gasolineThe bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons
with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly referred to as
It is a mixture of paraffins (alkanes),
cycloalkanes (naphthenes), and olefins (alkenes).
The usage of the terms
paraffin and olefin is particular to the oil industry.
The actual ratio
the oil refinery that makes the
gasoline, as not all refineries
have the same set of processing units;
the crude oil feed used by the
the grade of gasoline, in particular, the
Refinery streams are blended to make gasoline with
Straight-run gasoline, commonly referred to
as naphtha, is distilled directly from crude oil. Once the leading source of
fuel, its low octane rating required lead additives. It is low in aromatics
(depending on the grade of crude oil), containing some cycloalkanes
(naphthenes) and no olefins (alkenes). Straight-run gasoline can be used as a
feedstock into steam-crackers to produce olefins.
in a catalytic reformer has a high octane rating with high aromatic content,
and relatively low olefins (alkenes). Most of the
toluene, and xylene are more
valuable as chemical feedstocks and are removed.
gasoline or catalytic cracked naphtha, produced from a catalytic cracker, with
a moderate octane rating, high olefins (alkene) content, and moderate aromatics
Hydrocrackate (heavy, mid, and light) produced from a
hydrocracker, with medium to low octane rating and moderate aromatic levels.
Alkylate is produced in an alkylation unit, using as feedstocks
isobutane and alkenes. Alkylate contains no aromatics.
obtained by isomerizing low octane straight run gasoline to iso-paraffins
(non-chain alkanes, like isooctane). Isomerate has no aromatics and olefins.
Butane is usually blended in the gasoline pool, although the quantity
of this stream is limited.
The terms above are the jargon used in the
oil industry and terminology varies.
In the EU the benzene limit is set
at 1% volume for all grade of automotive gasoline.
Tetraethyllead and other lead compounds are no longer used in
most areas to regulate and increase octane-rating, but many other additives,
including MTBE, are put into
gasoline to improve its chemical stability, control corrosiveness, provide fuel
system cleaning, and determine performance characteristics under intended
MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is
a gasoline additive, used as an oxygenate to raise the octane number.
The use of MTBE became
controversial due to contamination of groundwater and legislation favoring
What is in my water ?
elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA?
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industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
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American social mores and values have
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buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of
the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
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