"No truly independent research can be legally
conducted on many critical questions." - 26 corn insect specialists
"The Committee of Research and Information on
Genetic Engineering (CRIIGEN) and Universities of Caen and Rouen studied
Monsanto's 90-day feeding trials data of insecticide-producing Mon 810, Mon 863
and Roundup® herbicide absorbing NK 603 varieties of GM maize. The data
"clearly underlines adverse impacts on kidneys and liver, the dietary
detoxifying organs, as well as different levels of damages to
heart, adrenal glands, spleen and haematopoietic system," reported
Gilles-Eric Séralini, a molecular biologist at the University of Caen."
- Rady AnadaMonsanto produces
modified corn seed. The seed from this genetically altered hybrid corn is
unviable and will not grow. Each year a new supply of seed must be purchased
MON 810 corn causes sterility according to studies published by the Austrian
Government. Monsanto's MON 810 corn contains the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus
which, when ingested, lowers the bodies CD 4 cells to a point which, on immune
tests, indicate that a person has HIV/AIDS.
The lowered CD 4 cells
results from eating
modified corn, the staple of the diet in many parts of Black Africa. MON
810 is grown in Europe for animal feed and in many places, including the US,
around the world for human food.
By the year 2000
basically controled the biotech seed market. The growers' agreement from
Syngenta not only prohibits research in general but specifically says a seed
buyer cannot compare Syngenta's product with any rival crop.
1901 Pharmaceutical incorporation agent John F. Queeny
launches Monsanto to produce saccharin, an artificial sweetener then only
manufactured in Germany.
investigates whether replacing saccharin with sugar violates the Pure Food and
Drug Act, a consumer protection law. President
Theodore Roosevelt, a
saccharin consumer, objects to the investigation.
1911 USDA proclaims food with saccharin "adulterated," thus
banning it except for use by medical patients who must avoid
World War I starts, and sugar
shortages prompt the government to lift saccharin restrictions.
1915 Caffeine and vanillin are added to Monsanto's product
line, and with Coca-Cola as a chief
customer, sales reach $1 million.
1917 Monsanto begins producing
becoming the top producer in the US, a title it held until the 1980s.
1928 Queeny passes on the incorporation to his
son, Edgar M. Queeny. Monsanto flourishes under the protection of high US
1933 Expanding, the incorporation
renames itself the Monsanto Chemical incorporation. One of its products,
styrene, will become critical to the US during
World War II.
1964 The variety of product offerings prompts
the group to rebrand as the Monsanto incorporation.
As a Government
contractor Monsanto manufactures Agent Orange, a highly toxic herbicide used by
the US military during the Vietnam War to clear jungles and starve North
1974 The incorporation
introduces Roundup herbicide, now among the world's most widely used
1982 Monsanto's scientists are the
first to genetically modify a plant cell. Later, the incorporation acquires the
Jacob Hartz Seed Co., which is known for its soybean seed.
1984 Vietnam veterans
settle a lawsuit with Monsanto for its role in exposing troops to Agent Orange,
receiving a payout of $180 million, but the incorporation doesn't admit to
liability. According to the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the US
military exposed 4.8 million people to the herbicide, causing 400,000 deaths
and disfigurements and birth defects in 500,000 babies.
1985 Monsanto buys pharmaceutical firm
G.D. Searle & Co., patent holder of
aspartame - NutraSweet
1994 Monsanto introduces a recombinant version of
bovine somatotropin, a bovine growth
hormone (BGH, bST and BST) brand-named Posilac, a synthetic supplement for
1996 Roundup Ready seeds genetically engineered to tolerate
Roundup herbicide are introduced. Roundup Ready
cotton, and other crops have since
dominated every market. The incorporation signs contracts to license
soybean seeds from DeKalb Genetics and buys the cotton and biotech incorporation Agracetus.
1998 Under the leadership of lawyer and former
urban affairs professor Robert Shapiro (former head of NutraSweet operations),
the incorporation spins off its chemical operations.
commits to biotechnology, with the official goal of helping people "lead
longer, healthier lives, at costs that they and their nations can afford and
without continued environmental degradation."
1999 After an $8 billion licensing and buying spree, Monsanto
becomes the foremost producer of genetically modified crops.
StarLink, a genetically modified maize containing two modifications - a gene
for resistance to glufosinate, and a variant of the bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
protein called Cry9C, accidentally gets mixed into human food stock. StarLink's
creator, Plant Genetic Systems, later became Aventis CropScience.
2002 Monsanto becomes a publicly traded incorporation.
2006 Trace amounts of
genetically modified rice are found
in US long-grain stocks. The decline in
costs US growers about $150 million when the European Union, Japan, Russia, and
other markets refuse to purchase rice from the US.
The USDA deregulates
one of the two grains implicated in the lawsuits in an attempt to salvage
contaminated rice. It is estimated that over 30% of ricelands have been
contaminated with LibertyLink strains of rice which were designed to be
resistant to the Liberty (gluphosinate) herbicide.
"Traces of LL601
rice were discovered in the rice grain merchandising system in Europe, Africa
and Asia in August 2006." - E. Neal Blue
"Aside from the risks involved
in the process of developing this genetically modified rice residues of the
powerful herbicide - LibertyLink (gluphosinate) - also put at risk those who
will be consuming it on a daily basis and at least two times a day.
rice should never be allowed to enter Philippine shores again and threaten our
rice supply in the future." - Danny Ocampo
Over 1200 farmers in Texas,
Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas and Missouri filed separate lawsuits which are
pending against Bayer CropScience AG. The total costs incurred throughout the
world as a result of the contamination are estimated to range from $741 million
to $1.285 billion.
Monsanto agrees to pay $100
million to the University of California for patent infringement of the
bovine growth hormone
2009 Federal jury rules in re Genetically Modified Rice
Litigation, 06-MD-01811, US District Court, Eastern District of Missouri (St.
Louis) that Bayer CropScience AG is responsible for the contamination of
farmers Ken Bell and Johnny Hunter long grain rice crops with genetically
modified organisms (GMO).
Bayer CropScience AG admitted it was unable to control the spread of its
genetically-engineered organisms despite 'the best practices' to stop
contamination. Bayer CropScience AG was ordered to pay just under $2 million in
compensatory damages as a cross-pollination event occurred mixing regular and
genetically modified seed.
2010 Haitian farmers
modified corn seeds donated by
the earthquake. The National Peasant Movement of the Congress of Papay calls
the incorporation's charity "a very strong attack on small agriculture, on
farmers, on Creole seeds snd on what is left of our environment in Haiti."
March 2011 Public Patent Foundation, which
consists of 60 farmers, seed businesses, and organic agricultural
organizations, files a lawsuit challenging Monsanto's patents on genetically
September 2011 Monsanto collects
$85,000 from Vernon Bowman, an Indiana soy farmer, for patent infringement.
September 2012A highly contested study finds
that Roundup herbicide and genetically modified maize cause tumors and organ
damage in rats.
October 2012 A television spot
opposing Proposition 37, California's genetically engineered food labeling
initiative, is pulled. It features a research fellow from a conservative think
tank posing as a Stanford University professor and a founding director of the
FDA Office of Technology.
November 2012 Prop. 37
is defeated in California.
President Obama signs
the Monsanto Protection Act, which requires the USDA to approve genetically
modified crops even if courts have ruled against them.
May 2013 Nine Supreme Court justices award a patent case to
Monsanto against Indiana soybean farmer Vernon Bowman, ruling that patent
exhaustion doesn't apply to Roundup Ready soybean seeds. According to The New
York Times, "The ruling has implications for many aspects of modern agriculture
and for businesses based on vaccines, cell lines and software." Later, zombie
wheat reports in Oregon prompt Monsanto to issue a "We're here to help!"
June 2013 Connecticut passes the
nation's first GMO labeling law. Three weeks later, Monsanto EVP and chief
technology officer Robert T. Fraley wins the World Food Prize (the "Nobel Prize
of food"), along with two other scientists who work on GMOs. The incorporation
is one of the award's biggest donors.
2013 Monsanto expands weed-management incentive programs, which come
with cash, for farmers.
November 2013 Washington
state's GMO labeling initiative is defeated. A year after it ran, the journal
that published the study linking GMOs with cancer in mice, Food and Chemical
Toxicology, retracts the paper as the publisher is purchased by a pro-GMO
February 2014 The Natural Resources
Defense Council petitions the EPA to review its rules for glyphosate use to
save plummeting monarch butterfly populations.
2014 Monsanto partners with MIT researchers to form Preceres LLC, a
incorporation that will develop new biological products for pest, virus, and
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