A very strange theory, called Luigi's Conjecture,
states that if
you say the opposite of what is
to someone they often get
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
was created in 1777 soon after the Declaration of Independence and existed as
the only constitution until 1788. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual
Union was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United
States of America as a confederation of sovereign states.
21, 1787, the Congress of the Confederation delivered
a resolution authorizing a
Philadelphia constitutional convention but with an important
limitation: "for the sole and express
purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation and reporting to Congress and
the several legislatures."
Prior to the Philadelphia constitutional
convention, Founding Fathers wrote and distributed approximately 85 "Federalist
Papers" to extol the virtues of an entirely new, second constitution for the
people of America. By doing this, they hoped to reverse the prevailing negative
public opinion and increase the public's confidence in such a plan. To help
them, Founding Fathers hid behind a pseudonym when writing their Federalist
Papers; each was signed as "Publius," meaning "friend of the people" (or
Many of the dissenting voices among the free inhabitants of
the several states regarded the upcoming Philadelphia constitutional convention
as potentially illegal. They well-understood from the Federalist Papers the
Federalists goal of creating a new constitution and not simply revising the
existing one. In the minds of the free inhabitants, the accomplishment of
Federalist goals could unravel the freedoms and liberties they had gained under
the Articles of Confederation and won by the American Revolution.
Philadelphia constitutional convention, held from May into September 1787,
exceeded the authority given it. Instead of revising the Articles of
Confederation they created an entirely new constitution.
Constitution of the United States, signed September 17, 1787, was deemed
ratified June 21, 1788 by only nine states instead of the unanimous
ratification of all 13 states required by the Articles of Confederation.
Thereafter, a new, centralized US Government was formed, disregarding the
original, decentralized American jurisdiction of state legislatures established
soon after the American Revolution.
In June of 1788 at the Virginia
Conference, orator and Anti-Federalist, Patrick Henry, exposed the political
tactics of propaganda he believed the Federalists had used to win over the
public. The Framers had pandered to the people in order to get their way, he
said, by convincing the people, that under a new constitution, democracy would
mean the government belonged to them.
" Who authorized them to speak
the language, 'We, the people', instead of 'We, the states?' . . . That they
exceed their powers is perfectly clear . . . The Federal Convention ought to
have amended the old system; for this purpose they were solely delegated; the
object of their mission extended to no other consideration." - Patrick Henry,
June 4, 1788
The Constitution of 1787 and the US government it formed
was an illegitimate (unauthorized) takeover of the original American
jurisdiction. The new Constitution provided for a much stronger national
government with a chief executive (the president), courts, and taxing powers.
The Articles of Confederation have never been been lawfully repealed.
Americans, no longer suffering as indentured-servant subjects of the
British monarchy, now suffer as indentured-servant subjects of a the United
States Incorporated beholden to an obscured corporate-banking cartel.
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union still stand.
The Constitution was a Federalist counterrevolution turning States into
Benson discovered that both the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments to the US
Constitution were not properly ratified and, therefore, laws that don't
Philander Chase Knox, the Secretary of State, committed fraud
when he declared the 16th amendment ratified in February 1913 shortly before
Philander Chase Knox served
as: a director of the Fifth National Bank of Pittsburgh and the Pittsburgh
National Bank of Commerce; counsel for the
Steel taking a prominent part in organizing the United States Steel
Corporation in 1901; served as Attorney General in the cabinets of William
McKinley and Theodore
Roosevelt and served as Pennsylvania Senator.
16th amendment is sent out to state governors for
ratification by the state legislatures after having been passed by Congress.
There are 48 states at that time, and three-fourths, or 36, of are required to
give their approval for the amendment to be ratified.
February 25, 1913
Philander Chase Knox declares the
16th amendment ratified after recieving responses from 42 states. Philander
Chase Knox acknowledges that four of those states (Utah, Conn, R.I. and N.H.)
had rejected it, and he counted 38 states as having approved it.
legal counsel, Reuben Clark, declares states are not allowed to change the
amendment in any way.
In Kentucky, the legislature acted on the
amendment without having received it from the governor (the governor of each
state was to transmit the proposed amendment to the state legislature). The
version of the amendment that the Kentucky legislature makes up and acts upon
omitted the words "on income" from the text.
In Oklahoma, the
legislature changes the wording of the amendment and this is the version they
The state constitution of Tennessee prohibites the state
legislature from acting on any proposed amendment to the United States
Constitution until after the next election of state legislators to give the
proposed amendment a chance to become an issue in the state legislative
elections. Tennessee legislature acted illegally by voting before they were
legally authorized to do so.
Thirteen states, including Tennessee,
failed to read the resolution on
three different days as prescribed by Article II, Section 18. This provision is
a requirement as it: allows for a cooling off period; enables members who may
be absent one day to be present on another; allows for a better familiarity
with, and understanding of, the
consideration as some members may not read the
resolution before voting on it.
States violating this procedure were: Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas, Minnesota,
New Mexico, West Virginia, Indiana, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota,
Colorado, and Illinois.
Texas and Louisiana violated provisions in their
state constitutions prohibiting the legislatures from empowering the federal
government with any additional taxing authority.
constitutions limited the taxing
authority of their legislatures, which could not give to the
government authority they did not have.
These state constitutional
violations make their approval of the amendment null and void.
verification purposes all public documents must be properly certified, signed,
and sealed by the appropriate official(s) as was the case for all documents to
be legally binding at that time.
Ohio, California, Arkansas, Mississippi,
and Minnesota never submitted any documentation.
Pennsylvania ignored the proposed amendment.
Florida rejected the
Vermont and Massachusetts had rejected the amendment by
recorded votes but claimed it had passed. West Virginia claimed it had approved
it but never filed legal notification of passage.
On April 11, 2002, the State of Alabama decides to
ratify the Seventeenth Amendment - 89 years after the alleged ratification.
Back in 1913, not all states were in session; some were out of session four
years at a time.
On July 1, 2010, 97 years after the alleged
ratification of the amendment, the State of Delaware ratifies it.
April 1, 2012, 99 years after the alleged ratification, the State of Maryland
votes to ratify the Seventeenth Amendment.
This web site is not a
commercial web site
and is presented for educational purposes
This website defines a new
perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern
propaganda from reality
and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel
through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the
human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate
religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious
ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The
Truth of the Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason
which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no
church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to
develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit
of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that
has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are
spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against
individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a
This web site in no way condones violence. To the
contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring
due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race.
The international corporate cartel already controls the world central banking
system, mass media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment
complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of
self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization
is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a
American social mores and values have declined precipitously over
the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more
power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through mass media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed
into the population through prior mass media psychological operations. The
results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social
structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the
direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward
solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates
their power and which further their purposes.
All views and opinions
presented on this web site are the views and opinions of individual human men
and women that, through their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent,
reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information
presented on this web site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented
as originally presented in print media which may or may not have originally
presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited,
corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly
all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the
spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and
opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the United States
Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on
this site is distributed without
profit to those who have
expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research
and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved