6000 BC Ugarit foundations are laid in the Neolithic
1800 BC Ebla and Ugarit are under
The population of Ugarit is roughly 7635
"Recent archeological digs have provided evidence that
Jerusalem was a big and
fortified city already in 1800 BC.
Findings show that the
sophisticated water system heretofor attributed to the conquering Israelites
pre-dated them by eight centuries and was even more sophisticated than
Dr. Ronny Reich, who directed the excavation along with Eli
Shuikrun, said the entire system was built as a single complex by Canaanites in
the Middle Bronze Period, around 1800 BC." - The Jewish Bulletin, July 31,
1450 to 1220 BC The people of Ugarit were
the Canaanites, precursors to the Phoenicians.
The first to recognize
that human speech consists of only a finite number of sounds they devised 30
symbols from which the alphabets of phonetic languages are derived.
The style of writing at Ugarit is
alphabetic cuneiform, a unique blending of two alphabetic script, like Hebrew,
and cuneiform, like Akkadian.
parallel that of Enûma Elish can be
found in the Baal cycle recovered in the Canaanite city of Ugarit which include
"Legend of Keret", "Legend of Danel", "Myth of Baal-Aliyan" and "Death of
Ugaritic literature is composed in
Qinah metre, bi and tri colas, and all of the poetic
tools found in the Septuagint
are found in Ugaritic poetry.
Ugarit is at its height politically,
religiously and economically.
BC The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory of the
southern Levant, which today encompasses
Israel, the West Bank and
Jordan, and the southern portions of
Many names have been
given to this area including Palestine, Eretz-Israel,
Bilad es-Shem, the Holy Land
The earliest known name for this area was
"When the Lord your God has cut off the nations whose land the
Lord your God is giving you, and you dispossess them and dwell in their cities
and in their houses." - Deuteronomy 19:1
Cult of Yahweh informed tribes of
Israel defeated the Canaanite kings in battle they simply took over preexisting
"I have given you a land for which you did not labor
and cities which you did not build, and you dwell in them; you eat of the
vineyards and olive groves which you did not plant" - Joshua 24:13
was no need to build new cities, Yaweh delivered the existing cities into their
the chief god at Ugarit.
El is called the "Father of Men",
"Creator", and "Creator of the Creation".
Other deities worshiped at
Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith.
Tribes of Israel worshiped
these variations of 'Creator' along with, and sometimes instead of,
This biblical denunciation of the Canaanite gods in
understandable in the light of the Ugaritic texts, for at Ugarit these were the
very gods worshiped.
Psalms were originally Ugaritic or Canaanite hymns
to El which were adopted by the Israelites, much like the American National
Anthem was set to a beer hall tune with lyrics by Francis Scott Key.
Psalms and the Ugaritic texts the very same attributes for which Yahweh is
acclaimed are the same for which El is acclaimed.
Among the inhabitants of Ugarit,
Yahweh was viewed as a son of El.
The names of
El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El
Berith are applied to Yahweh by the writers of the
The Hebrew theologians of the
Cult of Yaweh adopted the
titles of the Canaanite gods and attributed them to Yahweh in an effort to
assimilate and synthesize culture in a manner no different than the
Babylonians and the
important of the Canaanite lesser gods were;
Baal; Asherah; Yam, the god of
the sea, and Mot, the god of death.
|Yam is the Hebrew word for
Mot is the Hebrew
word for death.
is called the wife of Baal
Septuagint, with a
name change she became the consort of Yahweh.
In the Cult of
Yaweh, Hohkma is the female
counterpart of Yahweh.
"When they did evolve, when the ancient
Hebrew tribes put together their notion of Yahweh by combining YHVH and the
Elohim gods ("Elohim" is plural), and borrowing from other religions, they put
together a Yahweh from which, in some important ways,
we are still suffering.
Biblical scholars are clear
Yahweh evolved from a tribal chief, and has always kept much of the
authoritarian character of that ancient tribal chief.
between Yahweh and his people was based on an earlier Hittite treaty between a
ruler and his subjects.
That covenant says "I'll be your ruler and you will be
my people. I'll
protect you if you obey, and
punish you if you
That's the attitude that still lets
Western believers move way too effortlessly to persecuting or murdering those who believe
It's been harder to shrug Yahweh off as irrelevant,
because its followers will kill you - as many
martyrs throughout history have discovered the hard and painful way." -
Septuagint Baal is
named 76 times.
The Septuagint prophets
protested constantly against the compassionate affair the Israelites had with
Baal, the God of Fertility.
Yahweh as a warrior god of the
desert and so when they arrived in Canaan they thought it only proper to
adopt Baal, the God of Fertility.
One of the central Ugaritic myths was
the legend of Baal's enthronement as king.
In the story, Baal is killed by Mot in the Fall of
the year and he remains dead until the Spring of the year when he is
reborn and re-enthroned as king.
also celebrates the enthronement
As in the
Ugaritic myth, the purpose of enthronement is to
Yahweh overcomes death by
continuously acting to bestow life.
The major difference between the
Ugaritic myth and the biblical hymns is that the kingship of Yahweh is
eternal and uninterrupted while
the kingship of Baal is interrupted
every year by his death in the Fall.
When the God of Fertility dies in the
Fall, the vegetation dies; and then the vegetation is reborn in the Spring to
Not so with Yahweh; for since
Yahweh is always alive, Yahweh is always powerful.
and Ugarit both practiced a yearly ritual known as the sending out of the
"scapegoats"; one for
god and one for a demon.
The Cult of Yaweh sent a goat into the wilderness for Azazel, a demon,
and a goat into the wilderness for Yahweh.
This rite is known as a
"eliminatory" rite; that is, corruption, in this case
communal sin, is placed on the
head of the goat and it is sent away.
In this way it was
believed that, magically, the corruption and communal sin was removed from the
"Aaron is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat
and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites - all
their sins - and put them on the goat's head. Aaron shall send the goat away
into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. The goat will
carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release
it into the desert." - Leviticus 16:21-22
The same ritual was performed
at Ugarit; with one notable difference -
at Ugarit a woman priest was
involved in the ritual as well.
The rituals performed in Ugaritic
worship involved a great
deal of entheogens and sexual
Magically performing the reenactment of fertilization
the worshipers were attempting to convince Baal to send rain for the cannabis
Rain and semen were seen in ancient time as
of the same
essence, both produced
Worshipers in fertility religions typically behaved in this
Cult of Yaweh priests were
forbidden to partake of entheogens while
performing rituals and
females were barred from the precincts of the
patriarchal approach of severe separation of self from emotion as opposed
compassionate matriarchal approach of communal passion.
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