-equipped and combat support forces to train with, advise, and assist” the Philippines’ Armed Forces in enhancing their “existing counterterrorist capabilities." The strength of United States military forces working with the Philippines was projected to be 600 personnel. The President noted that he was “assessing options” for assisting other nations, including Georgia and Yemen, in enhancing their "counterterrorism capabilities, including training and equipping their armed forces." He stated that United States combat-equipped and combat support forces would be necessary for these efforts, if undertaken.

2002 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On May 17, 2002, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States military was continuing to support peacekeeping efforts of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). He noted that the current United States contribution was about 5,100 military personnel, and an additional 468 personnel in Macedonia; with an occasional presence in Albania and Greece. 2002 Bosnia. On July 22, 2002, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States military was continuing to support peacekeeping efforts of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina and other regional states. He noted that the current United States contribution was “approximately 2,400 personnel." Most United States forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina are assigned to the Multinational Division, North headquartered in Tuzla. An additional 60 United States military personnel are deployed to Hungary and Croatia to provide logistical and other support.

2002 Terrorism threat. On September 20, 2002, President Bush reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that United States “combat-equipped and combat support forces” have been deployed to the Philippines since January 2002 to train with, assist and advise the Philippines’ Armed Forces in enhancing their “counterterrorist capabilities." He added that United States forces were conducting maritime interception operations in the Central and European Command areas to combat movement, arming or financing of “international terrorists." He also noted that United States combat personnel had been deployed to Georgia and Yemen to help enhance the “counterterrorist CRS-35 capabilities” of their armed forces.

2002 Cote d’Ivoire. On September 26, 2002, President Bush reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that in response to a rebellion in Cote d’Ivoire that he had on September 25, 2002 sent United States military personnel into Cote d’Ivoire to assist in the evacuation of American citizens and third country nationals from the city of Bouake; and otherwise assist in other evacuations as necessary.

2002 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On November 15, 2002, the President reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that the United States was continuing to deploy combat equipped military personnel as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). Currently there are approximately 4,350 United States military personnel in Kosovo, with an additional 266 military personnel in Macedonia. The United States also has an occasional presence in Albania and Greece, associated with the KFOR mission.

2003 Bosnia. On January 21, 2003, GeorgeW. Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that about 1,800 United States Armed Forces personnel continued to be deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and other regional states as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR).Most were based at Tuzla in Bosnia. About 80 others were based in Hungary and Croatia, providing logistical and other support.

2003 Terrorism threat. On March 20, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," as well as P.L. 107-40, and “pursuant to” his authority as Commander-in-Chief, that he had continued a number of United States military operations globally in the war against terrorism. These military operations included ongoing United States actions against al-Qa`ida fighters in Afghanistan; collaborative anti-terror operations with forces of Pakistan in the Pakistan/Afghanistan border area; “maritime interception operations on the high seas” in areas of responsibility of the Central and European Commands to prevent terrorist movement and other activities; and military support for the armed forces of Georgia and Yemen in counter-terrorism operations.

2003 Iraq War. On March 21, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," as well as P.L. 102-1 and P.L. 107-243, and “pursuant to” his authority as Commander-in-Chief, that he had “directed United States Armed Forces, operating with other coalition forces, to commence operations on March 19, 2003, against Iraq." He further stated that it was not possible to know at present the duration of active combat operations or the scope necessary to accomplish the goals of the operation “to disarm Iraq in pursuit of peace, stability, and security both in the Gulf region and in the United States."

2003 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On May 14, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that combat-equipped United States military personnel continued to be deployed as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). He noted that about 2,250 United States military personnel were deployed in Kosovo, and additional military personnel operated, on occasion, from Macedonia, Albania, and Greece in support of KFOR operations.

2003 Liberia. On June 9, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that on June 8 he had sent about 35 combat-equipped United States military personnel into Monrovia, Liberia, to augment United States Embassy security forces, to aid in the possible evacuation of United States citizens if necessary. The President also noted that he had sent about 34 combat-equipped United States military personnel to help secure the United States Embassy in Nouakchott, Mauritania, and to assist in evacuation of American citizens if required. They were expected to arrive at the United States embassy by June 10, 2003. Back-up and support personnel were sent to Dakar, Senegal, to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.

2003 Bosnia. On July 22, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that the United States continued to provide about 1,800 combat-equipped military personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of NATO’s Stabilization Force (SFOR) and its peacekeeping efforts in this country.

2003 Liberia. On August 13, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that in response to conditions in Liberia, on August 11, 2003, he had authorized about 4,350 United States combat-equipped military personnel to enter Liberian territorial waters in support of U.N. and West African States efforts to restore order and provide humanitarian assistance in Liberia.

2003 Terrorism threat. On September 19, 2003, President Bush reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," that United States “combat-equipped and combat support forces” continue to be deployed at a number of locations around the world as part of United States anti-terrorism efforts. American forces support anti-terrorism efforts in the Philippines, and maritime interception operations continue on the high seas in the Central, European, and Pacific Command areas of responsibility, to “prevent the movement, arming, or financing of international terrorists." He also noted that “United States combat equipped and support forces” had been deployed to Georgia and Djibouti to help in enhancing their “counterterrorist capabilities."

2003 Yugoslavia/Kosovo. On November 14, 2003, the President reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that the United States was continuing to deploy combat equipped military personnel as part of the NATO-led international security force in Kosovo (KFOR). Currently there are approximately 2,100 United States military personnel in Kosovo, with additional American military personnel operating out of Macedonia, Albania and Greece, in support of KFOR operations.

2004 Bosnia. On January 22, 2004, the President reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that the United States was continuing to deploy combat equipped military personnel Bosnia and Herzegovina in support of NATO’s Stabilization Force (SFOR) and its peacekeeping efforts in this country. About 1,800 United States personnel are participating.

2004 Haiti. On February 25, 2004, the President reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that, on February 23, he had sent a combat-equipped “security force” of about “55 United States military personnel from the United States Joint Forces Command” to Port-au- Prince, Haiti to augment the United States Embassy security forces there and to protect American citizens and property in light of the instability created by the armed rebellion in Haiti.

2004 Haiti. On March 2, 2004, the President reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution” that on February 29 he had sent about “200 additional United States combat-equipped, military personnel from the United States Joint Forces Command” to Port-au-Prince, Haiti for a variety of purposes, including preparing the way for a U.N. Multinational Interim Force, and otherwise supporting U.N. Security Council Resolution 1529 (2004).

2004 Terrorism/Bosnia and Haiti. On March 20, 2004, the President reported to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple on-going United States military deployments and operations “in support of the global war on terrorism (including in Afghanistan)," as well as operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Haiti. In this report, the President noted that United States anti-terror related activities were underway in Georgia, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea. He further noted that United States combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,900 personnel); in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO-led SFOR (about 1,100 personnel); and approximately 1,800 military personnel were deployed in Haiti as part of the U.N. Multinational Interim Force.

2004 Terrorism threat/Horn of Africa/Kosovo/Bosnia/Iraq. On November 4, 2004, the President sent to Congress, “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations “in support of the global war on terrorism." These deployments, support or military operations include activities in Afghanistan, Djibouti, as well as Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. In this report, the President noted that United States anti-terror related activities were underway in Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea. He further noted that United States combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATOled KFOR (1,800 personnel); and in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO-led SFOR (about 1,000 personnel). Meanwhile, he stated that the United States continued to deploy more than 135,000 military personnel in Iraq.

2005 Terrorism threat/Horn of Africa/Kosovo/Bosnia. On May 20, 2005, the President sent to Congress “consistent with the War Powers Resolution," a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations “in support of the global war on terrorism," as well as operations in Iraq, where about 139,000 United States military personnel were deployed. United States forces are also deployed in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, Eritrea, and Djibouti assisting in “enhancing counter-terrorism capabilities” of these nations. The President further noted that United States combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,700 personnel). Approximately 235 United States personnel are also deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo who assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia.

2005 Terrorism threat/Horn of Africa/Kosovo/Bosnia/Iraq. On December 7, 2005, the President sent to Congress “consistent” with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations “in support of the global war on terrorism," and in support of the Multinational Force in Iraq, where about 160,000 United States military personnel were deployed. United States forces were also deployed in the Horn of Africa region — Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Djibouti — assisting in “enhancing counter-terrorism capabilities” of these nations. The President further noted that United States combat-equipped military personnel continued to be deployed in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR (1,700 personnel). Approximately 220 United States personnel were also deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo who assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as "counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia."

2006 Terrorism threat/Kosovo/Bosnia/Iraq. On June 15, 2006, the President sent to Congress “consistent” with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations “in support of the war on terror," and in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and as part of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Iraq. About 131,000 military personnel were deployed in Iraq. United States forces were also deployed in the Horn of Africa region, and in Djibouti to support necessary operations against al-Qa`ida and other international terrorists operating in the region. United States military personnel continue to support the NATOled Kosovo Force (KFOR). The United States contribution to KFOR was CRS-39 about 1,700 military personnel. The NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo was established in November 22, 2004 as a successor to its stabilization operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina to continue to assist in implementing the peace agreement. Approximately 250 United States personnel were assigned to the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo to assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as "counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia."

2006 Lebanon. On July 18, 2006, the President reported to Congress “consistent” with the War Powers Resolution, that in response to the security threat posed in Lebanon to United States Embassy personnel and citizens and designated third country personnel," he had deployed combat-equipped military helicopters and military personnel to Beirut to assist in the departure of the persons under threat from Lebanon. The President noted that additional combat-equipped United States military forces may be deployed “to Lebanon, Cyprus and other locations, as necessary." to assist further departures of persons from Lebanon and to provide security. He further stated that once the threat to United States citizens and property has ended, the United States military forces would redeploy.

2006 Terrorism threat/Horn of Africa/Kosovo/Bosnia. On December 15, 2006, the President sent to Congress “consistent” with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of multiple ongoing United States military deployments and operations “in support of the war on terror," in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and as part of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Iraq. About 134,000 military personnel are deployed in Iraq. United States forces were also deployed in the Horn of Africa region, and in Djibouti to support necessary operations against al-Qa`ida and other international terrorists operating in the region, including Yemen. United States military personnel continue to support the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR). The United States contribution to KFOR was about 1,700 military personnel. The NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo was established in November 22, 2004 as a successor to its stabilization operations in Bosnia- Herzegovina to continue to assist in implementing the peace agreement. Approximately 100 United States personnel were assigned to the NATO Headquarters-Sarajevo to assist in defense reform and perform operational tasks, such as “counter-terrorism and supporting the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia."

2007 Terrorism threat/Kosovo/Afghanistan. On June 15, 2007, the President sent to Congress “consistent” with the War Powers Resolution, a consolidated report giving details of ongoing United States military deployments and operations “in support of the war on terror,”and in support of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR). The President reported that various United States “combat-equipped and combatsupport forces” were deployed to “a number of locations in the Central, Pacific, European (KFOR), and Southern Command areas of operation” and were engaged in combat operations against al-Qa`ida CRS-40 terrorists and their supporters. The United States is currently “pursuing and engaging remnant al-Qa`ida and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan." United States forces in Afghanistan currently total approximately 25,945. Of this total, “approximately 14,340 are assigned to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan." The United States military continues to support peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, specifically, the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR). Currently, the United States contribution to KFOR in Kosovo is approximately 1,584 military personnel.



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This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a “hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world central banking system, mass media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through mass media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.


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