Literal Physical Truth of the Christian
"Modern New Testament scholarship has shown that
we know far less All
Christian documents in existence before the 4th century are on
about the historical Jesus than
we thought we did." - Karen Armstrong
Papyrus is fragile, only fragments of these works have been
Before the invention of the
documents were copied by hand, the laborious process that invited variations:
misspellings, altered wording, grammatical corrections, stylistic improvements,
insertions, omissions, etc.
Many New Testament versions have marginal
These marginalia were often copied into the main text of
No two New Testaments written before the 15th century
are identical !
20th century versions of the New Testament are primarily
based on parchment uncial codices of the 4th through the 9th century.
Many of the earliest of these, like Sinaiticus, have undergone
extensive "correction" by later scribes.
parchment uncial codices of the 4th through the 9th
century5th century Codex
Alexandrinus is largely an Alexandrian witness and the oldest text of the
A passage - "All things came into being through him;
and apart from him no single thing came into being. In him was life; and the
life was the light of men."
5th to 7th century
Codex Washingtonensis or Codex Freerianus paleographers have
deduced that the original scribe corrected some of his own errors, followed by
another who made revisions. Finally, two later hands made a few additional
Codex Washingtonensis is variegated in its
representation and believed to be copied from one that had been pieced together
out of fragments of several manuscripts. Readings representative of all of the
major text types can be found in this manuscript.
A passage - "All
things came into being through him; and apart from him no single thing came
into being. What has come into being in him (is or was) life. And the life was
the light of humanity."
6th century Codex
Bezae: the left hand
page is the Greek and the right hand side is Latin.
As many as nine correctors worked on the manuscript between the sixth and
"All things came into being through him; and apart from
him nothing came into being. What has come into being in him is life. And the
life was the light of humanity."
Alcuin of York during the reign of Charlemagne attempts to purify the corrupted
text. This correction is the basis for the Paris edition that was widely
disseminated among the clergy in northwestern Europe.
12th or 13th century Codex 666 reads as follows:
A passage - "All things came into being through him; and apart from him
no single thing came into being that has come into being. In him was life; and
the life was the light of men."
Corrected passage - "All things came
into being through him; and apart from him no single thing came into being.
What has come into being was life in him; and the life was the light of
The Vulgate, produced by
Johannes Gensfleisch zur
Laden zum Gutenberg, is not entirely without error as several editions of
the first printed work vary.
the 66 books that make up the Bible where
written at different times in history, in different languages;
some are compilations of earlier myths
while others synthesize myths
of neighboring cultures;
the inclusion of
the writing of Saul of
Tarsus carry forward the dialectic victim perpetrator
ponerology of the Sadducees.
The choice of the 66 books included in
the Bible at the Council of Rome shift
the subconscious image of
the Creator from Nature to the State.
3rd century BC
Septuagint is the
Greek translation named
'The Translation of the Seventy' for the group of Hebrew scholars that
scripture into Greek.
The Letter of Aristeas requests the Hebrew
Torah be translated into Greek for Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285247
The date of the 3rd century BCE is supported for the Torah
translation by a number of factors including the Greek being representative of
early Koine Greek, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, and
early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.
The Septuagint found
widespread use in Hellenistic culture as well as Jerusalem which had become
Several factors led Hebrews to abandon the Septuagint
Christians favored the
scribes were not subject to the same rigid rules imposed on Hebrews;
gradual decline of the Greek language among Hebrews after they fled the
Greek-speaking Roman Empire into
the Aramaic-speaking Persian
Empire when Jerusalem was
destroyed by the Romans.
1st century BC The Hebrew historian
Josephus canonical list of
sacred Hebrew scriptures has three parts:
five books of the Torah, thirteen
books of the prophets, and four books of hymns.
Sapiential Books or
Books of Wisdom is a term used in biblical studies to refer to a subset of the
books in the Septuagint version.
There are seven of these books - Job,
Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Book of Wisdom, the Song of Songs (Song of
Solomon), and Sirach.
The Testament of Job is a book written
in the 1st century BC.
The author of Wisdom of Solomon was an
Alexandrian Jew during the silent persecution initiated in Egypt
under Caesar Augustus.
The Wisdom of Sirach is a work of ethical
teachings written by Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira of
Jerusalem about 175 BC.
Ecclesiastes includes the presence of
loan-words and Aramaisms which point to a date no earlier than 450 BC and
no later than 180 BC, when Eliezer ben Sira quotes from it.
Christian Church used the Septuagint since most of its
earliest members were Greek-speaking and because
the Messianic passages most
clearly pointed to Jesus as the Messiah.
Even when Latin, Syriac,
Armenian appeared, the
Septuagint continued to be used by the Greek-speaking portion of the Christian
Scribes of the New Testament, written in Greek, quoted from the
Septuagint frequently, though not exclusively, when relating prophesies and
The Eastern Orthodox Church still
prefers to use the Septuagint as the basis for translating the Old Testament
into other languages, and the
Church continues to use it in its liturgy even today.
Catholic translations of the Bible, while using the Masoretic text, employ the
Septuagint to decide between different possible translations of the Hebrew text
whenever the latter is unclear, corrupt, or ambiguous.
The Greek of the Septuagint has many
idioms and phrases based
on Hebrew, and the grammatical phenomenon known as attraction is common there.
Some parts of it have been described as "Hebrew in Greek words".
However, other sections show an
Hebrew idiom, so that the
literal translation provided makes little sense.
usually, but not always, employed one and the same Greek word for one Hebrew
word whenever it occurs.
Thus the Septuagint can be called a
mostly concordant translation.
However, as in most translations of any
literary work, often more than one Hebrew word gets translated into one and the
same Greek word, removing some nuance from the text.
Christianity initially followed the
picking up right where Jesus left off as
wandering Tannaim, with
Paul as the First
There are several references to the "Words of Jesus".
Early collections of sayings are more than likely, fragments still
The Roman Catholics chose which information was to be made
Without a uniform
dogmatized religion the Roman Catholics realized they would lose control of
adherents and, later, even coined the word
From this Church lists of
approved, canonical, and heretical texts issued.
Even now within
the Church, as has always been, there is dissension.
The order of creation of the
Synoptic Gospels of
Matthew, Mark and Luke was debated and revised.
The Synoptic Gospels were originally anonymous.
authorship came about in the 2nd century based on legend.
writers before 150 years after the birth of Jesus do not generally refer to any
document as their source for Words of Jesus.
The Gospel of John was considered heretical and was
Revelation was considered heretical and then added
The Gospel of John, a
highly intellectual account of Jesus' life , is
most likely penned by John the
John the Presbyter most
likely penned Revelation as
AD According to Tertullian,
Valentinus, a rejected
candidate for bishop of Rome, founds a
The first commentary made on the Gospel of John is
by the Gnostics Ptolemaeus and Heracleon, as quoted by
Heracleon were disciples of
taught that there were three kinds of people.
These were the
Those of a material nature were doomed to
an emotional nature could attain a lesser form of salvation.
Only those of a spiritual
nature received knowledge that allowed them to return to the divine
Pleroma after inhabiting
a material human
Gospel of Thomas is not included in the Vulgate.
All copies are thought
to have been purged.
Transcribed from Greek to
Coptic, about half of
the sayings have direct parallels to sayings recorded in the canonical gospels,
and much of the other half can be linked theologically to the rest of the New
Throughout the text of the Gospel
of Thomas, Jesus offers numerous ways to attain the
This makes redemption personal
bypassing the need for a priest. an intercessor or an organized church
Orthodox Catholic standpoint, the Gospel of Thomas would have been
the martyr Saint Pothinus and becomes the second Bishop of Lyon.
Smyrna Irenaeus had seen and heard the preaching of Polycarp.
insisted there could be only one orthodox (literally, "straight-thinking") church outside of
which "there was no
(Note: There are
no straight lines in
engineers began early on to
stamp out any train
of thought which did not strictly adhere to
Roman Catholic dogma which
After the gnostic confrontation and until the Reformation,
the Roman Catholic Church was the overwhelmingly dominant force in
The rigid, entrenched mentality of
Catholic orthodoxy must be taken into account in any reasonable examination
of the Christian religion.
dissensions, and new ideas were crushed by a pronouncement of spiritual death
(excommunication) or physical
death ( inquisition/crusade).
God is supernatural
(outside of nature);
God is three-in-one (Father, Son and Holy
God requires humans to
worship him as
a descended God;
Dogma is not to be
challenged as dogma is inflexible to change;
Eternal Soul, existing outside nature,
may end in a place called
180 AD Clement
reaches Alexandria where he attends lectures of Pantaenus at the Catechetical
School of Alexandria.
Clement used the term 'Gnostic' to describe anyone who had
penetrated deeper into the Gnostic
Clement saw sin as involuntary and irrational - removed
only through the wisdom of the Logos.
Clement states in
Paedagogus that only through conversion to Christianity can man fully
participate in the Logos, which
Christ is neither male or female; God the Father has both
male and female aspects; the Eucharist is described as
milk from the breast of the
Clement argues that both promiscuity and
sexual abstinence are
unnatural, and that the main goal of
human sexuality is procreation.
In an attempt to demonstrate the
primacy of Moses, Clement gives an extended chronology of the world, wherein he
dates the birth of Christ to May 25, 3 BC, and the creation of the world to
To Clement, scripture is an innately true
primitive philosophy which is complemented by human reason through the
Clement condemns those who
actively seek out a martyr's
death, arguing that they do not have
sufficient respect for the gift
Clement exhibits extensive knowledge of both
emphasized the permanent importance of
the use of philosophy to understand the relation between
As faith involves
knowledge of essentials, knowledge allows the believer to
penetrate deeply into the
understanding of what he actually believes and by so doing
perfect his faith.
To go beyond reception of truth on
authority metaphysics are a
The test of
real wisdom was living a
Against anti-intellectual pietists,
Clement championed enlightenment.
with the Father, could be held by common Christians.
characterization of a Christian as an intellectual
whose life is a moral example for others influenced the development of the
Although Clement believed himself to have experienced
Infinie that is unlikely as he was focused on faith rather than Gnosis.
Gnostikos philosophers, in
touch with the Lumière Infinie, never spoke about
Consciousness as something that required faith.
succeeded at Alexandria by Origen.
231 Origen is ordained presbyter by
Origen distinguished between
different types of biblical
interpretation, historical, moral and
spiritual, and argued that
biblical works were primarily
Origen, the most prolific and influential
Christian writer prior to the legalization of Christianity by Rome, was
responsible for the intellectual triumph
of Catholic Christianity over
problems at a contextual moral level when Origen was condemned as a
heretic a century after his
Origen had declared the Son was separate from and less than the
Origen, mentions the Gospel of Thomas on a
list of Coptic
Old Latin Vulgate The Latin Bible used before the Vulgate is usually
referred to as the Vetus Latina, or Old Latin Bible, or
occasionally the Old Latin Vulgate.
The Old Latin Vulgate
remained in use in some circles even after the Vulgate translation of
Jerome of Stridon
became the accepted standard throughout the Roman Catholic Church.
Gauls continued to prefer the Old Latin Vulgate for
The Old Latin Vulgate was not translated by a single
individual or institution.
Not uniformly edited each book varies in quality of translation and
The Old Latin Vulgate books were translated from Greek,
not from the Hebrew Septuagint as each book varies.
325 Anno Domini
were made to poison the mind of Constantine against the most able champion of
the Nicene Creed, namely, Athanasius, who had become Bishop of Alexandria
shortly after the adjournment of the council.
Slanderous charges were
urged, and finally had their desired effect (336) in securing the banishment of
the cold-hearted bishop.
Arius had been recalled from
banishment and restored to imperial favor, since he succeeded in convincing
Constantine of his substantial agreement with the Nicene formula, and
declared upon oath that he did
not hold the faith for which he had been condemned.
To complete his
triumph and that of his friends, it only remained that he should formally be
restored to church fellowship." - Henry C. Sheldon
The Council of
Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia, convoked by the
Imperial Roman Emperor
Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the
Roman Catholic Church.
"Many bore on their
bodies the marks of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Paul, Bishop of
Neo-Cæsarea, a monastery situated on the
Euphrates, had been
deprived of the use of both hands by the application of a
Some had the right eye torn out, others had lost the right arm.
In short, it was an assembly of martyrs." - Theodoret, noting assembled
bishops previous trials and tribulations under
Council of Nicaea is historically significant as the
first effort to attain consensus in the fellowship of Christ through an
With the creation of the Nicene Creed, a precedent is
established for subsequent general councils to create a statement of belief and
canons of doctrinal orthodoxy hoping to
create a unifing textual source.
Pauline Christianity is formalized as
the 'official' form of Christianity.
You could become a Christian
layman through baptism but you could only be a Christian clergyman, initially
by being born into the group.
Nicene Creed solved this
problem by the decree that after ordination a priest could not marry
(prefigures the pedophilia?) with the likely conclusive theory that Constantine
wanted to reign in the power of the priests.
"He said that
the crimes of priests ought not
to be made known to the multitude, lest they should become an occasion of
offence or of sin.
He also said, that, if he had detected a bishop in
the very act of committing adultery, he would have thrown his imperial robe
over the unlawful deed." - Eusebius speaking of the Emperor Constantine's
The primary purpose of the council is
to resolve disagreements in the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus
in relationship to the Father.
Is Jesus of the same or merely a similar
substance to God the Father?
Alexander of Alexandria and
Athanasius took the
first position; presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arian
controversy comes, took the second.
1,800 bishop invited; 300 attended;
huge majority from the Eastern church.
The council decides against the
The council decides in favor of celebrating the
date of the Christian Passover on the first Sunday after the
first full moon following the
"Athanasius, who succeeded Alexander as bishop
in 328, a violent vengeful man, shaped the future of the church when his side
won the theological war.
His adversaries, who were many, charged him
with bribery, theft, extortion, sacrilege, treason and murder.
He was excommunicated,
anathematized, beaten, intimidated, kidnapped, imprisoned, and exiled no less
than five times by four Roman emperors, spending 17 of the 45 years he served
as Bishop of Alexandria in exile.
Athanasius felt only a strong God, a
strong Church, and a strong empire could provide people with the security they
craved." - Ed Taylor
God transformed himself into
a man, suffered,
was nailed to a cross,
had his liver pierced,
then resurrected himself.
"While Athanasius accused the Arians of demeaning Christ
to the point his majesty and saving power were lost, Arians accused Athanasius
of elevating him to the point that his love and Gods majesty were lost."-
Constantine, Empire builder, agreed with Athanasius'
"The essential feature of the Nicene Creed was the
safeguard against denial of the
Son's divinity which,
it provided, through the explicit statement that the Son is homoousion, or
consubstantial, with the Father; not of an essence dissimilar to that of the
Father, or even of an essence merely similar, but of the same essence.
Only two of the assembled bishops, Theonas and Secundus, refused to
sign; and they were excommunicated and banished,
together with Arius.
Nicomedia and Theognis, while they subscribed the creed, refused to
sanction the sentence against
cause they were deposed and banished shortly after the adjournment of the
council, but ere long were restored and regarded by Constantine with favor." -
History of the Christian Church by Henry C. Sheldon of Boston
University, Thomas Y. Crowell and Company, New York
382 Emperor Theodosius I orders
Jerome of Stridon under the
direction of Pope Damasus I
and the Council of
Rome to produce the Latin Vulgate.
When Jerome of Stridon
begins the translation of the Vulgate into Latin he starts with the
The Vulgate is written in everyday Latin, versio vulgata, as opposed
to Ciceronian Latin of which Jerome of Stridon was a master.
Roman Catholicism unites Western Europe
under the Pope for over a thousand years until
Martin Luther translates the Bible
The closest equivalent in English
to the Latin Vulgate is the King James Version which shows
a marked influence from
the Vulgate in the vigorous
rhythm of its prose and poetry.
The Vulgate, designed to be
easier to understand, was directly translated from Hebrew rather than the Greek
Jerome of Stridon was responsible for at least three
slightly different versions of the Vulgate.
Vulgate was the first, soon replaced by later versions except in Britain,
where it continued to be used until the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Gallicana Vulgate was produced a few years later with
The Hispana Vulgate is largely identical to the
Romana Vulgate except for the book of Psalms, which Jerome of Stridon
translated from Hebrew.
Council of Rome makes it a capital offense to
practice any form of religion accept Nicene Christianity or
352 Council of Laodicea decrees women are not to
361 Julian the Apostate
is the last Pagan Roman Emperor.
364 Following Julian came
Emperor Valentinian who
sent his brother Emperor Valens to
rule in the East.
385 Pope Siricius leaves his wife in
order to become pope then decrees that
priests may no longer sleep
with their wives.
* TEMPLES RAZED *
Church of Rome strives to refute the doctrines of Protestantism,
the Vulgate is reaffirmed in the Council of Trent as the sole authorized
text of the Bible.
To reinforce this decree, an attempt is made to
standardize spelling and text of the Vulgate out of the countless
editions written during the Middle Ages.
Pope Sixtus V (1585-90) produces the Sistine
1592 Clement VIII
(1592-1605) produces the Clementine Vulgate which has been
the official Bible of the Roman Catholic
Church until the 1960s, when worship in vernacular languages
was first permitted.
Results are 7 Sacraments:
Catholicism is the only
Pope holds the place of
Christ on Earth
and wine is physically transubstantiated
Sale of indulgences
Dogma to be clearly
List of forbidden Protestant translations
Mass to be
in Latin using the Latin Vulgate
Forbidden: Simony, Nepotism,
Seminaries to train priests 'properly' in the art of
1907 Nova Vulgata
commissioned in by Pope Pius X of the Benedictine Monastery in Rome, many
decades pass before it is completed.
The main difference between the
Nova Vulgata and the Vulgata Clementina is that it takes account
of the modern textual criticism.
There are a number of changes where
the modern scholars felt that Jerome of Stridon had
failed to grasp the
meaning of the original languages.
Many modern scholars believe that
the Greek Hexapla is the main source for "iuxta Hebraeos"
Jerome's translation of Exodus Iuxta
[Starting from a careful textual
comparison between Jerome's translation of the Book of Exodus with the Hebrew
and the Greek translations, the dissertation delineates three ways in which
Jerome engages the Hebrew Bible. He interprets the Hebrew by itself, he may
compare the Hebrew with the Greek versions, or he may rely on or respond to an
exegetical tradition. Furthermore, Jerome's method of translation reflects the
influence of a Classical philological model. According to this philological
method, Jerome seeks to render the sense of the text rather than produce a
slavishly literal translation. In addition, like the Classical commentators of
his day, he initially concentrates on the semantics and syntax of the text
before him. Only when the Hebrew is unclear does Jerome consider the other
translations and exegetical traditions. Thus, I demonstrate that the Vulgate
interprets the Bible from a Classical, Christian, and Jewish point of view and
that Jerome integrates these traditions through a philological method.
Therefore, Jerome's rendition must be understood as more than a plain
translation. Rather, it should be read as a text that reflects the intellectual
currents of its day. It must also be read as a Latin interpretation of
Scriptures. The Vulgate must be treated as a work of Latin scholarship and
Spelling reflects a more Classical leaning
than the Renaissance spelling of the Clementine edition.
Vulgata does not contain some books found in some editions of the
Vulgate - for example the 3rd and 4th Book of Ezra.
Vulgata is currently the official Latin version published and approved by
the Roman Catholic Church.
The Nova Vulgata has not been widely
embraced by conservative Catholics, as it sounds unfamiliar to the Clementine,
common in the history of the Bible as new translations attempt to supplant
older, more familiar ones.
The Stuttgart Vulgate is published by
the German BibleSociety (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft), based in Stuttgart.
In this edition, Biblia Sacra Vulgata, the German BibleSociety
seeks to reproduce the original, pure Vulgate text that Jerome of
The Stuttgart Vulgate attempts, through critical
comparison of important, historical editions of the Vulgate, to achieve
the original text, cleansed of the errors of a millennium and a half's
The critical source for the Stuttgart Vulgate is Codex
Amiatinus, an 8th century one-volume manuscript of the Latin Bible
produced in England, is regarded as the best medieval witness to original text
of Jerome of Stridon.
1952 Papyrus 1 and 655 are
found to be fragments of the Gospel of Thomas.
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encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
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