reasoning is a basic form of valid
Deductive logical reasoning,
deduction, starts out with a
general statement, or hypothesis, and examines possibilities to reach a
specific, logical conclusion.
deductive inference, we
go from the general to the specific.
reasoning is the opposite of deductive logical reasoning.
logical reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific
inference, we go from the specific to the general.
or deductive inference requires
observation until a pattern is
infer a generalization
as an explanation, hypothesis or theory.
Inference in logic
- a proposition reached by a process of inference from assumed
- the process of deriving
- the process of arriving at a conclusion not logically
derivable from the assumed premises that possesses the
Due to the truth of the preceding statement
it is imperative that pattern matches be based on a logic accurate assessment
of reality including an accurate unbiased understanding of the world outside of
If you subscribe
to ANY belief system then you disallow yourself the ability to think in a
rational logic manner.
who tries to convince you a belief system will save you is a
Honest rational logical thought
requires the sacrifice of
Non-Contradiction states that no statement
etc.) can be both true and not true
The Law of
excluded middle is generally given as "A is B or A is not B;"
either has or lacks a given property (B).
An alternate formulation of
this (with propositions instead of objects) is "p or not p" - but not both.
"There is nothing between asserting and denying." -
Law of Identity states that A
equals A or "if any statement is true, then this statement is true."
The Law of
Rational Inference monitors inferences between premises and
If A equals B, and B equals C, then A equals
"The law of rational inference teaches that if premise A and B are
valid, then, by what Martin
Luther called resistless logic, that conclusion C follows." - C. Matthew
logic is defined herein as:
A system of valid reasoning.
The branch of
philosophy that analyzes inference.
The principles that guide reasoning within a given field or
The nonarithmetic operations performed by a computer, such as
sorting, comparing, and matching, that involve yes-no decisions.
branch of philosophy that deals with the formal principles, methods and
criteria of validity of inference,
reasoning and knowledge.
Logic, concerned with
the study of the principles of reasoning, examines the structure of a statement
as distinguished from the content of a statement.
Logic attempts exact
reasoning through formal thought systems.
Symbolic logic, a
meta-language concerned with truth, represents logical expressions through the
use of symbols and variables.
Propositional logic, also known as
sentential logic and statement logic, is the branch of logic that studies ways
of joining and/or modifying propositions, statements or sentences to form more
complex propositions, statements or sentences, as well as logical relationships
and properties derived from joining.
Boolian logic deals with the basic
operations of truth values: AND, OR, NOT and combinations thereof resulting in
either a true or false answer.
Boolean logic is important for computer
science because it fits nicely with the binary numbering system, in which each
bit has a value of either 1 or 0.
Predicate logic contains the
elements of propositional logic, propositional variables and constants, but
adds predicates and quantifiers.
Symbols, typically used in place of
nouns and pro-nouns, are combined into sentences by means of predicates.
The rules of natural deduction describe how we may proceed from valid
premises to valid conclusions, where the premises and conclusions are
expressions in predicate logic.
syntax determines which
collections of symbols are legal
expressions while the semantics
determine the meanings behind these expressions.
first-order logic, is completely formal so that it can be mechanically
determined whether a given expression is true or legal.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the
1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include
operators expressing modality.
A modal is a word that expresses a
modality which qualifies a statement.
This text will only be understood
only by someone who can follow a thread.
This text deals with
philosophy: the logic of language is misunderstood.
This text might be
summed up in the following two sentences:
be said at all can be said clearly.
What we cannot talk about
we must pass over in
The aim of this text
is to reveal limits to the expression of thought.
(Although what can be said may be stated clearly and
succinctly many times it is NOT
in the interest of the speaker or writer to do so.
In the case of
deception - imperative.
To discern propaganda one must follow the logical thought
thread of the proposition being presented.
This edited version of
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is an attempt to show one logical thought thread
in the Labyrinth of the
All numbering and thoughts by Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Some dead ends of the logical thought thread of the Labyrinth of
Ludwig, also known as rabbit holes, have been omitted for the sake of clearity
||In logic nothing
||We are quite
unable to imagine
spatial objects outside space
or temporal objects outside time.
||In relationships objects are causually linked to one
another like the links of a
objects stand in a determinate
relation to one another.
||The totality of
existing relationships of objects comprises reality.
||An image is
a model of reality - a snapshot of
||What any image,
of whatever form, must have in common with reality, in order to be able to
depict reality correctly or incorrectly in any way at all, is
logical form, i.e. the form of reality.
|| Logical images
can depict reality.
||A thought is a
||The totality of
statements is language.
the ability to construct languages capable of expressing materially related
thoughts, without having any idea how each word
has meaning or what its meaning is just as people speak without knowing
how the individual sounds are produced.
Everyday language is a part of
the human organism and is no less complicated.
It is not humanly
possible to gather immediately what the logic of language is.
Language disguises thought.
So much so, that
from its outward form of language it
is impossible to infer the form of the thought beneath it, because its
outward form is not designed to reveal the form of the thought, but for
entirely different purposes. The tacit conventions on which the understanding
of everyday language depends are enormously complicated.
during a cultural wide logic failure.
||A statement is
an image of reality -
a model of reality as we
record, the musical idea, the written notes, and the sound-waves, all stand to
one another in the same internal relation of depicting knowledge that holds
between language and culture. They are all constructed according to a common
||There is a general rule, a
common logical pattern, by means of which the musician can obtain
the symphony from the score, and which
makes it possible to derive the
symphony from the groove on the gramophone record, and, using this first
rule, to derive the score again. The common logical pattern is the general rule
that creates the inner similarity between a musical score,
a symphony and a gramophone record -
things which are constructed in such entirely different ways but which produce
||The possibility of all
imagery, of all our pictorial modes of expression, is contained in the
logic of depiction.
the sense of a statement without it having been explained in detail through a
commonly held logic of depiction.
||A statement is a
image of reality: if I understand a statement, I know the situation that it
represents without having had its details explained to
restricts reality to two alternatives: true or false. In order to do that, it
must describe reality completely. A statement is a description of a
state of affairs. Just as a
description of an object describes it by
its properties, so a statement describes reality by its properties. A statement
constructs a reality with the help of a logical scaffolding, so that one can
actually see from the statement how everything stands logically if the
statement is true.
|| To recognize
the truth of a true statement is to logically
understand the noumenon.
||When translating one language into
another, translators do not
proceed by translating each
statement of the one into a statement of the other, but merely by
translating the constituents of
statements. (And the dictionary translates not only substantives, but
also verbs, adjectives, and conjunctions, etc.; and it treats them all in the
same way.) Therefore all translations will be corrupt.
||The meanings of
simple symbols (words) must be explained to us or defined for us if we are to
fully understand them.
||A statement must
use old expressions (symbolic
imagery) to communicate a
|| It is only in
so far as a statement is logically articulated that it is an image of a
||A statement can
be true or false only in virtue of being an
image of reality.
represent the existence and non-existence of actual
|Philosophy aims at the
logical clarification of thoughts.
|Philosophy is not a body of
doctrine but an activity.
philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations.
Philosophy is the clarification of actual
Without philosophy thoughts are
cloudy and indistinct:
Sophia's task is to make them clear and
to give them sharp boundaries.
||Philosophy defines the
limits to the sphere of natural science.
||Philosophy defines the
limits to what can be thought and what cannot be
verify what cannot be said, by presenting clearly what can be said.
can be thought at all can be thought clearly. Everything that can be put into
words can be put clearly into words. (Clarity is many times not an intent of
the speaker or author.)
|| Statements can
represent reality, but they cannot represent what they must have in common with
reality in order to be able to represent it - the logical form of reality. In
order to be able to represent the
logical form of reality with statements,
we have to be able to station
ourselves as observers somewhere outside logic, outside
||Statements do not represent the logical form of
the logical form of
reality is mirrored in them.
the logical form of
||The existence of
an internal relation between possible situations expresses itself in language
by means of an internal relation between the statements representing those
kind of statement, an elementary statement, asserts the existence of
a state of
||If a statement's
is elementary there can be no elementary statement contradicting
statement consists of names. It is a nexus, a concatenation, of
||It is only in
the nexus of an elementary statement that a name occurs in a
||If an elementary
statement is true, the
state of affairs exists: if an
elementary statement is false, the state of affairs does not exist.
It immediately strikes one as
probable that the introduction of elementary statements provides the basis
for understanding all other kinds of statement. Indeed the understanding of general statements
palpably depends on the understanding of elementary statements. (If
elementary statements are misunderstood then a
false understanding of reality will be forged.)
||Among the possible groups of truth-conditions there are two
In one of these cases the statement is true for all the
truth-possibilities of the elementary statements.
We say that the
truth-conditions are tautological.
In the second case the statement is
false for all the truth-possibilities: the truth-conditions are
first case we call the statement a tautology; in the second, a
|| Statements show
what they say; tautologies and contradictions show that they say
A tautology has no truth-conditions, since it is
unconditionally true: and a contradiction is true on no
Tautologies and contradictions lack sense.
example, I know nothing about the weather when I know that it is either raining
or not raining.)
|| Tautologies and
contradictions are not, however, nonsensical.
They are part of the
symbolism of language, much as '0' is
part of the symbolism of
contradictions are not images of reality. They do not represent any possible
For the former admit all possible situations, and latter
In a tautology the conditions of agreement with reality
the representational relations cancel one another, so that it does not
stand in any representational relation to reality.
truth-conditions of a statement determine the range that it leaves open. A
tautology leaves open to reality the whole
the Ineffable Whole
of logical space: a contradiction fills the whole of logical space leaving no
point in logical space for reality.
contradictions are thus unable to determine reality in any
||A tautology's truth is certain,
a statement's possible,
a contradiction's impossible.
indication of a scale to be used in
the theory of
|| The logical
product of a tautology and a statement says the same thing as the statement.
This product, therefore, is identical with the statement.
It is impossible to alter what is essential to a
symbol without altering its essence.
||What is essential in the most general propositional form must be
included in its description.
The existence of a general propositional
form is proven by the fact that there cannot be a statement whose form could
not have been foreseen.
The general form of a statement is:
This is how things
If I am in possession of a basic
truthful understanding of all elementary statements then I can intuitively
deduct from that library of elementary statements the actual conditions of
Out of that knowledge I
can construct a structural definition of the limits of the common logical
language pattern's ability to define reality
||A statement is a
truth-function of elementary statements.
elementary statement is a truth-function of itself.)
||Elementary statements are the
truth-arguments of statements.
||Truth-functions arranged in series
is the foundation of the theory of probability.
||If God forged a reality in which
certain elementary statements were true, then by that very act God would have
also forged a reality in which all the statements that follow from those
elementary statements are true.
||A statement affirms every
statement that follows from it.
|| The truth of one statement following from the truth of
others can be seen in the structure of the statement.
||The truth of one statement following from the truth of
others, finds expression in the structural relation of the forms of the
statements to one another. These relations exist independently of definitions,
the relations are internal and their existence is an immediate result of the
existence of the statements.
||Contradiction is that common
factor of statements which no statement has in common with another. Tautology
is the common factor of all statements that have nothing in common with one
another. Contradiction, one might say, vanishes outside all statements:
tautology vanishes inside them. Contradiction is the outer limit of statements:
tautology is the unsubstantial point at their center
||In itself, a statement is neither probable
Either an event occurs or it does
not: there is no middle way.
||Suppose an urn contains black and
I draw one
ball after another, putting them back into the urn and shaking it.
establish that the number of black balls and the number of white balls
approximate one another when I recognize the
probability of my drawing a
white ball is equal to the probability of my drawing a black
I confirm by this experiment
the probability of my ability
to judge the quantity of balls realitive to one another by taking
a small sample repeatedly from
||The minimal unit for
a probability statement
is this: The circumstances of which I have no further knowledge
give such and such a degree of
probability to the occurrence of a particular event.
||It is in this way that
probability is a generalization . It involves a general description of a
propositional form. We use probability only
in default of certainty if our knowledge is not indeed complete. (A
statement may well be an incomplete image of a certain situation, but it is
always a complete image of a conceptualized situation.)
A probability statement is
derived from other statements.
||All statements are results of
truth-operations on elementary statements. A truth-operation is the way in
which a truth-function is produced out of elementary statements. It is of the
essence of truth-operations that, just as elementary statements yield a
truth-function of themselves, so too in the same way truth-functions yield
further truth- functions. When a truth-operation is applied to truth-functions
of elementary statements, it always generates another truth-function of
elementary statements. When a truth-operation is applied to the results of
truth-operations on elementary statements, there is always a single operation
on elementary statements that has the same result. Every statement is the
result of truth-operations on elementary statements.
||All truth-functions are results
of successive applications to elementary statements of a finite number of
||If there are primitive logical
archetypical truths, then any logic
pattern that fails to show clearly how those logical
archetypical truths are placed relatively
to one another to justify their existence will be incorrect.
|| If logic has primitive logical
archetypical truths, they must be
independent of one another.
|| The solutions of the problems
of logic must be simple, since they set the standard of simplicity. Men have
always had a presentiment that there must be a realm in which the answers to
questions are symmetrically combined a priori to form a
self-contained system. A realm subject to the law: Simplex sigillum
||It is clear that whatever we can
say in advance about the form of all statements, we must be able to say all at
once . An elementary statement really contains all logical operations within
||The general propositional form
is the essence of a statement.
||To give the essence of a
statement means to give the essence of all description, and thus the essence of
||The description of the most
general propositional form is the description of the one and only general
primitive archetypical truth in
||Logic must look after itself. If
a archetypical truth is possible , then it is also capable of
signifying. Whatever is possible in logic is also permitted.
||Occam's Razor is, of course, not
an arbitrary rule, nor
one that is justified by its success in practice: its point is that unnecessary
units in a language mean nothing. Symbols that serve one purpose are
logically equivalent, and symbols that serve none are logically meaningless.
|| It is clear that this is not a
question of a number of primitive archetypical truths that have to be
signified, but rather of the expression of underlying rule.
||How can logic
all-embracing logic, which
mirrors reality use such peculiar crotchets and contrivances?
Only because they are all connected with one another in an infinitely fine
network, the great mirror of
||We can describe reality
completely by means of fully generalized statements
correlating any name with a particular object.
||A fully generalized statement,
like every other statement, is composite.
The mark of a composite symbol is
that it has something in common with other symbols.
|| The truth or falsity of every statement does make some
alteration in the general conceptual
construction of reality. The range that the totality of elementary
statements leaves open for the construction of reality is exactly the same as
that which is delimited by entirely general statements.
|| It is self-evident that
identity is not a relation between objects.
||To perceive a
complex statement means to
perceive that its
constituents are related to one another in such and such a way. Contradictions
arise when constituent elementary statements have been improperly
conceptualized which explains the existence of apparent
||The 'experience' that we need in
order to correctly understand logic is not that something or other is the
state of affairs, but that
something actually exists.
||Clearly we have some concept of
elementary statements quite apart from their particular logical forms. When
there is a system by which we can create symbols, the system is what is
important for logic and not the individual symbols. We need to understand what
makes it possible for us to create those symbols.
||There cannot be a hierarchy of
the forms of elementary statements. We can foresee only what we ourselves can
|| Empirical reality is limited by
the totality of objects. The limit also makes itself manifest in the totality
of elementary statements. Hierarchies are and must be independent of reality.
||In fact, all the statements of
our everyday language, just as they stand, are in perfect logical order.
That utterly simple thing, which we have to formulate here, is not a likeness
of the truth, but the truth itself in its
entirety. (Our problems are not
abstract, but perhaps the most concrete that there are.)
||The limits of my language set
the limits of my reality.
||Logic pervades reality: the
limits of reality are also the limits of logic. We cannot think what we cannot
think; so what we cannot think we cannot say either.
||Reality is my world: this is manifest in that
the limits of language are the limits of my world.
||My world and my reality are
||Thus there really is a sense in
which philosophy can talk about the self in a non-psychological way. What
brings the self into philosophy is the fact that 'reality is my world'. The
philosophical self is not the human
being, not the human body, or the
human soul, with which psychology deals, but rather
subject, the limit of reality not a part of it.
of logic are tautologies.
|| Statements of
logic must be assigned a unique
status among all statements.
statements can be recognized as true immedialtely from the
symbols alone, and this fact contains in
itself the whole philosophy of logic..
||The truth or
falsity of non-logical statements cannot be recognized from the statements
||The fact that
the statements of logic are tautologies shows the formal logical
properties of language and reality.
|| It is clear
that one could achieve the same purpose by using contradictions instead of
||In a logical
statement, statements are brought into equilibrium with one another, and the
state of equilibrium then indicates the logical constitution of these
of logic describe the scaffolding of reality, or rather they represent it.
||If we know the
logical syntax of any
language, then we have already been
given all the statements of logic.
||Thus there can be no surprises in
||In logic process
and result are equivalent. (Hence
the absence of surprise.)
||Proof in logic
is merely a mechanical expedient to facilitate the recognition of tautologies
in complicated cases.
||logic is not a body of doctrine, but
a mirror-image of reality.
||Mathematics is a
The statements of mathematics are equations, and
||We make use of mathematical statements as inferences from
statements that do not belong to mathematics to others that likewise do not
belong to mathematics.
philosophy the question, 'What do we actually use this word or this statement
for?' repeatedly leads to valuable
|| The logic of
reality, shown in tautologies by the statements of logic, is shown in equations
|| If two
expressions are combined by means of the sign of equality, that means that they
can be substituted for one another - this characterizes their logical
whether intuition is needed for the solution of mathematical problems must be
given the answer that in this case
language itself provides the necessary intuition.
||The process of
calculating serves to bring about that intuition.
arrives at equations through the method of substitution. The substitutability
of substitution is in accordance with the equations.
of logic means the exploration of everything that is subject to law. Outside
logic, or law, everything is accidental.
law of induction cannot possibly be a law of logic, since it is obviously a
statement with sense. - Nor, therefore, can it be an a priori law.
|| The law of
causality is not a law but the form of a law.
actions are caused by entities. The nature of an action is caused and
determined by the nature of the entities that act; a thing cannot act in
contradiction to its nature."- Ayn Rand
"If one thing the same
in nature at different times, or two things the same in nature, are to act in
situations the same in their nature, they must act on both occasions in the
same way."- HW B. Joseph}
||We do not have
an a priori understanding
of the law of conservation, but rather
a priori knowledge of the possibility of
its logical form.
statements, including the principle of sufficient reason,
the laws of continuity in
nature and of least effort in nature, etc. - all these are a priori
insights about the forms in which the statements of science can be
mechanics, for example, imposes a unified form on the description of
Describing reality by means of
Newtonian mechanics tells us nothing about reality:
what it does tell us about
reality is the precise way it is possible to describe reality by these
mechanics is an attempt to construct according to a single plan all the true
statements that we need for the description of reality.
|| If there were a
law of causality, it might be put in the following way: There are
Laws of Nature.
compare a process with 'the passage of time' there is no such thing
but only with another process (such as the working of a chronometer).
Hence we can describe the lapse of time only by relying on some other
||The procedure of
induction consists in accepting as true the simplest law that can be reconciled
with our experiences. Occam's
Razor suggests this.
Razor rentlessly has no logical justification, only a
|| It is clear
that there are no grounds for believing that the simplest eventuality will in
fact be realized as a belief does not declare actuality.
||It is an
hypothesis that we will see the sun will rise tomorrow: we do not know whether
we will see it rise. (From past experience we can expect the sun to rise and
when we understand the actual motion of the planets in relation to the sun we
have faith that, yes indeed, the sun will rise tomorrow but we have no
guarantee that we ourselves will be
standing there alive to witness the sun emerging over the
|| Just as
the only necessity that exists is logical
necessity, so too the only
impossibility that exists is
||For example, the simultaneous
presence of two colors at the
same place in the visual field is impossible, in fact
impossible, since it is ruled out by the
logical structure of
||It is clear that
the logical product of two elementary statements can
neither be a tautology nor a
||The statement that a point in
the visual field has two different colors at the same time is a
||An understanding of reality must lie
||In reality everything is as it is, and
everything happens as it does happen.
The reality of the happy man is
a different one from the reality of the unhappy
||Death is not an
event in life: we do not live to experience death.
|| If we take
eternity to mean not infinite
temporal duration but timelessness, then
eternal life belongs
to those who live in the present.
||It is not how things are in reality
that is mystical, but that reality actually exists.
||When the answer
cannot be put into words, neither can the question be put into
not irrefutable, but obviously nonsensical, when it tries to raise doubts where
no questions can be asked. For doubt can exist only where a question exists, a
question only where an answer exists, and an
answer only where something can be
Trendy Skepticism : The Badge of The Emotionally Unfit &
||Even when all
possible scientific questions have been answered, the problems of life remain
completely untouched. Of course there are then no questions left, and this
itself is the answer.
solution of the problem of life is seen in
the vanishing of the problem.
|| Is not this the
reason why those who have found after a long period of doubt that the sense of
life became clear to them have then been unable to say what constituted that
indeed, things that cannot be put into words.
They make themselves
manifest. They are what is mystical.
||What we cannot
speak about we must pass over in silence.
Weltanschauung is the conceptualization that all
ideologies, beliefs, political systems - variations on
rational logical systems
of thought - are limited and defined by the schemata of common linguistic
understanding - in other words they are
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a new
perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based
on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
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the reader in the present time.
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