stacks



immune system

inflammation

antibiotic

arthritis

autism

herpes

malaria

dermatitis


Cannabinoids and the immune system

Conclusion: It is likely that the cannabinoid system, along with other neuroimmune systems, has a subtle but significant role in the regulation of immunity and that this role can eventually be exploited in the management of human disease.

Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression.

Cannabinoids have been shown to act as potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and have been shown to mediate beneficial effects in a wide range of immune-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, septic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma. In this review, we will focus on apoptotic mechanisms of immunosuppression mediated by cannabinoids on different immune cell populations and discuss how activation of CB2 provides a novel therapeutic modality against inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well as malignancies of the immune system, without exerting the untoward psychotropic effects.

Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs

Conclusion: The potential use of cannabinoids as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents against a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that are primarily triggered by activated T lymphocytes or other cellular immune components.

Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient

Conclusion: Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking.

Cannabinoids and ceramide: two lipids acting hand-by-hand.

Conclusion: Sustained ceramide accumulation in tumor cells mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by in vitro and in vivo studies.

The endocannabinoid anandamide neither impairs in vitro T lymphocyte function nor induces regulatory T lymphocyte generation.

Conclusion: Direct antitumor activity of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide together with the absence of negative effects on T lymphocyte functions.


neuropathy

Efficacy of Inhaled Cannabis on Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

Conclusion: This small, short-term, placebo controlled trial of inhaled cannabis demonstrated a dose dependent reduction in diabetic peripheral neuropathy pain in patients with treatment-refractory pain. This adds preliminary evidence to support further research on the efficacy of the cannabinoids in neuropathic pain.

Cannabis Use in Patients with Fibromyalgia

Conclusion: The use of cannabis was associated with beneficial effects on some Fibromyalgia symptoms.

Neuropathic orofacial pain: cannabinoids as a therapeutic avenue

Conclusion: Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) exists in several forms including pathologies such as burning mouth syndrome (BMS), persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). BMS and PIFP are classically diagnosed by excluding other facial pain syndromes. Analgesia is one the principal therapeutic targets of the cannabinoid system and many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cannabinoid compounds in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

The effectiveness of cannabinoids in the management of chronic nonmalignant neuropathic pain

Conclusion: Cannabis-based medicinal extracts used in different populations of chronic nonmalignant neuropathic pain patients may provide effective analgesia in conditions that are refractory to other treatments.


inflammation

Cannabinoid receptor CB2 is involved in tetrahydrocannabinol-induced anti-inflammation against lipopolysaccharide in MG-63 cells

Conclusion: CB2 is involved in the THC-induced anti-inflammation in LPS-stimulated MG-63 cells, and the anti-inflammation may be mediated by cofilin-1.


antibiotic

Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa

Conclusion: These observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity.


Cannabinoids Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Inhibit the Lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-?B and Interferon-ß/STAT Proinflammatory Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells

Conclusion: Cannabinoids have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory activities in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models as well as ameliorate various inflammatory degenerative diseases.


arthritis

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain

Conclusion: This review summarizes the promising results that have been recently obtained in support of the therapeutic value of cannabinoids for osteoarthritis management.

Characterisation of the cannabinoid receptor system in synovial tissue and fluid in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

Conclusion: Our data predict that the cannabinoid receptor system present in the synovium may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with OA and RA.

The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic implications in rheumatoid arthritis.

Conclusion: We discuss the possible functions of the endocannabinoid system in the modulation of RA, which may be a potential target for treatment.

Efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis

Conclusion: Significant analgesic effect was observed and disease activity was significantly suppressed following Sativex treatment.

Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass

Conclusion: CB2 offers a molecular target for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, the most prevalent degenerative disease in developed countries.


autism

Autism-Associated Neuroligin-3 Mutations Commonly Disrupt Tonic Endocannabinoid Signaling

Conclusion: Our data thus suggest that neuroligin-3 is specifically required for tonic endocannabinoid signaling, raising the possibility that alterations in endocannabinoid signaling may contribute to autism pathophysiology.

Modeling an autism risk factor in mice leads to permanent immune dysregulation.

Conclusion: These studies support a link between cellular immune dysregulation and ASD-related behavioral deficits in a mouse model of an autism risk factor.


dermatitis

The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease

Conclusion: The newly discovered endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease. It seems that the main physiological function of the cutaneous ECS is to constitutively control the proper and well-balanced proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as immune competence and/or tolerance, of skin cells. Pathological alterations in the activity of the fine-tuned cutaneous ECS might promote or lead to the development of certain skin diseases.

Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC

Conclusion: This has important implications for the future development of strategies to harness cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.


herpes

Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro

Conclusion: THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication.

Cannabis May Help Combat Cancer-causing Herpes Viruses

Conclusion: Small concentrations of THC were more potent and selective against gamma herpes viruses than the commonly used antiviral drugs acyclovir, gancicyclovir and foscamet.


malaria

Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

Conclusion: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection that might cause permanent neurological deficits. Our results indicate that CBD exhibits neuroprotective effects in CM model and might be useful as an adjunctive therapy to prevent neurological symptoms following this disease.

HIV

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy

Conclusion: Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. The findings are comparable to oral drugs used for chronic neuropathic pain.

Cannabinoids inhibit migration of microglial-like cells to the HIV protein Tat

Conclusion: These results indicate that cannabinoid-mediated inhibition of BV-2 microglial-like cell migration to Tat is linked functionally to the CB2R. Furthermore, the results indicate that activation of the CB2R leads to altered expression and compartmentation of the ß-chemokine receptor CCR-3.

Cannabinoid inhibits HIV-1 Tat-stimulated adhesion of human monocyte-like cells to extracellular matrix proteins

Conclusion: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex structure that is composed of cellular elements and an extracellular matrix (ECM). HIV-1 Tat promotes transmigration of monocytes across this barrier, a process that includes interaction with ECM proteins. The results indicate that cannabinoids that activate the CB2R inhibit the ECM adhesion process. Thus, this receptor has potential to serve as a therapeutic agent for ablating neuroinflammation associated with HIV-elicited influx of monocytes across the BBB.





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