"The universe is written in the
language of mathematics."
Galileo Galilei comes to the attention of the
Inquisition for the first time for his Copernican views.
Dominican friar, Niccolo Lorini, who had earlier
criticized Galileo's view in private conversations, files a written complaint
with the Inquisition against Galileo's Copernican views.
subsequently writes a long letter defending his views to Monsignor Piero Dini,
a well connected official in the Vatican, he then writes his Letter to the
Grand Duchess Christina arguing for freedom of inquiry and travels to Rome to
defend his ideas
A committee of
consultants declares to the Inquisition that the propositions that
the Sun is the center of the universe and
that the Earth has an annual
motion are absurd in philosophy, at least erroneous in theology, and formally a
On orders of the Pope Paul V, Cardinal Bellarmine calls Galileo
to his residence and administers a warning not to hold or defend the
Galileo is forbidden to discuss
Copernican theory orally or in
repeatedly with his (at that time) friend and patron Pope Urban VIII, he is
allowed to write about the Copernican theory as long as he
treated it as a mathematical hypothesis.
A complaint against Galileo's publication The Assayer is lodged
at the Inquisition by a person unknown.
The complaint charges that the
atomistic theory embraced in this book cannot be reconciled with the official
church doctrine regarding the Eucharist,
in which bread and wine are
"transubstantiated'' into Christ's flesh and blood.
investigation by the Inquisition, Galileo is cleared.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World
Systems in which the Ptolemaic
and Copernican models are
discussed and compared is cleared (conditionally) to be published by the
Pope Urban VIII, convinced
by the arguments of various Church officials, stopped the distribution of
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.
The case is
referred to the Inquisition and Galileo is summoned to Rome despite his
Galileo is ordered to
stand trial on suspicion of heresy, "for holding as true the false doctrine
taught by some that the sun is the center of the world".
interrogated and threatened with physical torture.
Galileo is found guilty of heresy, and the sentence of the Inquisition is
in three parts:
1) Galileo is found "vehemently suspect of heresy,"
namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the center
of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and that one
may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary
to Holy Scripture. He was required to "abjure, curse, and detest" those
2) He is sentenced to formal imprisonment at the pleasure of
the Inquisition. On the following day this was commuted to house arrest, which
he remained under for the rest of his life.
3) His offending
Dialogue is banned; and in an action not announced at the trial,
publication of any of his works is forbidden, including any he might write in
Galileo's work advocating
Copernicanism remained on the
Index of banned books until 1758.
His sentence prohibited him from
"teaching, defending or discussing" Copernicanism.
the works of Johannes Kepler were
also banned by papal order.
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