intelligence quotient The
notion of a scientific elite classifying people based on aptitude, assigning an
efficient role for everyone, appeals to the conceit of intellectuals. The idea
of quantity, ranking, and assessing cognitive performance caught on in the
United States, where eugenics was a prevailing intellectual fashion. In 1908,
Henry H. Goddard translated Alfred Binet's work, popularized it among the
intellectual classes and turned what might have been a humanitarian push to
provide remedial help to students into a weapon of war against the
Scientific Origins of Eugenics Elof
Carlson, State University of New York at Stony Brook
The eugenics movement arose in the 20th century as two wings of a
common philosophy of human worth. Francis Galton, who coined the term eugenics
in 1883, perceived it as a moral philosophy to improve humanity by encouraging
the ablest and healthiest people to have more children. The Galtonian ideal of
eugenics is usually termed positive eugenics. Negative eugenics, on the other
hand, advocated culling the least able from the breeding population to preserve
humanity's fitness. The eugenics movements in the United States, Germany, and
Scandinavia favored the negative approach.
The notion of
segregating people considered unfit to reproduce dates back to antiquity. For
example, the Old Testament describes the Amalekites a supposedly
depraved group that God condemned to death. Concerns
about environmental influences that might damage heredity leading to ill
health, early death, insanity, and defective offspring were formalized
in the early 1700s as degeneracy theory. Degeneracy theory maintained a strong
scientific following until late in the 19th century. Masturbation, then called
onanism, was presented in medical schools as the first biological theory of the
cause of degeneracy. Fear of degeneracy through masturbation led Harry Clay
Sharp, a prison physician in Jeffersonville, Indiana, to carry out vasectomies
on prisoners beginning in 1899. The advocacy of Sharp and his medical
colleagues, culminated in an Indiana law mandating
compulsory sterilization of "degenerates." Enacted in
1907, this was the first
eugenic sterilization law in the United States.
By the mid-19th century most
scientists believed bad environments
caused degenerate heredity. Benedict Morel's work extended the causes of
degeneracy to some legitimate agents including poisoning by
mercury, ergot, and other toxic
substances in the environment. The sociologist Richard Dugdale believed that
good environments could transform degenerates into worthy citizens within three
generations. This position was a backdrop to his very influential study on The
Jukes (1877), a degenerate family of paupers and petty criminals in Ulster
County, New York. The inheritance of acquired (environmental) characters was
challenged in the 1880s by August Weismann, whose theory of the germ plasm
convinced most scientists that changes in body tissue (the soma) had little or
no effect on reproductive tissue (the germ plasm). At the beginning of the 20th
century, Weismann's views were absorbed by degeneracy theorists who embraced
negative eugenics as their favored model.
Adherents of the new field of
genetics were ambivalent about eugenics. Most basic scientists including
William Bateson in Great Britain, and Thomas Hunt Morgan in the United States
shunned eugenics as vulgar and an unproductive field for research.
However, Bateson's and Morgan's contributions to basic genetics were quickly
absorbed by eugenicists, who took interest in Mendelian analysis of pedigrees of humans,
plants, and animals. Many eugenicists had some type of agricultural background.
Charles Davenport and Harry Laughlin, who together ran the Eugenics Record
Office, were introduced through their shared interest in chicken breeding. Both
also were active in Eugenics Section of the American Breeder's Association
(ABA). Davenport's book, Eugenics: The Science of Human Improvement through
Better Breeding, had a distinct agricultural flavor, and his affiliation
with the ABA was included under his name on the title page. Agricultural
genetics also provided the favored model for negative eugenics: human
populations, like agricultural breeds and varieties, had to be culled of their
least productive members, with only the healthiest specimens used for breeding.
Evolutionary models of natural selection and dysgenic (bad) hereditary
practices in society also contributed to eugenic
theory. For example, Public welfare might also play a role in
allowing less fit people to survive and reproduce, further upsetting the
natural selection of fitter people.
Medicine also put its stamp on
eugenics. Physicians like Anton Ochsner and Harry Sharp were convinced that
social failure was a medical problem. Italian criminologist and physician
Cesare Lombroso popularized the image of an innate
criminal type that was thought to be a reversion or atavism of a bestial
ancestor of humanity. When medical means failed to help the
psychotic, the retarded, the
pauper, and the vagrant, eugenicists shifted to preventive medicine. The German
physician-legislator Rudolph Virchow, advocated programs to deal with
disease prevention on a large
scale. Virchow's public health movement was fused with eugenics to form the
racial hygiene movement in Germany and came to America through
physicians he trained.
that "defectives" should be prevented from breeding, through custody in asylums
or compulsory sterilization. Many doctors felt that sterilization was a more
humane way of dealing with people who could not help themselves. Vasectomy and
tubal ligation were favored methods, because they did not alter the
physiological and psychological contribution of the reproductive organs.
Sterilization allowed the convicted criminal or
mental patient to
participate in society, rather than being institutionalized at public expense.
Sterilization was not viewed as a punishment because these doctors believed
(erroneously) that the social failure of "unfit" people was due to an
irreversibly degenerate germ plasm.
declining birth rates
A Brief History of
the Eugenics Movement Eugenics, the science of
improving the human race by scientific control of breeding, was viewed by a
large segment of scientists for almost one hundred years as an important, if
not a major means of producing paradise on earth.
These scientists concluded that many human traits were genetic, and that
persons who came from genetically 'good families' tended to turn out far better
than those who came from poor families. The next step was to encourage the good
families to have more children, and the poor families to have few or no
From these simple observations
developed one of the most far-reaching movements,
Social Darwinism, which culminated
in the loss of millions of lives. It discouraged aiding the sick, building
asylums for the insane, or even aiding the poor and all those who were believed
to be in some way 'genetically inferior', which included persons afflicted with
an extremely wide variety of unrelated physical and even psychological
maladies. Their end goal was to save society from the 'evolutionary inferior'.
The means was sexual sterilization, permanent custody of 'defective' adults by
the state, marriage restrictions, and even the elimination of the unfit through
means which ranged from refusal to help them to outright killing. This movement
probably had a greater adverse influence upon society than virtually any other
that developed from a scientific theory in modern times.
movement grew from the core ideas of evolution, primarily those expounded by
Charles Darwin. Eugenics spanned the political spectrum from conservatives to
radical socialists; what they had in common was a belief in evolution and a
faith that science, particularly genetics, held the key for improving
the life of humans. The first eugenics movement in
America was founded in 1903 and included many of the most well known new-world
biologists in the country: David Star Jordan was its chairman (a prominent
biologist and chancellor of Stanford University), Luther Burbank (the famous
plant breeder), Vernon L. Kellog (a world renowned biologist at Stanford),
William B. Castle (a Harvard geneticist), Roswell H. Johnson (a geologist and a
professor of genetics), and Charles R. Henderson of the University of Chicago.
One of the most
prominent eugenicists in the United States was Charles Benedict Davenport, a
Harvard Ph.D, where he served as instructor of biology until he became an
assistant professor at the University of Chicago in 1898. In 1904, he became
director for a new station for experimental evolution at Cold Spring Harbor on
Long Island. Edward Thorndike of Columbia University, one of the most
influential educational psychologists in history, was also involved. His work
is still today regarded as epic and his
original textbook on tests and measurements set the standard in the field.
Other persons active in the early eugenics society were eminent sexologists
Havelock Ellis, Dr F. W. Mott, a leading expert in insanity, and Dr A. F.
Tredgold, an author of a major textbook on mental deficiency, and one of the
foremost British experts on this subject. Nobel laureate George Bernard Shaw,
author H. G. Wells, and planned parenthood founder
Margaret Sanger were also
very involved in the movement.
As the eugenics movement grew, it added other
prominent individuals. Among them were
Alexander Graham Bell,
the inventor of the telephone who was 'one of the most respected, if not one of
the most zealous participants in the American Eugenics Movement.' He published
numerous papers in scholarly journals specifically on genetics and the deafness
problem, and also in other areas. Of the many geneticists who are today
recognized as scientific pioneers that were once eugenicists include J. B. S.
Haldane, Thomas Hunt Morgan, William Bateson, Herman J. Muller, and
evolutionary biologist Julian
Professors were prominent among both the officers and
members of various eugenics societies which sprang up in the United States and
Europe. In virtually every college and university were professors 'inspired by
the new creed,' and most of the major colleges had credit courses on eugenics.
These classes were typically well attended and their content was generally
accepted as part of proven science. Many eugenicists also lectured widely and
developed new courses, both at their institutes and elsewhere, to help educate
the public in the principles of eugenics.'
The eugenics movement also
attacked the idea of democracy itself. Many
concluded that letting inferior persons participate in government was naive, if
not dangerous. Providing educational opportunities
and governmental benefits for everyone likewise seemed a misplacement of
resources: one saves only the best cows for breeding, slaughtering the inferior
ones, and these laws of nature must be
applied to human animals. If a primary determinant of mankind's behavioural
nature is genetic as the movement concluded, then environmental reforms are
largely useless. Further, those who are at the bottom of the social ladder in
society, such as Blacks, are in this position not because of social injustice
or discrimination, but as a result of their own inferiority.
Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, began his lifelong quest to quantify
humans, and search for ways of genetically improving the human race around
1860. The idea that humans could achieve biological progress and eventually
breed a superior race was not seen as heretical to the Victorian mind. All
around Galton were the fruits of the recent advances in technology and the
industrial revolution that had dramatically proved human mastery over inanimate nature. They knew
that, by careful selection, farmers could obtain better breeds of both plants
and animals, and it was logical that the human races could similarly be
improved. Galton and his coworker, Karl Pearson, are regarded as founders of
the modern field of statistics, and both made major contributions. Their
thorough, detailed research was extremely convincing, especially to academics.
Francis Galton believed the route to produce a race of gifted humans was by
controlling marriages of superior stock.
Around the turn of the century,
eugenics was fully accepted by the educated classes. Books on eugenics became
best-sellers Albert E. Wiggam wrote at least four popular books on
eugenics, several were best-sellers and the prestigious Darwinian family name
stayed with the eugenics movement for years the president of the British
Eugenics Society from 1911 to 1928 was Major Leonard Darwin, Charles'
The impact of the eugenics movement on American law was especially
profound. In the 1920s, congress introduced and passed many laws to restrict
the influx of 'inferior races,' including all of those from Southern and
Eastern Europe, and also China. These beliefs were also reflected in everything
from school textbooks to social policy. American Blacks especially faced the
brunt of these laws. Inter-racial marriage was forbidden by law in many areas
and discouraged by social pressure in virtually all. The eugenicists concluded
that the American belief that education could
benefit everyone was unscientific, and that the conviction that social reform
and social justice could substantially reduce human misery was more than
wrong-headed, it was openly dangerous.
When Galton died in January of
1911, the University College received much of his money and established a
Galton eugenics professorship, and a new department called applied statistics.
The fund enabled Karl Pearson to be freed from his 'burdensome' teaching to
devote full time to eugenics research. Karl Pearson was no minor figure in the
history of science. His contributions in statistics are crucial to virtually
all modern scientific research. He not only developed the Pearson product
moment correlational coefficient, to which his name is attached, but also
regression analysis, multiple correlation,
and chi square, and made numerous important contributions in the area of
statistical analysis including the goodness
of fit theory.
Between 1903 and 1918, Karl Pearson and his staff
published over 300 works, plus various government reports and popular
expositions of genetics. Some of his co-workers questioned the idea that the
only way to improve a nation is to ensure that its future generations come
chiefly from the more superior members of the existing generation, but if they
valued their position, most said nothing.
In 1925 Pearson began
publishing The Annals of Eugenics. He continued to contribute both his
enthusiasm and his mathematical genius to the cause until he died in 1936. He
helped spread eugenics, first to Germany and later to the United States, then
to the four corners of the Earth.
Charles Davenport convinced the Carnegie Institute to establish a station for
'the experimental study of evolution' at
Cold Spring Harbor, some thirty miles from New York City. Davenport then
recruited a staff to work on various research projects ranging from natural
selection to hybridization. He argued that hereditability was a major influence
in everything from criminality to epilepsy, even alcoholism and
pauperism (being poor). Among the many problems with his research is that he
assumed that traits which we now know are polygenic in origin were single
Mendelian characters. This error caused him to greatly oversimplify
interpolating from the genotype to the phenotype. He ignored the forces of the
environment to such a degree that he labelled those who 'loved the sea' as
suffering from thalassaphilia, and concluded that it was a sex-linked recessive
trait because it was virtually always exhibited in males! Davenport also
concluded that prostitution was caused not
by social, cultural or economic circumstances, but a dominant genetic trait
which caused a woman to be a nymphomaniac.
Part of the reason that
the eugenics movement caught on so rapidly was because of the failures of the
many innovative reformatory and
other programmes designed to help the poor, the criminal, and people with
mental and physical problems. Many of those who worked in these institutions
concluded that most people in these classes were 'heredity losers' in the
struggle for existence. And these unfit should not
be allowed to survive and breed indiscriminately. Evolution gave them an answer
to the difficulties that they faced. In short, instead of helping people,
charity was supposedly hurting them by destroying positive habits of industry
and enabling them to breed more of their own genetically inferior type. Many of
those who began their careers helping the poor concluded that many, if not
most, of their programmes were doing more harm than good.
Many eugenicists also believed that negative traits that
one picked up in one's lifetime could be passed on. As many of the supposed
biologically inferior groups reached their second and third generation in
America, such as Ashkenazi, many did extremely well, empirically documenting
that such groups were not biologically-defective. Another problem was that not
only were Blacks and Jews singled out but the Irish, Welsh and numerous
other groups were also judged as racially inferior. It soon became apparent
that many of the hodgepodge
claims were tenuous. Research by anthropologists showed how incredibly
important culture and learning are, even in shaping
minor behaviour nuances.
Other researchers proved that diet and sanitary
conditions were extremely important, especially in the so-called
feeblemindedness condition. The irony of the assumption that feeblemindedness
was inherited became apparent when it was found that many clearly mentally
deficient persons produced offspring which were fully normal. This was
especially true of those whose children were raised by relatives and had
decent food and
1854 Alfred Dreyfus is born. In
1898, he will be forced to undergo a show trial in France for espionage,
largely because he is Jewish.
1857 Dred Scott decision "Negroes are so
inferior that they have no rights which a white man is bound to respect."
1859 Darwin's Origin of Species. General Theory of Evolution defended
by Thomas Henry Huxley, "Darwin's bulldog".
1870 Franco-Prussian War.
The participants saw it as a race war. (George Mosse, Towards the Final
Solution, p. 90)
1871 The German physiologist Rudolf Virchow conducted
a study of 6.7 million children in Germany, comparing Jewish and Christian
children across a range of physical characteristics. No differences were found.
However, the findings from the study produced no cultural impact. (George
Mosse, Towards the Final Solution, p. 90-92). Virchow is essentially the last
major voice in Germany arguing against the idea that there are "races" within
1871 Darwin's Descent of Man. It's main thesis: man developed
from a lower life form.
1883 Francis Galton, Darwin's cousin, coins the
word "eugenics". His early aim was to selectively marry off the population so
that poor heredity would be eliminated. Galton begins popularizing his ideas.
1891 Hans Dreisch split a fertilized sea urchin egg which was at the
two-cell division stage by hand. Each cell subsequently developed into two
small but identical sea urchin larva. His research was carried on by Hans
Spemann in Germany and Ross Harrison in the US.
1904 Francis Galton
endows a chair of eugenics at the University of London. (Bernard Schreiber, The
Men Behind Hitler, A German Warning to the World, 1971, p. 15). The Journal for
Racial and Social Biology, founded in Germany in this year, will follow Francis
Galton's work in England (Eugenics Education Society) very closely. (Mosse, p.
1907 The US
state of Indiana passes the world's first mandatory sterilization law. (John
David Smith, "Minds Made Feeble", p. 136-137)
1911 Eugenics journals
are common throughout Europe. (Mosse, p 75)
1912 American sociologist
Henry Herbert Goddard, director of the Training School for Feeble-Minded Boys
and Girls in Vineland NJ, publishes his account of the Kallikaks. Deborah
Kallikak was considered feeble-minded. Her family tree was traced back six
generations and feeble-mindedness was purportedly found in every generation.
Elizabeth Kite, an assistant of Goddard who had no formal training, did most of
the research. The work demonstrated that feeble-mindedness and a propensity
towards crime was inherited. Scientists loved the work, a Broadway show based
on the book was considered. (Smith, Minds Made Feeble, p. 5). Years later, the
data was found to have been fabricated by Kite and Goddard.
Goddard's book Feeblemindedness: Its Causes and Consequences was the complete
study of the 300 families of the Kallikak line. Stories on the Jukes and Nams
of New York, the Tribe of Ishmael in Indiana, the Hill Folk of Ohio and the
Dacks of Pennsylvania were also published about this time, however the Kallikak
study was by far the most influential. All of the above-mentioned works were
carried out by American sociologists. The Kallikak study was published in
Germany the same year. (Smith p. 161)
1914 First World War. Most
historians consider this war to be a direct result of the Franco-Prussian war.
1916 Margaret Sanger opens her first birth control clinic.
1917 Goddard and the new IQ tests determined that the average immigrant had a
"moron-grade" intelligence level. (Smith, p. 6) The Intelligence Quotient was
seen as immutable, fixed in the genes. (Donald K. Pickens, "Eugenics and the
Progressives", p. 151)
1917 Margaret Sanger founds the Birth Control
League, and it's magazine The Birth Control Review. She edits this magazine
until 1938. It promotes Sanger's idea "More children from the fit, less from
1920 The Release of Unworthy Life, That It Might Be
Destroyed by the German lawyer Karl Binding and the physician Alfred Hoch. The
book was not avowedly racist, but was definitely utilitarian. It asserted that
non-useful people had to die so others could use scarce resources to live.
Euthanasia was based on a common respect for "everyone's will to live". Note
the correspondence to resource preservation and overpopulation arguments.
(Mosse, p. 216)
1921 The Birth Control League, founded by Sanger in
1917, changes its name to the American Birth Control League. Lothrop Stoddard
is on the board of directors. (Elasah Drogin, Margaret Sanger: Father of Modern
Society, p. 13) In this year, Sanger wrote, "I think you must agree ... that
the campaign for birth control is not merely of eugenic value, but is
practically identical with the final aims of eugenics... Birth control
propaganda is thus the entering wedge for the eugenic educator." (Margaret
Sanger, "The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda.", Birth Control Review,
October 1921, p. 5)
1922 Lothrop Stoddard publishes The Revolt Against
Civilization. It asserts that uncontrolled reproduction among defective
families would bring the "twilight of the American mind" and the "dusk of
mankind". (Smith, p.3)
1922 Margaret Sanger publishes Pivot of
Civilization. It advocates birth control and IQ testing, mandatory for the
lower classes. Philanthropy is seen as a positive danger to society, since it
allows the lower classes to propagate. Sanger will assert that up to 70% of the
population had an intellect of less than a 15-year old (David Kennedy, Birth
Control in America, the Career of Margaret Sanger, p. 116) She will also
promote the idea of parenthood licenses - no one being permitted to have a
child unless they first obtain a government-approved parenthood permit.
Margaret Sanger is a strong advocate and practitioner of free love, and
considers marriage both an abomination and an assault on human liberty. She
supports compulsory education and restriction on child labor, not because it is
good for the children, but because it would prove to be a burden to the poor
and force them to restrict family size.
1924 The Immigration
Restriction Act comes into effect. This act won't be removed until 1965. It is
passed largely due to the supporting testimony of the Eugenics Records Office,
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island. (Smith, p. 3)
The US state of
Virginia passes the Racial Integrity Act, which forbids miscegany (sexual
relations between whites and blacks). This law will become the model for the
German Nuremburg laws. It is itself modelled on a sterilization act developed
by Harry Laughlin. The law was written by W.A. Plecker; a eugenicist and the
registrar for vital statistics for Virginia, he also worked closely with the
Eugenics Record Office, and belonged to several eugenic organizations. (Smith,
Foundation begins funding Margaret Sanger.
1927 U.S. Supreme Court
upholds the validity of mandatory sterilization in Buck v. Bell. During the
Nuremburg trials, a German doctor will cite Buck vs. Bell as the precedent for
Nazi race hygiene and sterilization programs. (Smith p. 156)
Lambeth Conference in England approves, for the first time, the use of
contraceptives, albeit only within marriage and only for grave reasons. At
least one noted eugenicist, the Rev. Dr. D. S. Bailey, was a participant in
1932 Aldous Huxley publishes Brave New World. It
explicitly modelled a society created through the Marquis de Sade's version of
the French Revolution, in which the bodies of everyone were the common property
of all, and minds were purged of all the inhibitions which society had
established. In this work, he predicts that totalitarianism will take the form
of government control in exchange for social stability. Totalitarian
governments must make their subjects love their servitude, and this is best
undertaken by allowing hedonism. He argues that doing nothing, and the silence
which it entails, are the best weapons of propaganda. According to Huxley, in
order for totalitarianism to take hold, four principles must be present:
Greatly improved techniques of suggestion. Huxley proposed drugs such
as scopolamine, and infant conditioning, but he wrote before the effects of
television were well-understood.
A fully developed science of human
differences, so that people are placed correctly in the social hierarchy, thus
avoiding the dangerous thoughts which people uncomfortable with their social
Mental vacations from society through drugs. Again,
the effect of the electronic drug television, was unforeseen.
Eugenics, in order to standardize the human product. (Huxley, Perennial
Classic, 1946, vii-xiii)
1933 January 30: Hitler is appointed
Chancellor of Germany by Hindenburg.
The April issue of "The Birth
Control Review" is devoted entirely to eugenic sterilization, with a feature
article by Dr. Ernst Rudin, the director of Germany's Eugenics institute.
(Schreiber, p. 35).
July 14: Hereditary Health Law created, based on
the Laughlin model. Germany also sets up the first eugenics courts. Within a
year 56,000 people would be sterilized. This move was roundly applauded by
American eugenicists. (Smith p 156).
November: The Kallikak study is
republished in Germany.
Harry Laughlin puts the number of eugenic
sterilizations performed in the US at 15,000 through December 1931. Hans
Spemann, the German developer of chimeric animals, comes to the US to deliver
the Silliman invitational lecture at Yale.
1934 The German
constitution of 1871 forbad abortion, the article which outlawed it was not
changed until this year, when the Hamburg courts declare a "racial emergency".
Abortion is permitted in Germany for the first time since the German state came
into being. Neglect of mentally and physically handicapped patients is
encouraged. (Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p. 62)
Nuremburg laws are passed. An estimated 500,000 eugenic abortions have been
performed in Germany.
1936 The Nazis award Harry Laughlin an honorary
degree from Hiedelburg University as part of the university's 550th anniversary
celebration, in appreciation for his eugenics efforts. Laughlin, in his
acceptance, stated that the Germans provided the "human seed-stock which
...founded my own country and thus gave basic character to our present lives
and institutions". (Smith, p. 158).
The American Eugenics Society has
a roundtable discussion at which Nazi eugenicist Maria Kopp reads her paper on
eugenic sterilization. Germans based their laws on the sterilization program in
California carried out by the Human Betterment Foundation, now known as the
Association for Voluntary Sterilization. (Marie Kopp Legal and Medical Aspects
of Eugenic Sterilazation in Germany; a talk delivered at the annual meeting of
the American Eugenics Society, May 7, 1936).
1937 North Carolina
becomes the first state to contribute money to Margaret Sanger's birth control
movement. (Diversity Magazine, March/April 1992, p 12, also see Linda Gordon,
Woman's Body, Woman's Right).
The NC public health office convinces
recalcitrant county health officers to set up birth control clinics by telling
them to check their vital statistics, confident that they would discover a high
proportion of black births.
Two US Rockefeller grantees, Gregory
Pincus and Jacques Loeb, used parthenogenesis (instigated by x-rays, electrical
shocks, and chemicals to induce the female into pregnancy) to ostensibly create
several pathenogenic "monsters", one of which, a
rabbit, was featured on
the cover of Look magazine. Rockefeller grants have been instrumental in
advancing eugenics and social control ideology since the end of the 19th
century. They eventually fund PP, SIECUS, The American Right to Die Society,
Alfred Kinsey's sexuality project (see Reader's Digest, April 1997, "Sex, Lies,
and the Kinsey Report", p. 59), and the Hastings center, among other resources.
1938 Thirty states in the U.S. have mandatory sterilization laws.
(Smith, p. 139). The Knauer infant, a child born blind and having deformed
limbs, is starved to death in Germany causing a storm of controversy in Europe.
(Lifton, p. 62)
1939 The German T-4 program has begun.
Mentally and physically handicapped children are systematically poisoned or
starved to death. This is soon expanded to include handicapped adults as well.
Margaret Sanger writes Clarence Gambel, telling him to hire "three or
four colored ministers with engaging personalities...we do not want word to get
out that we want to exterminate the Negro population, and the minister is the
man who can straighten out that idea if it occurs to any of their more
rebellious members". (Linda Gordon, Women's Body, Women's Right, A Social
History of Birth Control in America p. 333).
The American Birth
Control League launches The Negro Project.
1941 Hackett's Handbook for
Schooling Hitler Youth explains the Nazi eugenics program. Ich Klage An (I
Accuse), a film favorably detailing how a doctor euthanizes his handicapped
wife, is released. (Smith p. 165 and Mosse, Towards the Final Solution, p. 216)
The Nazi regime recommends that abortion on the mother's request should be
approved in order to reduce the surplus population.
1942 The American
Birth Control League changes its name to Planned Parenthood.
Planned Parenthood hires a permanent Negro Consultant.
Parenthood policy required the hiring of staff at each clinic which reflected
the racial population it served, in order to make birth control more palatable.
(Diversity Magazine, March/April p. 14)
1961 The April issue of
Scientific American carries the article "How Cells Associate", which describes
the cloning and hybridization of amphibian embryos performed by Dr. Clifford
Grobstein, professor emeritus at UC, San Diego, member of the American
Fertility Society, and a member of the Hastings Center review committee.
1968 Dr. Geoffery Chamberlein, a researcher at George Washington U,
obtains several liveborn babies on the abortion schedule and attaches them to
an artificial placenta under development. Several hours later, after the
necessary data was obtained, the equipment is shut off and the children die. At
least one child, a six-month old obtained by hysterotomy, took over 20 minutes
to die. Dr. Chamberlein won that year's prize from the American College of
Obstetrics and Gynecology for "best experiment".
In this year, 41% of
poll respondants wanted four or more children. By 1971, the percentage had
dropped to 19%. (Celeste Michelle Condit, "Decoding Abortion Rhetoric" p 71,
and Gallup 1935-1971, 2168-2169) The Zero Population Growth movement is
instrumental in adopting the "unwanted child" rhetoric which eventually is
adopted by the pro-abortion movememnt. (Condit, p. 187).
approved. In response to a prize competition from the Population Institution,
which wanted television shows dealing with population matters, an episode of
the television series "Maude" shows her having an abortion (Condit, p. 124).
1984 Faye Wattleton tells the Washington Times that Margaret Sanger
was "devoted to eugenics and the advancement of the perfect race."
1986 Faye Wattleton tells The Humanist Magazine "I am proud to be walking in
the footsteps of Margaret Sanger."
Planned Parenthood's definition of
abstinence: "Abstinence means making love without having intercourse. It is the
most effective form of birth control, has been used for centuries and is still
very common. It has no pysical side effects as long as prolonged sexual arousal
is followed by orgasm to relieve pelvic congestion." (Boston Women's Health
Book Collective, The New Our Bodies, Ourselves, p. 237)
1980's Dr. Ann
McLaren, British biologist, a frequent researcher at Cold Springs Harbor and a
member of the American Fertility Society is appointed to England's Warnock
Committee, which is tasked to discuss whether or not human embryo
experimentation should be permitted for the first 14 days. She introduces and
popularizes the term "pre-embryo".
1992 70% of Planned Parenthood
clinics are located in predominantly black or hispanic neighborhoods.
(Diversity, March April, 1992, p. 16).
Germany's decision to
exterminate the handicapped, and then the Jews, was merely the next logical
step on the path to Utopia. Indeed, the Nazis specifically denied that
Darwinism applied to them. They claimed that evolution did not apply to races
with strong racial roots, thus their eugenics policies were only meant to
prevent the contamination of perfection.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a new
perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which
requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church
buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a
personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the
knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has
enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are
spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against
individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a
This web site in no way condones violence. To the
contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring
due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race.
The international corporate cartel already controls the world central banking
system, mass media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment
complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of
self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization
is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a
American social mores and values have declined precipitously over
the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more
power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through mass media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed
into the population through prior mass media psychological operations. The
results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social
structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of
a perfect world. Through distraction and
coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of
individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the
capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and
thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to,
re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been
throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with
the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to
the reader in the present time.
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© Lawrence Turner
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