honest with oneself is a good
self-titled 'psychoanalyst' Sigmund
Freud, who used the drug himself, was the first to broadly promote
cocaine as a tonic to cure depression and
In 1884, he published an article entitled "Über
Coca" which promoted the 'benefits' of cocaine, calling it a "magical" substance.
Sigmund Freud used cocaine
regularly, prescribed it to his girlfriend and his best friend and recommended
it for general use.
Sigmund Freud reported exhilaration and lasting
euphoria, which he said were the same as "the
normal euphoria of a healthy person".
Although Freud mentions many possibly uses (in
asthma, stomach problems, anesthesia,
and recovery from wasting diseases), most doctors thought that cocaine's major
therapeutic value would be in psychiatry.
Freud hypothesized that
cocaine could be
successfully used to intervene in alcoholism and
addiction, by slowly replacing the alcohol or opium with
cocaine, and then
discontinuing the cocaine.
noting that cocaine had led to "physical and moral decadence," Freud kept
promoting cocaine to his close friends, one of whom ended up suffering from
hallucinations with "white snakes creeping over
Freud hypothesized: "For humans the toxic dose (of cocaine)
is very high, and there seems to be no lethal dose."
Contrary to this
belief, one of Freud's patients died from a high dosage he
The psychological withdrawal effects of cocaine occur mostly
in habitual users, when frequent use begins to cause permanent neurobiological
changes like they did in Sigmund Freud (phantom itch).
"People attempt to
re-create reality, to
build up in its stead a false reality, a fantasy,
in which the most unbearable features of reality are
eliminated and replaced by others that are in
one's own wishes. But whoever, in
desperate defiance, sets out upon this path to happiness will, as a rule,
attain nothing. Reality is too strong for
him. He becomes a madman, who for the most part finds no one to help him in
carrying through his ... DELUSION" -
Sigmund Freud (cocaine/tobacco addict admission)
"One of our most infamous contemporary laws is the 100 to1
difference in sentencing between crack cocaine and powder cocaine. Under
federal drug laws, prison sentences are usually tied to the quantity of drugs
the defendant trafficked. For example, selling 5,000 grams of powder cocaine
(about a briefcase full) gets a mandatory 10-year prison sentences, but so does
selling only 50 grams of crack cocaine
(the weight of a candy bar). Working for the House Judiciary Committee in 1986,
I wrote the House bill that was the basis for that law.
We made some
terrible mistakes. If logic prevails, in the next Congress we may finally see
an end to one of the most unjust laws passed in recent memory. And that might
correct the biggest mistake of my professional life. Because crack is no longer
a big news story, people mistakenly believe our anti-cocaine policy has worked.
Not so. There is no scarcity of cocaine. Since 1986, the price of cocaine has
fallen and the quality is better. Research from the US Sentencing Commission
shows that three-quarters of the federal cocaine defendants - powder and crack
- are just neighborhood dealers or couriers.
For a generation, anti-drug
policy has been built on factual mistakes and tough-sounding rhetoric." - Eric
E. Sterling, president of the nonprofit Criminal Justice Policy Foundation,
Counsel to the House Judiciary Committee, anti-drug legislation 1979 to
hallucinations "The End of the
World is a projection of this internal catastrophe: his i.e. the
paranoiac's subjective world has come to an end since his withdrawal of his
compassion for it. And the paranoiac builds it again, not more splendid, it is
true, but at least so that he can once more live in it. He builds it up by the
work of his delusions. The delusional formation, which we take to be the
pathological product, is in reality an attempt at recovery, a process of
I remember having twice been in danger of my life,
and each time the awareness of the
danger occurred to me quite suddenly. On both occasions I felt "this was
the end," and while otherwise my inner language proceeded with only indistinct
sound images and slight lip movements, in these situations of danger I heard
the words as if somebody was shouting them into my ear, and at the same time I
saw them as if they were printed on a piece of paper floating in the
Sigmund Freud, Austrian Ashkenazi,
aware that most of his acolytes
were Jews, and he did not want to turn psychoanalysis into a Jewish science." -
"Cases where acute psychoses lead to idiocy and
lunacy are of particular frequency with the Jews." - Dr. Alexander Pilcz
"We have abundant material in figures to show that
Jews, in particular, are subject to cerebral maladies." - Dr. Rudolf
"Physicians of large experience among Jews have
stated that most of them are neurasthenic and hysterical." - Jewish
"The Jews have a disproportionate number of mental
defectives, idiots, and imbeciles. It is well known that a large percentage of
neurasthenics and neurotics are Jews. In Europe, blindness, deafmutism, idiocy,
and insanity are from
two to five times as frequent among Jews as among Gentiles
(inbreeding)." - Dr. Maurice Fishburg
"Sigmund Freud claimed all behavior was driven by
emotional pathologies. From his perspective, feelings of compassion are nothing
but reaction formation to our innate hostility or desexualized interest in our
parents, ethical behavior is based on fear of punishment, esthetic interest is
psychological defense against powerful anal
impulses, and so on. Without societal restrictions, penal institutions, and
superegos created by parental prohibitions and injunctions, we would indulge in
indiscriminate promiscuous sexual acting out,
killing, and stealing. From this
perspective religious beliefs and spiritual interests of any kind are
essentially attributed to superstition, gullibility,
primitive magical thinking,
primary process, obsessive-compulsive behavior
resulting from suppression of anal impulses and unresolved Oedipal or
Electra complexes, or a result of serious psychopathology." -
In 1897 Freud
writes that "masturbation is the prime habit and addiction which is replaced by
addiction to alcohol, opium and tobacco".
Sigmund Freud neglects to
mention his addiction to sugar and cocaine, leading one to
assume Freud was eternally high and sexually
frustrated, and that this was projected to form the sexually dependent theories
taken up later by psychiatry.
subconscious motives control much
Freud was especially interested in
diagnostic label applied to a state of
mind of unmanageable
fear or emotional excesses as he was intimately
aware of such a condition
through first hand experience.
Sigmund Freud used 'the talking cure',
free association and dream
analysis to bring forth
self-focused global consumer culture 'talking out' deep seated and embarrassing
emotional problems is very common
but would have been unheard of in Vennia, Austria - the center of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire or Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, during Sigmund Freud's
A group of Nicaraguan exiles set up a cocaine ring in California,
establishing ties with the black street gangs of South Central Los Angeles who
manufactured crack out of shipments of powder cocaine. The profits made by the
Nicaraguan exiles was funneled back to the Contra army - created in the late
1970s by the CIA, with the mission of sabotaging the Sandinista revolution that
had evicted Anastasio Somoza and his corrupt clique in 1979.
better part of a decade, a San Francisco Bay Area drug ring sold tons of
cocaine to the Crips and Bloods street gangs of Los Angeles and funneled
millions in drug profits to a Latin American guerrilla army run by the CIA." -
That San Francisco drug ring was headed by a Nicaraguan exile
named Norwin Meneses Cantarero, who served "as the head of security and
intelligence" for the leading organization in the Contra coalition, the FDN or
Fuerza Democratico Nicaraguense. The FDN was headed by Enrique Bermudez and
Adolfo Calero, who had been installed in those positions under the oversight of
the CIA. Meneses came from a family intimately linked to the Somoza
dictatorship. One brother had been chief of police in Managua. Two other
brothers were generals in the force most loyal to Somoza, the National Guard.
While his brothers were assisting Somoza in the political dictatorship
that darkened Nicaragua for many decades, Norwin Meneses applied his energies
mostly to straightforwardly criminal enterprises in the civil sector. He ran a
car theft ring and was also one of the top drug traffickers in Nicaragua, where
he was known as El Rey del Drogas (the king of drugs). Meneses worked with the
approval of the Somoza clan, which duly received its rake-off.
Norwin Meneses felt it necessary to register his disquiet at a Nicaraguan
customs probe into his smuggling of high-end North American cars from the US
into Nicaragua. The Meneses gang murdered the chief of customs. Owing to
Norwin's powerful family, the case was never prosecuted. The US Drug
Enforcement Agency and other agencies had been keeping files on Meneses since
at least 1974. Yet he was granted political refugee status in July 1979, when
he and other members of Somoza's elite fled to the US.
in San Francisco as part of what became known locally as the Nicaraguan "gold
rush." Here he lost no time in rebuilding his criminal enterprises in stolen
cars and drugs. Meneses's contact in Los Angeles was another Nicaraguan exile,
Oscar Danilo Blandon. Blandon had left Managua in June 1979, a month before
Meneses, on the eve of Somoza's downfall.
The son of a Managua
slumlord, Blandon had earned a master's degree in marketing from the University
of Bogota in Colombia and had headed Somoza's agricultural export program.
Agricultural exports were an important component of the country's mainly
ranching- and coffee-based economy, with the Somoza family itself owning no
less than a quarter of the nation's agricultural
In his position as head of
the export program, Blandon had developed close ties to the US Department of
Commerce and the US State Department. He secured $27 million in USAID funding
and was well known to the US military and the CIA, both of which had a
commanding presence in Somoza's Nicaragua. (Somoza had sent his officer corps
for training in the US, and the CIA station chief was the most powerful
foreigner in Managua.) Blandon's wife, Chepita, also came from a powerful clan,
the Murillo family. One of her relatives was the mayor of Managua. Like many
other Somoza supporters, both the Blandon and Murillo families lost most of
their fortunes in the 1979 revolution and burned with the desire to evict the
popular government headed by the Sandinista commanders.
Blandon and his
wife settled in Los Angeles, where he started a used-car business. He also
began to involve himself in Nicaraguan emigre politics. Testifying on February
3, 1994 as a government witness before a federal grand jury investigating the
Meneses family's drug ring in San Francisco, Blandon said he drove to San
Francisco for several meetings with Norwin Meneses "to start the movement, the
Contra revolution." Blandon had known the Meneses family in Nicaragua. In fact,
Blandon said, his mother shared Meneses's last name of Cantarero, "so we are
related." He said he and Meneses "met with the politics people," but couldn't
find a way to raise big sums of cash.
In the spring of 1981, Blandon
got a phone call from an old friend and business associate from Managua named
Donald Barrios. Barrios, then living in Miami, was moving in high-level
Nicaraguan emigre circles. This group included General Gustavo Medina, once an
important intelligence officer in Somoza's National Guard, a position in which
he had long-standing ties to the CIA. Blandon later testified that Barrios
"started telling me we had to raise some money and send it to Honduras."
Barrios instructed Blandon to go to Los Angeles International Airport to meet
Meneses. Blandon and Meneses then flew to Honduras and, in the capital city of
Tegucigalpa, met with Enrique Bermudez, former National Guardsman and military
commander of the FDN.
In Somoza's final
days, Jimmy Carter
had made a last-ditch effort to maintain a US-backed regime in Nicaragua even
if Somoza should be forced to quit. The plan was to preserve the bloodthirsty
National Guard as the custodian of US interests. When this plan failed and the
Sandinistas swept to power, Carter ordered the initial organization of what
later became known as the Contras, operating out of Honduras. The CIA mustered
Argentinian officers fresh from their own death squad campaigns, and these men
began to organize the exiled National Guardsmen into a military force.
Bermudez was key to this CIA-organized
operation from the start. He had been a colonel in the National Guard, had
trained at the US National Defense College outside Washington, D.C., and had
served from 1976 to July 1979 as Somoza's military attache in Washington.
Furnished with $300,000 in CIA money, Bermudez took command of the fledgling
Contra force in Honduras. In the summer of 1981, at the dawn of the Reagan
administration, Bermudez held a press conference in Honduras. In language
drafted by his CIA handlers, Bermudez announced the formation of the FDN and
his own position as commander of its military wing. The CIA script later
installed Adolfo Calero, formerly the
concessionaire in Managua, as the FDN's civilian head, operating mainly out of
the US, where he was under CIA supervision.
Blandon and Meneses arrived
to meet Bermudez at a moment of financial strain for the Contra army, then in
formation. The CIA had provided seed money, but it wasn't until November 23,
1981 that Reagan approved National Security Directive 17, which provided a
budget of $19.3 million for the Contras, via the CIA. The Contras, Bermudez
said, needed money urgently, and, Blandon later testified to a US federal grand
jury, it was at this meeting that the need for drug money to finance the
Contras was proposed. "There's a saying," Blandon testified, "that `the ends
justify the means.' And that's what Mr. Bermudez told us in Honduras."
Bermudez was not repelled by the moral implications of drug smuggling.
In fact, evidence gathered during congressional hearings in the mid-1980s
suggests that Bermudez himself had previously had a hand in the drug trade.
"Bermudez was the target of a government-sponsored drug sting operation," said
Senator John Kerry, who chaired a committee that investigated charges of Contra
cocaine smuggling. "He has been involved in drug running." Kerry charged that
the CIA had protected Bermudez from arrest. "The law enforcement officials know
that the sting was called back in the interest of protecting the Contras,"
CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US Released
on April 13, 1989, the Kerry Committee report concluded that members of the
U.S. State Department "who provided support for the Contras were involved in
drug trafficking...and elements of the Contras themselves knowingly received
financial and material assistance from drug traffickers."
1993, Judge Robert C. Bonner, the former head of the DEA, appeared on 60
Minutes and alleged that the CIA had permitted literally a ton of cocaine to
enter the US.
In 1996 Gary Webb wrote a series of articles published in
the San Jose Mercury News, which investigated Nicaraguans linked to the
CIA-backed Contras who had allegedly smuggled cocaine into the U.S. which was
then distributed as crack cocaine into Los Angeles and funneled profits to the
Contras. According to Webb, the CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and
the large shipments of drugs into the U.S. by the Contra personnel and directly
aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras.
In 1996 CIA Director
John M. Deutch went to Los Angeles to refute the allegations raised by the Gary
Webb articles, and was famously confronted by former LAPD officer Michael
Ruppert, who said he had witnessed it occurring.
In November 1996 a
Miami jury indicted former Venezuelan anti-narcotics chief and CIA asset,
General Ramon Guillen Davila, who "led a CIA counter-narcotics program that put
tons of cocaine on U.S. streets in 1990."
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