judgemental lamp

"Man rationally must cautiously suspend
judgement to consider the limits of his knowledge."
Michel De Montaigne


cognitive bias

judging ourselves

illusions that lead to errors in judgement

fallacies that lead to errors in judgement

effects that lead to errors in judgement

deviant thought patterns that lead to errors in judgement

why you think you're right - even if you're wrong

"Perception and truth are realted to the
experience and judgement of the individual."


The Science of Why Humans Constantly Compare Themselves to Others

Acts of judgement require a decision !

"Be curious, not judgemental." - Walt Whitman

"Protect me from the serpent of judgement,
which only appears to be a healing serpent,
yet in your depths is infernal poison
and agonizing death." - Carl Jung

ego defense mechanism

ego defense mechanisms

Implicit bias shapes our views without us knowing it

"Our very human need to not feel threatened by our immediate environment allows us to ignore certain realities existent in that environment.

We do this without the conscious awareness of choosing to ignore.

This is due in large part simple to the large amount of conflicting information that we have to sort.

Some we sort consciously and some we sort subconsciously - without conscious awareness." - Athbhreith Athbheochan

"Overconfident judgements are utterly representative' of those made by professionals in medical care, financial services, and a host of other settings of "expert" decision making.

In fact, physicists, economists, and demographers all suffer from this bias, even when reasoning about their field of expertise.

When you have a good theory, overconfidence may do less damage.

The problem is people usually believe they have a good theory." - JD Trout

"The truth is, human beings have a nasty habit of ignoring the cold hard facts of the present in the hopes of using apathy as a magical elixir for future prosperity.

They want to believe that disaster is a mindset, that it is a boogeyman under their bed that can be defeated through blind optimism." - Brandon Smith

judgement is defined as:


act of assessing;

formation of an opinion;

ability to perceive and distinguish relationships.

Justice can never be blind !


to pass judgement;

to form an opinion;

individual estimating worth, quality, fitness, honesty, morality;

to compare; to determine; to distinguish attributes and relations;

cognitive bias

cognitive bias

(cognitive dissonance)

A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation in judgement from what is perceived as the "normative judgement."

The "normative judgement" is a judgement made by an individual that adheres to "expected" and accepted modes of thought.

"Expected" modes of thought are based on a false assumption that individuals bring no pre-concieved notions to their judgements and that these individuals operate from entirely objective views of reality.

Accepted modes of thought are based on the values, ethics and morality of each unique individual group and are entirely dependent on the collective worldviews, both conscious and subconscious, within each unique group.

"One nagging thing that I still don't understand about myself is why I often succumb to well-documented psychological biases, even though I'm acutely aware of these biases. One would think that explicit knowledge of these well-documented psychological biases and years of experience with them would allow a person to cognitively override the biases. But they don't." - David Buss

"One nagging thing I don't understand about myself is why I'm still fooled by incidental feelings. Some 25 years ago I studied how gloomy weather makes one's whole life look bad -- unless one becomes aware of the weather and attributes one's gloomy mood to the gloomy sky, which eliminates the influence. You'd think I learned that lesson and now know how to deal with gloomy skies. I don't, they still get me." - Norbert Schwarz

Actor-observer bias - the tendency to judge an other's behavior by overemphasizing the influence of their personality and underemphasizing the influence of their situation coupled with the opposite tendency when judging oneself

Anchoring bias - the tendency to rely too heavily on one piece of information when making decisions

Attentional bias - inclination to neglect relevant data when making judgements of a correlation

Authority bias - the tendency to value something according to an "expert" opinion

Belief bias - evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion

Blind spot bias - the tendency not to compensate for one's own cognitive biases

Choice-supportive bias - the tendency to remember personal judgements made as better than they were

Confirmation bias - the tendency to search for or interpret information that confirms one's preconceptions

Congruence bias - the tendency to rely on direct testing of a given hypothesis while neglecting indirect testing

Correspondence bias - the tendency to draw correspondent dispositional inferences from behavior

Consistency bias - the tendency to incorrectly remember past opinions as resembling present opinions

Creativity bias - the tendency to reject the uncertainty of new creations

Distinction bias - the tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when evaluating them simultaneously than when evaluating them separately

Egocentric bias - the tendency to remember or believe you are greater than you are

Empathy bias - the tendency to be empathetic only to the group of which you belong

Expectation bias - the tendency to believe, certify, and publish data that agrees with expectations, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade data that conflicts with expectations.

Exposure bias - the tendency to express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar

Extraordinary bias - the tendency to over value an object because it is "special"

False consensus bias - the tendency to overestimate the degree to which others agree

Framing bias - the tendency to describe or approach an issue or situation too narrowly or incorrectly frame the issue or situation

Hindsight bias - the inclination to see past events as being more predictable than they actually were

Impact bias - the tendency for people to overestimate or underestimate the length and/or the intensity of the impact of future emotional states

Information bias - the tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action

Ingroup bias - the tendency to give preferential treatment to an individual identified as belonging to the same social sub-group

Hostile attributional bias - aggressive reaction to assumed hostile intent

Notational bias - a form of cultural bias in which symbols are mistaken for real things

Omission bias - the tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful omissions (inactions).

Optimism bias - the tendency to be over-optimistic about the outcome of planned actions

Outgroup homogeneity bias - the tendency to see peers as more varied in our sub-group

Outcome bias - the tendency to judge a decision based on the acceptability of results

Positive outcome bias - a tendency to overestimate the probability of good things happening

Negative outcome bias - a tendency to overestimate the probability of bad things happening

Overconfidence bias - the tendency to be overconfident in one's own abilities

Preference bias - the tendency to gravitate to the familiar

Primacy bias - the tendency to judge initial events as more important than subsequent events

Projection bias - the tendency to assume others share similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or opinions.

Recency bias - the tendency to judge recent events as more important than earlier events

Restraint bias - the tendency to overestimate one's ability to show restraint

Status quo bias - the tendency to like things as they are

Selection bias - the tendency to distort data arising from the way data is selected

Self-serving bias - the tendency to claim more responsibility for successes than failures

Separation bias - the tendency to conceive of oneself as independent of the environment

Specialist's bias - the tendency to look at things through the lens of one's own specialty, blinded to any broader point of view

Stereotyping bias - the tendency to project group traits - race, class, sex - on individuals

Subadditivity bias - the tendency to judge probability of the whole to be less than the probabilities of the parts

Trait ascription bias - the tendency to see oneself as flexible in terms of personality, behavior and mood while viewing others as predictable

Zero-sum bias - the tendency to view life as a zero-sum game

Zero-risk bias - preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk

upside down rightside up

illusions that lead to errors in judgement

Big Brother illusion - assuming that behemoth centralized government cares about you individually

Clustering illusion - seeing patterns where none actually exist

Collector's illusion - assuming cheap consumer products will one day fetch exorbinant sums

Consciousness illusion - believing you will experience consciousness in unconsciousness

Expert opinion illusion - assuming that someone touted as an expert actually knows what he is talking about

Focusing illusion - wrongly attributing influence to a single factor by exaggerating its importance relative to other factors

illusion of control

Illusion of control - the tendency for human beings to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes that they clearly cannot

Irrational escalation - the tendency to make irrational decisions based upon decisions made or actions taken under the illusion of control in the past

Illusion of asymmetric insight - people perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers' knowledge of them.

Illusion of separation - people perceive themselves to be separate from nature when actually they are part of an ecosystem

Illusion of transparency - believing you are seeing through the Veil of Cognitive Blindness, when, in truth, reality is still obscured.

Illusion of consensus - overestimating another's understanding of your own mental state or overestimating your understanding of anothers' mental state.

Illusory correlation - beliefs that inaccurately suppose a relationship between a certain type of action and an effect

Illusory superiority - perceiving oneself as having desirable qualities to a greater degree than other people

Importance illusion - assuming that something is important because it was on network news or in the newspaper

Money illusion - irrational notion that the arbitrary values of currency, fiat or otherwise, have an actual immutable value

Nothing there illusion - not seeing the forest for the trees

Optical illusion - seeing things incorrectly optical illusion example

Ponzi illusion - assuming outstanding community members are actually honest

Politician's illusion - assuming politicians will actually keep promises

Shopper's illusion - assuming the products you purchase will make your life better

playing leap frog

fallacies that lead to errors in judgement

adventures of fallacy man

rhetological fallacies

Logical fallacy - an error in reason based on an incorrect fundamental assumption

Base rate fallacy - ignoring available statistical data in favor of chosen particulars

Broken window fallacy - assuming breaking a window creates economic growth

Competition fallacy - assuring an 'even' playing field

Conjunction fallacy - assuming that specific conditions are more probable than general ones

Consensus fallacy - assuming that others think the same way

Double or nothing fallacy - failing to take into account the fact that winning streaks end

Gambler's fallacy - assuming future probabilities are altered by past events, when in reality they are unchanged

Gender Identity Fallacy - projecting social conditioning onto sexuality

Good Intentions Fallacy - assuming a person with good intentions actually knows what is good

Ludic fallacy - the analysis of chance related problems according to the belief that the unstructured randomness found in reality resembles the structured randomness found in games, ignoring the non-gaussian distribution of many real-world results

Moral Superiority fallacy - popularity predicates morality

Memory fallacy - confusion of imagination or true memories replaced with false memories

Planning fallacy - underestimating task-completion times

Texas sharpshooter fallacy - selecting or adjusting a hypothesis after the data is collected, making it impossible to test the hypothesis fairly. Refers to the concept of firing shots at a barn door, drawing a circle around the best group, and declaring that to be the target.

am i reading this right

effects that lead to errors in judgement

Ambiguity effect - the avoidance of options for which missing information makes the probability appear "unknown"

Bandwagon effect - believing something because others do

Backfire effect - enhancement of ignorarrogance through rejection of contradictory evidence.

Contrast effect - the enhancement or diminishment, relative to normal, of perception, cognition and related performance as a result of immediately previous or simultaneous exposure to like stimulus

Denomination effect - the tendency to spend more money when it is denominated in small amounts (e.g. coins) than large amounts (e.g. bills)

Devil effect - a particular negative trait of an individual "frames" the entire individual

Dunning-Kruger effect - incompetent individuals tend to overestimate their own level of skill and talent while failing to recognize genuine skill in others and the extremity of their own inadequacy

Endowment effect - to ascribe more value to a possessed object

Forer effect (aka Barnum Effect) - to rate sets of statements as highly accurate for oneself personally even though the statements could apply to many people

Framing effect - drawing different conclusions based on how information is presented

Halo effect - a particular positive trait of an individual "frames" the entire individual

Hawthorne effect - people act differently when they know they are being observed

Lake Wobegon effect - the phenomenon that a supermajority of people report themselves as above average in desirable qualities

Licensing effect - positive acts make up for negative acts

Mere-Exposure effect - developing a preference for something merely because it is familiar

Moral credential effect - prior track records of non-prejudice increases subsequent prejudice

Observer-expectancy effect - expectations of a given result create a subconscious bias to manipulate or misinterprets data in order to find expected results.

Ostrich effect - ignoring an obvious (negative) situation.

Neglect of prior base rates effect - the tendency to neglect known odds when reevaluating odds in light of weak evidence

Pseudocertainty effect - making risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive while making risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes

Thinking-in-the-box effect - unawareness that ones knowledge is cognitively bound by one's experience

Telescoping effect - recent events appear to have occurred more remotely and remote events appear to have occurred more recently

Von Restorff effect - things that have caught our attention to more likely remain in memory

Yes-men effect - failure to see that everyone is in agreement for the sake of unanimity

thought patterns

deviant thought patterns that lead to errors in judgement

Availability heuristic - estimating what is more likely by what is more available in memory, which is biased toward vivid, unusual, or emotionally charged examples.

Cryptomnesia - a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, occurs when memories seem impossible to be true

Hyperbolic discounting - the tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, where the tendency increases the closer to the present both payoffs are

Availability cascade - a self-reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse (or "repeat something long enough and it will become true")

Disregard of regression toward the mean - the tendency to expect extreme performance to continue

Divestiture aversion - valuing a good or service at more than market value after property rights to the good or service have been established

Fundamental attribution error - the tendency for people to over-emphasize personality-based explanations for behaviors observed in others while under-emphasizing the role and power of situational influences on the same behavior

Herd instinct - the common tendency to jump on the bandwagon by adopting the opinions and following the behaviors of the majority to feel safer and to avoid conflict

Just-World/God phenomenon - the tendency for people to believe that the world or God is "just" and therefore people "get what they deserve"

Need for closure - the need to have an answer and to escape the feeling of doubt and uncertainty.

Neglect of probability - the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty

Not Invented Here - the tendency to ignore that a product or solution already exists

Pareidolia - vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) are perceived as significant, e.g., hearing hidden messages on records played in reverse or thinking the speaker on the television is talking to you personally

Post-purchase rationalization - the tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good value

Reactance - the urge to do the opposite of what someone wants you to do out of a need to resist a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice

Reminiscence bump — the effect that people tend to recall more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than from other lifetime periods

Rosy retrospection - the tendency to rate past events more positively than they had actually rated them when the event occurred

Selective perception - the tendency for expectations to affect perception
Self-fulfilling prophecy - the tendency to engage behavior that elicit results which will confirm our beliefs

Semmelweis reflex - rejecting evidence that contradicts an established, generally accepted paradigm

Subjective validation - perception that something is true if a subject's belief demands it to be true. Also assigns perceived connections between coincidences

Suggestibility - a form of misattribution where ideas suggested by a questioner are mistaken for memory

System justification - the tendency to defend and bolster the status quo

Ultimate attribution error - assigning an internal attribution to an entire group instead of each individual within the group

Wishful thinking - the formation of beliefs and the making of decisions according to what is pleasing to imagine instead of by appeal to evidence or rationality.

judging selfjudge self

judging ourselves

Judgment is a natural instinctive reaction required by all animals for survival. Members of a hierarchical social structure are conditioned to believe that they must conform and perform. To conform one must observe others and compare oneself to those others. Personal performance requirements will be self-judged based upon observations of the others behavior.

Once we no longer have to make judgement for survival then that function, which still occurs, will judge something else. If our performance, in our judgement, does not meet our expectations, based on conformance observations, then we will suffer emotionally. We can not stop judging but we can change the focus of our judgement from one of performance and conformity. If we no longer are concerned with conforming to a particular standard then we no longer are compelled to perform.

The Last Judgement is simply the last time we judge ourselves - either we have come to realize the fruitless of overanalysis and judgement or we have stopped breathing.

judge yourself

How to Judge


unique library index

This web site is not a commercial web site and is presented for educational purposes only.

This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.

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