volcanic eruptions cool the world
June 8, 1783 Skaptar Jokull Volcano
in Iceland explodes sending huge clouds of ash high into the sky.
Summer never comes to the Arctic that year.
All along the
Bering Sea coast and Norton Sound area the Eskimos starved to death.
The volcanic cloud from the Icelandic volcano drifted across the
Pacific Ocean reaching Japan where 1783 became known as the year summer never
Sulfurous gases combined with water
vapor high in the atmosphere to produce a cloud of tiny sulfuric acid crystals
which reflected a considerable amount of
solar radiation back out
This lowered the temperature of the earth by about 1°
Celsius, and these effects were felt for about two years.
April 5, 1815 Mount Tambora Sumbawa,
Indonesia erupts with such
violence explosions could be heard for 1,000 miles.
Ash fell two
feet deep over 850 miles away.
Darkness cloaked a 300 mile area around
the volcano for three days.
Mount Tambora lost 4,100 feet in height and
threw out an estimated 36.4 cubic miles of debris.
Volcanic debris was
hurled into the atmosphere where it circled the earth, darkened the sky and
eventually helped to make 1816 known as the year without a summer.
the northeastern part of the US and the Ohio Valley frost, ice and snow were
common in June; heavy frosts throughout July and even ice storms; frost and ice
were common in August.
Snow fell in Springfield, Massachusetts on
September 11, and colder weather settled in again during the final days of
September with ice up to one-fourth inch thick. October, although fairly
normal, had its share of frost and ice.
Coseguina Volcano in Nicaragua
erupted in January of 1835.
The volcano's erupted continuously for
seven hours creating total darkness within a radius of 50 miles of the volcano.
This eruption of Coseguina was blamed for the cool summer of 1836.
That summer was nearly as cold as the summer of 1816 in western
Pennsylvania and northeastern Ohio.
There were frosts in every month of
the year, and the only true summer weather was limited to the first 14 days of
During the period 1817-1890, 1836 had the coldest summer of
August 26, 1883 Krakatau(Krakatoa)
erupts creating a gigantic cloud of ash that shot upward to a height of 17
miles and spread out like a huge
On August 27 the darkness from Krakatau (Krakatoa)
eruption extended 100 miles out from the volcano with the ash cloud from
Krakatau (Krakatoa) rising an estimated 50,000 feet above the Earth's surface.
Then came a second eruption estimated to be equal to 200 megatons of
TNT - about 13,000 times the yield of
the Little Boy bomb
(13 to 16 KT) that devastated Hiroshima, Japan, and four times the yield of
the Tsar Bomba (50 MT), the largest
nuclear weapon ever
The 1883 eruption ejected approximately 21 cubic kilometres (5.0
cu mi) of rock, ash, and pumice, and generated the loudest sound historically
reported: the cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard as far away as Perth
in Australia approximately 1,930 miles (3,110 km), and the island of Rodrigues
near Mauritius approximately 3,000 miles (5,000 km) distant.
waves from the explosion circled the Earth seven times. During the winter of
1883-1884, snow in Scotland, Holland, northern Germany and different parts of
the US was found to contain tiny
particles of volcanic dust.
The dust particles from
Krakatau(Krakatoa) could be seen on a clear day ringing the sun.
mean global temperature in 1884 was lowered 0.27C.
In the dust of the
Tibetan Plateau, with much thinking and careful calculation, the detonation of
thermonuclear warheads could blast fine particulate into the upper atmosphere
working in much the same way as Krakatoa.
The Tibetan Plateau is a
significant dust source area of great importance. Synoptic dynamics and remote
sensing tracing of a dust storm on 3
to 5 March, 2003 in Lhasa on South Tibet demonstrate that the Tibetan Plateau
possesses all factors and conditions of generating dust storms.
Accompanied with this dust storm is a strong ascending stream on the
Plateau which has raised various sizes of dust particles into different levels.
The lifted coarse particles were largely fallen down and accumulated as
loess on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and the fine particles were translated by
the westerly jet and subsided in the northern Pacific Ocean.
spatial-temporal distribution of dust storms between years 1961 and 2000 on the
Plateau shows that dust storms mainly occur in winter and early spring with
high frequency, and the path of
dust storm moves gradually from south to north, which is closely coupled
with the northward moving of the westerly jet from
winter to spring over the
The Tibetan Plateau is one of the key dust source
areas for long-distance transport because its high occurring frequency and
elevation cause fine particles easily to be lifted into the zone of the
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