"Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical
Education set a maximum workweek of 80 hours for residents, with a maximum
shift of 30 hours."
Richard A. Friedman
Amphetamine is synthesized in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu who
named it phenylisopropylamine.
Methamphetamine is synthesized from ephedrine in Japan by chemist Nagayoshi
1933 Smith, Kline and French began selling
it as an inhaler under the brand name Benzedrine as a
1936 Benzedrine sulfate,
Benzedrine®, introduced and used to treat a wide variety of medical
conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity,
pressure, low libido, chronic pain and as an over-the-counter inhaler to
Benzedrine® became a controlled substance, it was replaced by
propylhexedrine, also known as hexahydromethamphetamine.
are "power drugs" that reduce fatigue, heighten aggression, and diminish human
warmth and empathy.
When used chronically amphetamines induce
stereotyped thought and behavior rather than creativity. Long-term use of
amphetamines often exacerbates depression.
Extended binges on
methamphetamine leads to hallucinations and paranoia.
The combination of hallucinations and feelings of fear and
paranoia is known as methamphetamine induced psychosis.
psychosis is caused by methamphetamine's effect on at least three areas of the
brain: the visual cortex, the
auditory cortex, and the amygdala.
part of this induced
psychosis is the by product of fatigue, a shutting down of the higher
processes and lack of dreaming to
Frontal lobes are often
damaged by addiction to methamphetamine.
1941 Massive amounts of methamphetamines are produced by both
the Allies and Axis powers.
John F. Kennedy and Adolf Hitler both
receive daily injections of methamphetamine.
Adolf Hitler's Wehrmacht
distributed methamphetamine tablets to German fighting troops throughout World
War II as did the US Army Air Forces.
Japanese used methamphetamine to help the teen age
bombers (kamikaze) to complete their airplane flights to their intended
American warship targets.
After World War II there were huge stockpiles
of methamphetamines left in many countries, especially in Japan and throughout
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a huge surge in
methamphetamine abuse was noted in Scandinavia and Japan following the dumping
of these methamphetamine stocks onto the civilian market.
"I have seen desperate
Heroin addicts, unable to find a workable vein to shoot their next
fix suffering from liver disease and God knows what else, recover physically
100% and go on to lead relatively decent lives. Stimulant abusers, too, can
make remarkable physical recoveries although, in truth, it's much more
difficult than recovering from Heroin." - John J.
31 million prescriptions in America for amphetamines.
1994 263 meth labs are seized in America.
2000 1,800 meth labs are seized by DEA.
labs are seized by local police in America.
Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group reports that one in five
resident-physicians admitted making a fatigue-related mistake that injured a
One in 20 admitted a fatigue-related mistake that resulted in
a patient's death.
day and night, rather
than transferring patient care to a fresh doctor, increases serious medical
errors in ICUs by 36%, including a 460% increase in serious diagnostic
Twenty-four hours without sleep slows reaction time comparably
to alcohol intoxication.
routinely fall asleep during lectures, on patient rounds, while examining
patients and even during surgery.
working more than 24 hours, resident physicians are 73% more likely to stab
themselves with a needle and 168% more likely to crash driving home." - Charles
"Partway through a 36-hour shift at Johns Hopkins Hospital,
I was hungry and hadn't slept for 24
hours, but I was facing an overflowing intensive care unit and somehow needed
to discharge five patients to make room for more.
Mr. "Smith", who had
esophageal surgery, was a borderline call.
Because of the pressure I
was under, I decided to remove his breathing tube and transfer him to another
That turned out to be a very bad decision.
hours he still wasn't waking up." - Peter Pronovost
2007 A raid in Mexico yields $205 million in cash, mostly $100
dollar bills, weighing 4,500 lb earned selling
Ritalin®, Vyvanse®, Strattera®, and
"People with attention deficit disorder (as well as
those with dyslexia,
or anxiety disorders)
usually have extraordinary talents that get buried under troubles and
enough sleep, eating right and getting lots of physical exercise help with
attention deficit disorder (and everything else)." - Edward M. Hallowell
"There are many children whose only problem in life
is not doing their homework but are medicated with ADHD drugs; and the majority
of their parents had no idea that they were giving their children amphetamines
or amphetamine-like substances." - Bruce Levine
2001 Marketing of
hyperactivity disorder drugs legalized.
PHRMA began aggressively
marketing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs.
to 2006 Use of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs has
people - including 19 children - die suddenly within the last 4 years while
using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs which include
Methylin® and Metadate® - all stimulants; 43 people taking the drugs
for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder experienced serious cardiovascular
events, including strokes, cardiac
arrest and heart palpitations; 26 serious
problems were reported in children, including two
heart attacks and two
3.3 million Americans 19 or younger and nearly 1.5 million age
20 and older are taking attention
deficit disorder medicines.
Children in America are prescribed
hyperactivity disorder drugs at 10 times the rate that children are
prescribed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs in
Nearly 1 in 10 12-year-old American boys take a
2011 ADHD drugs and their
generic equivalents are responsible for
nearly 23,000 emergency room visits in America.
Over a six-year span,
there's been a 400% increase in ER
visits due to side effects of these drugs.
"Patients are no longer just taking medications in
childhood, but are encouraged to stay on them when they become adults.
Vyvanse®, an amphetamine, and Concerta® were introduced in 2008
for treating adults.
Students are taking the drugs to increase academic
performance, and professionals such as physicians and
lawyers are taking stimulants in
hopes of boosting their productivity.
These drugs have therefore become increasingly popular.
According to a 2007 study, prescriptions for ADHD drugs in the
methalphenidate and amphetamine categories rose by almost 12% per year between
2000 and 2005." - Paul Solomon
The excess and continual use of
methamphetamine while not necessarily causing excessive
causes the human brain to run in a
cyclic pattern of thought, like a viynl
record stuck in a groove, that cycles
back upon itself repeatedly interjected with
Gabriel Garcia Marquez
describes perfectly the psychosis experienced by a methamphetamine user in his
story about the insomnia plague.
After many hours of wakefulness the
methamphetamine user is as close to the
zombies portrayed in horror movies as all higher brain functions cease.
functions no longer work.
Chronic methamphetamine use is a
form of insanity.
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