Poland officially adopts Roman Catholicism.
In 2005 approximately 88% of
Poles identified themselves as Catholic.
(Latin: Casimiria; Yiddish Kuzmir) is a historical district of Kraków
(Poland), best known for being home to
a Jewish community from the
14th century until the World War II.
Jews had played an important role
in the Kraków region economy since the end thirteenth century.
The Jewish community in Kraków had lived undisturbed alongside
their Christian neighbors under the protective King Kazimierz III.
Poland's nobility, unlike
France's aristocracy, was
not a rigidly exclusive, closed class.
Many low-born individuals,
including townsfolk, peasants and Jews,
could and did rise in Polish society.
Szlachta, a legally
privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand
Duchy of Lithuania, was tolerant of other religions.
There were almost no conflicts based on faith, and szlachta members are
known to have intervened several times to pacify religious conflicts.
In the 18th century many followers of Jacob Frank, a Jewish religious
leader born in Poland who claimed to be the reincarnation of the
self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi, joined the ranks of Jewish-descended
Ukrainian Cossacks revolted
against the Polish szlachta who had attempted to force Cossacks into
submissions as peasants.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (also
Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion)
refers to a rebellion or war of liberation in the lands of present-day
Ukraine which raged from
Cossacks allied with
Crimean Tatars, along
with the local Ukraine peasantry, fought several battles against the armies and
szlachtian disorganised militia of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and
eradicated the control of the Polish szlachta, Roman Catholic priests and their
The Uprising started as the rebellion of the
Cossack estate, but as other Orthodox Christian classes (peasants, burghers,
petty nobility) of the Ukrainian
palatinates joined them, the ultimate aim became a creation of an autonomous
The Uprising succeeded in ending the Polish Catholic
domination over the Orthodox Christian population.
Pereyaslav Agreement Eastern Ukraine is incorporated into the Tsardom of
Russia when the Cossacks swear allegiance to the Tsar.
August 5, 1772 The First Partition of Poland.
balance of power in Europe shifted with Russian victories against the Ottomans
in the Russo-Turkish War (17681774) strengthening Russia and endangering
Habsburg interests in the region (particularly in Moldavia and
King Frederick II of Prussia suggested a partition of the
Polish borderlands by Austria, Prussia, and Russia, with the largest share
going to the party most weakened by the recent changes in balance of power,
January 23, 1793 Russian and Prussian
troops enter the Commonwealth again and cleave the Second Partition.
Austria did not participate in the Second Partition.
Uprising against the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia is led by
October 24, 1795 Third
Partition of Poland takes place in reaction to the unsuccessful Polish
Kosciuszko Uprising the previous year.
Partitions of Poland eliminate
sovereignity of Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state is re-established in the aftermath of
World War I.
500,000 Poles from the Soviet Union return to Poland.
1919 Polish government introduces
compulsory education for all
children aged 7 to 14.
Between November 1919 and June 1924 some
1,200,000 people leave the territory of the USSR for Poland.
1921 27.2 million people reside in Poland, 30.8% of the
population consists of ethnic minorities.
16,057,229 Poles (approx.
62.5%) are Roman (Latin) Catholics.
3,031,057 citizens of Poland
(approx. 11.8%) are Eastern Rite Catholics (mostly Ukrainian Greek Catholics
and Armenian Rite Catholics).
2,815,817 (approx. 10.95%) are Greek
2,771,949 (approx. 10.8%) are Jewish;
(approx. 3.7%) are Protestants (mostly Lutheran).;
1931 Poland had the second largest Jewish population in the
world, with one-fifth of all the world's Jews residing within its borders
1935 After Józef
Pilsudski dies the Endecja intensified their efforts which lead to violence in
a few cases pogroms in smaller towns.
Endecja pass resolutions that "its main aim and duty must be to remove the Jews
from all spheres of social, economic, and cultural life in
1938 Second Republic of the Commonwealth
of Poland is the sixth largest country in Europe.
1939 It is estimated 35.1 million reside
Almost a third of population came from minority groups:
13.9% Ruthenians; 10% Ashkenazi Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4%
Czechs and Lithuanians.
At the same time, a significant number of
ethnic Poles live outside the borders.
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This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based
on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of the
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of
individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the
capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
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may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and
thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to,
re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been
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the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to
the reader in the present time.
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