The units used to
radiation are rather complex. The ionizing effects of radiation are measured by
units of exposure:The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing
radiation exposure, and measures the amount of radiation required to create 1
coulomb of charge of each polarity in 1 kilogram of matter.The roentgen (R) is
an older traditional unit that is almost out of use, which represented the
amount of radiation required to liberate 1 esu of charge of each polarity in 1
cubic centimeter of dry air. 1 Roentgen = 2.58×10-4 C/kg.However, the
amount of damage done to matter (especially living tissue) by ionizing
radiation is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited rather than
the charge. This is called the absorbed dose.The gray (Gy), with units J/kg, is
the SI unit of absorbed dose, which represents the amount of radiation required
to deposit 1 joule of energy in 1 kilogram of any kind of matter.The rad
(Roentgen absorbed dose), is the corresponding traditional unit which is 0.01 J
deposited per kg. 100 rad = 1 Gy.
Herman Joseph Muller, Nobel Prize Medicine,
Herman Joseph Muller, an American scientist,
concluded from his investigations that low dose exposure, and therefore even
natural background radiation, is mutagenic and there is no harmless dose range
for heritable effects or for cancer induction.A typical
CT scan equals 400 chest X-rays.
Equal doses of different types or
energies of radiation cause different amounts of damage to living tissue.
1 Gy of alpha radiation causes about 20 times as much damage as 1 Gy of
x-rays. Therefore the equivalent dose was defined to give an approximate
measure of the
biological effect of radiation. It is calculated by multiplying the absorbed
dose by a weighting factor WR which is different for each type of radiation
(see above table).The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose. Although
it has the same units as grays, J/kg, it measures something different. It is
the dose of any type of radiation in Gy that has the same biological effect on
a human as 1 Gy of x-rays or gamma radiation.The rem (Roentgen equivalent man)
is the traditional unit of equivalent dose. 1 sievert = 100 rem. Because the
rem is a relatively large unit, typical equivalent dose is measured in millirem
(mrem), 10-3 rem, or in microsievert (µSv), 10-6 Sv. 1 mrem = 10
The 'background' dose of natural radiation is ~
3 mSv (300 mrem) per year.
The lethal dose of radiation for a human is
around 4 - 5 Sv (400 - 500 rem).
The biological effects of
radiation are thought of in terms of their effects on living cells. For low
levels of radiation, the biological effects are so small they may not be
detected in epidemiological studies. The body repairs many types of radiation
and chemical damage. Biological effects of radiation on living cells may result
in a variety of outcomes, including: Cells experience DNA damage and are able
to detect and repair the damage. Cells experience DNA damage and are unable to
repair the damage. These cells may go through the process of programmed cell
death, or apoptosis, thus eliminating the potential genetic damage from the
larger tissue. Cells experience a nonlethal DNA mutation that is passed on to
subsequent cell divisions. This mutation may contribute to the formation of a
cancer.Other observations at the tissue level are more complicated. These
include: In some cases, a small radiation dose reduces the impact of a
subsequent, larger radiation dose. This has been termed an 'adaptive response'
and is related to hypothetical mechanisms of hormesis.Radiation hormesis is the
unproven theory that a low level of ionizing radiation (i.e. near the level of
Earth's natural background radiation) helps "immunize" cells against DNA damage
from other causes (such as free radicals or larger doses of ionizing
radiation), and decreases the risk of cancer. The theory proposes that such low
levels activate the body's DNA repair mechanisms, causing higher levels of
cellular DNA-repair proteins to be present in the body, improving the body's
ability to repair DNA damage. This assertion is very difficult to prove (using,
for example, statistical cancer studies) because the effects of very low
ionizing radiation levels are too small to be statistically measured amid the
"noise" of normal cancer rates.Therefore, the idea of radiation hormesis is
considered unproven by regulatory bodies, which generally use the standard
"linear, no threshold" (LNT) model, which states that risk of cancer is
directly proportional to the dose level of ionizing radiation. The LNT model is
safer for regulatory purposes because it assumes worst-case damage due to
ionizing radiation; therefore, if regulations are based on it, workers might be
over-protected, but they will never be under-protected.
In biology, radiation is mainly used for
sterilization, and enhancing mutations.
Grace Fryer started work as a dial painter at
the United States Radium Corporation (USRC) in Orange, New Jersey.
painting was "the elite job for the poor
working girls"; it paid more than three times the average factory job, and
those lucky enough to land a position ranked in the top 5% of female workers
nationally, giving the women financial freedom in
a time of burgeoning female empowerment.
Radium's luminosity was part of its allure, and the dial painters soon
became known as the "ghost girls" - because by the time they finished their
shifts, they themselves would glow in the dark.
Believed to be
beneficial to health: People drank
as a tonic, and one could buy cosmetics, butter, milk, and toothpaste laced
Newspapers reported its
use would "add years to our lives!"
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious
beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the
founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of Life - a
rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human
race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world
economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military
entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the
elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems.
Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point
of a gun.
American social mores and values have declined precipitously
over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and
more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been
preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological
operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the
destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
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facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
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© Lawrence Turner
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