rainbow volcano

volcanic eruptions cool the world

June 8, 1783 Skaptar Jokull Volcano in Iceland explodes sending huge clouds of ash high into the sky.

Summer never comes to the Arctic that year.

All along the Bering Sea coast and Norton Sound area the Eskimos starved to death.

The volcanic cloud from the Icelandic volcano drifted across the Pacific Ocean reaching Japan where 1783 became known as the year summer never came.

Sulfurous gases combined with water vapor high in the atmosphere to produce a cloud of tiny sulfuric acid crystals which reflected a considerable amount of solar radiation back out into space.

This lowered the temperature of the earth by about 1° Celsius, and these effects were felt for about two years.

April 5, 1815 Mount Tambora Sumbawa, Indonesia erupts with such violence explosions could be heard for 1,000 miles.

Ash fell two feet deep over 850 miles away.

Darkness cloaked a 300 mile area around the volcano for three days.

Mount Tambora lost 4,100 feet in height and threw out an estimated 36.4 cubic miles of debris.

Volcanic debris was hurled into the atmosphere where it circled the earth, darkened the sky and eventually helped to make 1816 known as the year without a summer.

In the northeastern part of the US and the Ohio Valley frost, ice and snow were common in June; heavy frosts throughout July and even ice storms; frost and ice were common in August.

Snow fell in Springfield, Massachusetts on September 11, and colder weather settled in again during the final days of September with ice up to one-fourth inch thick. October, although fairly normal, had its share of frost and ice.

Coseguina Volcano in Nicaragua erupted in January of 1835.

The volcano's erupted continuously for seven hours creating total darkness within a radius of 50 miles of the volcano.

This eruption of Coseguina was blamed for the cool summer of 1836.

That summer was nearly as cold as the summer of 1816 in western Pennsylvania and northeastern Ohio.

There were frosts in every month of the year, and the only true summer weather was limited to the first 14 days of September.

During the period 1817-1890, 1836 had the coldest summer of record.

August 26, 1883 Krakatau(Krakatoa) erupts creating a gigantic cloud of ash that shot upward to a height of 17 miles and spread out like a huge oak tree.

On August 27 the darkness from Krakatau (Krakatoa) eruption extended 100 miles out from the volcano with the ash cloud from Krakatau (Krakatoa) rising an estimated 50,000 feet above the Earth's surface.

Then came a second eruption estimated to be equal to 200 megatons of TNT - about 13,000 times the yield of the Little Boy bomb (13 to 16 KT) that devastated Hiroshima, Japan, and four times the yield of the Tsar Bomba (50 MT), the largest nuclear weapon ever built.

The 1883 eruption ejected approximately 21 cubic kilometres (5.0 cu mi) of rock, ash, and pumice, and generated the loudest sound historically reported: the cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard as far away as Perth in Australia approximately 1,930 miles (3,110 km), and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius approximately 3,000 miles (5,000 km) distant.

The sound waves from the explosion circled the Earth seven times. During the winter of 1883-1884, snow in Scotland, Holland, northern Germany and different parts of the US was found to contain tiny particles of volcanic dust.

The dust particles from Krakatau(Krakatoa) could be seen on a clear day ringing the sun.

The mean global temperature in 1884 was lowered 0.27C.

In the dust of the Tibetan Plateau, with much thinking and careful calculation, the detonation of thermonuclear warheads could blast fine particulate into the upper atmosphere working in much the same way as Krakatoa.

The Tibetan Plateau is a significant dust source area of great importance. Synoptic dynamics and remote sensing tracing of a dust storm on 3 to 5 March, 2003 in Lhasa on South Tibet demonstrate that the Tibetan Plateau possesses all factors and conditions of generating dust storms.

Accompanied with this dust storm is a strong ascending stream on the Plateau which has raised various sizes of dust particles into different levels.

The lifted coarse particles were largely fallen down and accumulated as loess on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and the fine particles were translated by the westerly jet and subsided in the northern Pacific Ocean.

The spatial-temporal distribution of dust storms between years 1961 and 2000 on the Plateau shows that dust storms mainly occur in winter and early spring with high frequency, and the path of dust storm moves gradually from south to north, which is closely coupled with the northward moving of the westerly jet from winter to spring over the Tibetan Plateau.

The Tibetan Plateau is one of the key dust source areas for long-distance transport because its high occurring frequency and elevation cause fine particles easily to be lifted into the zone of the westerly jet.

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