proliferation of nuclear
US Cold War Nuclear Target List
1958 Edward Teller at Atomic Energy Commission begins Project
Chariot, part of Operation Plowshare, a proposal to construct an artificial
harbor at Cape Thompson on the North Slope of Alaska by burying and detonating
a string of nuclear devices.
Plan to detonate a nuclear bomb in Alberta
to collect oil sands wins approval of the Alberta government, but is vetoed by
Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker.
Americas atomic vets: We were used as guinea
For 25 Years, U.S. Special Forces Carried Miniature Nukes on
The Davy Crockett Battlefield Nuclear Weapon
1961 Tsar Bomba shock wave blows roofs
off stone houses and destroys wood houses hundreds of miles away.
US nearly detonated atomic bomb over North
1962 Sedan test explosive device is
lowered into a shaft drilled into the desert alluvium 636 ft deep. The
fusion-fission blast had a yield equivalent to 104 kilotons of TNT and lifted a
dome of 11,000,000 long tons (12,000,000 short tons) of soil 300 ft above the
desert floor. The resulting crater is 330 ft deep with a diameter of about
1,280 ft. A circular area of the desert floor five miles across is obscured by
a pyroclastic surge. The blast caused seismic waves equivalent to an earthquake
of 4.75 on the Richter scale.
In the Starfish Prime project a Thor
rocket carrying a W49 thermonuclear warhead (manufactured by Los Alamos
Scientific Laboratory) and a Mk. 2 reentry vehicle was launched from Johnston
Island in the Pacific Ocean, about 1,450 kilometres (900 mi) west-southwest of
Hawaii. The explosion took place at an altitude of 250 miles (400 km), above a
point 19 miles (31 km) southwest of Johnston Island. It produced a yield
equivalent to 1.4 megatonnes of TNT.
While some of the energetic beta
particles followed the Earth's magnetic field and illuminated the sky, other
high-energy electrons became trapped and formed radiation belts around the
earth. These man-made radiation belts eventually crippled one-third of all
satellites in low Earth orbit.
SEC. 1070. RELIEF OF RICHARD
M. BARLOW OF SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO.
(a) Findings.--Congress makes the
(1) Richard M. Barlow was a counter-proliferation
intelligence officer with expertise in Pakistan nuclear issues.
1980-82, Richard M. Barlow served as the action officer for
Pakistan proliferation matters at the
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
(3) In 1985, Richard M. Barlow
joined the CIA, becoming a recognized issue expert on Pakistan's clandestine
nuclear purchasing networks and its weapons programs.
(4) After serving
as a Special Agent with the Customs Service, Richard M. Barlow then joined the
Office of the Secretary of Defense starting in 1989, where he continued to
network headed by A. Q. Khan.
(5) Richard M. Barlow was instrumental in
the 1987 arrest and later conviction of 2 agents in Pakistan's
development program headed by A. Q. Khan, for which he received an award for
exceptional accomplishment from the Director of the CIA and numerous
commendations from senior State Department and
law enforcement officials.
In addition, Richard M. Barlow received a prestigious commendation from the
State Department's Legal Advisor for assistance to President Ronald Reagan and
Secretary of State George P. Schultz for triggering the Solarz Amendment
relating to termination of military and economic aid to
Pakistan for exporting
(7) In a classified hearing following the arrests of the
Pakistani agents, Richard M. Barlow, as the CIA's top expert, testified
truthfully to the Subcommittee on Asian Pacific Affairs of the Committee on
International Relations of the House of Representatives, then known as the
House Foreign Affairs Committee, that the arrested Pakistanis were agents of
the Pakistani government, and revealed that
had continued to regularly violate US nuclear export laws.
M. Barlow's actions revealed that certain Executive Branch officials had been
withholding this information from the Congressional committees.
1989, Richard M. Barlow joined the Office of the Secretary of Defense in the
Office of Non-proliferation where he continued to investigate Pakistani
(10) In April 1989, Richard M. Barlow received
an outstanding performance review from his Department of Defense supervisors,
and in June 1989 he was promoted.
(11) During the spring and early
summer of 1989, Richard M. Barlow told his supervisors on a number of occasions
that he had serious concerns that Executive Branch officials were concealing
intelligence about Pakistan's nuclear program from Congress and were
obstructing pending criminal investigations into Pakistan's procurement efforts
in order to avoid triggering the Pressler and Solarz Amendments and to obtain
approval for a proposed $1,400,000,000 sale of F-16 jets to
(12) On August 2, 1989, Richard M. Barlow raised concerns about false
testimony given by senior officials to the Congress on Pakistan's nuclear
capabilities to the Subcommittee on Asian Pacific Affairs of the Committee on
International Relations of the House.
(13) On August 4, 1989, several
weeks after being promoted, Richard M. Barlow was handed a notice of pending
(14) On August 8, 1989, Richard M. Barlow's security
clearances were suspended for reasons that were classified and not revealed to
(15) On August 26, 1989, Richard M. Barlow, under threat of
firing, was offered a series of menial, temporary assignments by Department of
Defense personnel and security officials concerned about possible retaliation
against him as a Congressional whistleblower by senior officials in the Office
of the Secretary of Defense.
(16) Richard M. Barlow then underwent a
9-month long security investigation involving numerous allegations levied
against him by his superiors in the Office of Secretary of Defense, all of
which were found to be false.
(17) In March of 1990, Richard M. Barlow
then had his security clearance restored and remained in a series of temporary
assignments until February 1992, when he then resigned under duress.
(18) At the time of his separation from government service, Richard M.
Barlow had completed 8 years of government service.
(19) Richard M.
Barlow's temporary loss of his security clearance and personnel actions against
him damaged his reputation and left him unable to find suitable employment
inside the Government.
(20) For the next 15 years, Richard M. Barlow
continued to serve his country as a consultant to the intelligence and law
enforcement communities working on complex counterintelligence and
counter-proliferation operations without the benefits he would have had if he
had continued as a Federal employee.
(21) In 1998, the Senate approved
a private relief resolution, Senate Resolution 253 (105th Congress) to provide
compensation for Richard M. Barlow's losses on ``the nature, extent, and
character of the claim for compensation referred to in such bill as a legal or
equitable claim against the US or a gratuity''.
(22) With Senate
Resolution 253, the Senate recognized the importance of protecting Federal
employees who inform Congress of Executive Branch distortions of the truth and
(23) On March 6, 2000, the
Government filed a protective order under the state secrets privilege for documents
requested under discovery by Richard M. Barlow relating to the
(24) The documents denied under the
state secrets privilege were documents
that Richard M. Barlow had official access to prior to the loss of clearance.
(25) The documents denied under the state secrets privilege were subpoenaed by
Richard M. Barlow to substantiate the allegations he originally made regarding
his claim of false testimony of Government officials to Congress on the
program and the actions taken against him.
(26) The evidence withheld
from the Court as a result of the state
secrets privilege included significant, sworn statements from a number of
senior intelligence, Department of State, and Department of Defense officials
corroborating Richard M. Barlow's charges of Executive Branch wrongdoing.
(27) As a result of the use of the state secrets privilege, Richard M. Barlow
and the US Court of Federal Claims did not have access to evidence and
information necessary to evaluate the key information relating to the merits of
Richard M. Barlow's case and accurately report its findings to the Senate.
(28) Since Richard M. Barlow's separation from government service in
1992, five Senate and five House committees have intervened in support of
Richard M. Barlow's case on a bipartisan basis, and investigations by the CIA,
State Department Inspectors General, and the Government Accountability Office
have corroborated Mr. Barlow's findings or found that personnel actions were
taken against him in reprisal.
(29) Richard M. Barlow is recognized for
his patriotism and service to his country.
1992 A high-ranking Pakistani official admits that the country
had developed the ability to assemble a nuclear weapon by 1987.
1998 India detonates three
so Islamabad detonates five
"This was not a failure of intelligence. The intelligence
was in the system." - Richard Barlow
Khan Job: Bush Spiked Probe of Pakistans Dr.
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