"Combination of agriculture with manufacturing
Point 9 Communist Manifesto, Karl Heinrich Marx
"The atrocious system of poisoning, by poisons so
slow in their operation, as to make the victim appear, to ordinary observers,
as if dying from a gradual decay of nature, has been practiced in all ages." -
"The Committee of Research and Information on
Genetic Engineering (CRIIGEN) and Universities of Caen and Rouen studied
Monsanto's 90-day feeding trials data of insecticide-producing Mon 810, Mon 863
and Roundup® herbicide absorbing NK 603 varieties of GM corn.
The data "clearly underlines adverse impacts on kidneys and
liver, the dietary detoxifying organs, as well as
different levels of damages
to heart, adrenal
glands, spleen and haematopoietic system." - Gilles-Eric Séralini,
at the University of Caen
1901 Monsanto Chemical
Works founded by John Francis Queeny, a member of the Knights of Malta.
The first product is saccharin, sold to
Coca-Cola® as an
This is a patent infringment as saccharin is only
manufactured in Germany.
of Agriculture investigates whether replacing sugar with saccharin violates
the Pure Food and Drug Act, a consumer protection law.
Roosevelt, a saccharin consumer, objects.
1911 Department of Agriculture proclaims food with saccharin
"adulterated" banning it except for use by medical patients who must avoid
World War I starts, and sugar
shortages prompt the government to lift saccharin restrictions.
1915 Caffeine and vanillin are added to Monsanto's product
line, and with Coca-Cola as a chief
customer, sales reach $1 million.
1917 Monsanto begins producing
aspirin, becoming the
top producer in the US, a title it held until the 1980s.
1928 Queeny passes on the incorporation to his son, Edgar M.
Queeny. Monsanto flourishes under the protection of high US tariffs.
1930 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) begin to
Total global production of PCBs on the order of 1.5
million tons - US over 600,000 tons through 1977.
follows with nearly 450,000 tons through 1984.
1933 Expanding, the incorporation renames itself the Monsanto
Chemical. One of its products, styrene, will become critical to the US during
World War II.
1964 The variety of product offerings prompts
the group to rebrand as the Monsanto.
As a Government contractor
Monsanto manufactures Agent Orange, a highly toxic herbicide used by the US
military during the Vietnam War to clear jungles and starve North Vietnamese
introduces Roundup herbicide, now among the world's most widely used
1982 Monsanto's scientists are
the first to genetically modify a plant cell. Later, the incorporation acquires
the Jacob Hartz Seed known for its soybean seed.
1984 Vietnam veterans settle a
lawsuit with Monsanto for its role in exposing troops to Agent Orange,
receiving a payout of $180 million, but the incorporation doesn't admit to
liability. According to the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the US
military exposed 4.8 million people to the herbicide, causing 400,000 deaths
and disfigurements and
birth defects in 500,000 babies.
1985 Monsanto buys pharmaceutical
firm G.D. Searle , patent holder of
NutraSweet® artificial sweetener.
Monsanto introduces a recombinant version of bovine somatotropin, a bovine
growth hormone (BGH, bST and BST) brand-named Posilac, a synthetic supplement
for dairy cows.
1996 Roundup Ready seeds genetically engineered to tolerate
Roundup herbicide are introduced. Roundup Ready
cotton, and other crops have
since dominated every market. The incorporation signs contracts to license corn
and soybean seeds from DeKalb Genetics and buys the
cotton and biotech corporation Agracetus.
Pyriproxyfen, a pyridine-based pesticide, found effective in protecting
cotton crops against whitefly.
Latin American Doctors Suggest Monsanto Larvicide Cause of
1998 Under the leadership of
lawyer and former urban affairs professor Robert Shapiro (former head of
NutraSweet® operations), the corporation spins off its chemical operations.
Monsanto then commits to biotech, with the official goal of helping
people "lead longer, healthier lives, at costs that they and their nations can
afford and without continued environmental
1999 After an $8 billion
licensing and buying spree, Monsanto becomes the foremost producer of
genetically modified seeds.
becomes a publicly traded corporation.
2006 Trace amounts of genetically modified
rice are found in US
The decline in rice futures costs US growers about
$150 million when the European Union, Japan, Russia, and other markets refuse
to purchase rice.
Department of Agriculture deregulates one of
the two grains implicated in the lawsuits in an attempt to salvage the
Over 30% of ricelands have been contaminated with
LibertyLink strains of rice designed to be resistant to the Liberty
"Traces of LL601 rice were discovered in the
rice grain merchandising system in Europe, Africa and Asia in August 2006." -
E. Neal Blue
"Aside from the risks involved in the process of
developing this genetically modified rice residues of the powerful herbicide -
LibertyLink (gluphosinate) - also put at risk those who will be consuming it on
a daily basis and at least two times a day. GMO rice should never be allowed to
enter Philippine shores again and threaten our rice supply in the future." -
Over 1200 farmers in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Arkansas and Missouri file separate lawsuits against Bayer CropScience AG.
The total costs incurred throughout the world as a result of the
contamination are estimated to range from $741 million to $1.285
Monsanto agrees to pay $100 million to the
University of California for patent infringement of the
bovine growth hormone
2009 Federal jury rules in re Genetically Modified Rice
Litigation, 06-MD-01811, US District Court, Eastern District of Missouri (St.
Louis) that Bayer CropScience AG is responsible for the contamination of
farmers Ken Bell and Johnny Hunter long grain rice crops with genetically
modified organisms (GMO). Bayer CropScience AG admitted it was unable to
control the spread of its genetically-engineered organisms despite 'the best
practices' to stop contamination. Bayer CropScience AG was ordered to pay just
under $2 million in compensatory damages as a cross-pollination event occurred
mixing regular and genetically modified seed.
2010 Haitian farmers burn
modified corn seeds donated by
the earthquake. The
National Peasant Movement of the Congress of Papay calls the incorporation's
charity "a very strong attack on small agriculture, on farmers, on Creole seeds
snd on what is left of our environment in Haiti."
2011 Public Patent Foundation, which consists of 60 farmers, seed
businesses, and organic agricultural organizations, files a lawsuit challenging
Monsanto's patents on genetically modified seed.
September 2011 Monsanto collects $85,000 from Vernon Bowman,
an Indiana soy farmer, for patent infringement.
September 2012A highly contested study finds that Roundup
herbicide and genetically modified
corn cause tumors and organ damage in rats.
October 2012 A television spot opposing Proposition 37,
California's genetically engineered food labeling initiative, is pulled. It
features a research fellow from a conservative
think tank posing as a Stanford
University professor and a founding director of the
FDA Office of Technology.
November 2012 Prop. 37 is defeated in
President Obama signs
the Monsanto Protection Act, which requires the Department of Agriculture
to approve genetically modified crops even if courts have ruled against them.
May 2013 Nine Supreme Court justices award a
patent case to Monsanto against Indiana soybean farmer Vernon Bowman, ruling
that patent exhaustion doesn't apply to Roundup Ready soybean seeds. According
to the New York Times, "The
ruling has implications for many aspects of modern agriculture and for
businesses based on vaccines, cell lines and software."
Zombie wheat reports in Oregon
prompt Monsanto to issue a "We're here to help!" statement.
June 2013 Connecticut passes the nation's first GMO labeling
law. Three weeks later, Monsanto EVP and chief technology officer Robert T.
Fraley wins the World Food Prize (the "Nobel Prize of food"), along with two
other scientists who work on GMOs. The incorporation is one of the award's
October 2013 Monsanto expands
weed-management incentive programs, which come with cash, for farmers.
November 2013 Washington state's GMO labeling
initiative is defeated. A year after it ran, the journal that published the
study linking GMOs with cancer in mice, Food and Chemical Toxicology, retracts
the paper as the publisher is purchased by a pro-GMO publisher.
February 2014 The Natural Resources
Defense Council petitions the EPA to review its rules for
use to save plummeting monarch butterfly
March 2014 Monsanto partners
with MIT researchers to form Preceres LLC, a incorporation that will develop
new biological products for pest, virus, and weed control.
June 7, 2018 Bayer CropScience AG completes acquisition of
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