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Literal Physical Truth of the Christian Bible

"Modern New Testament scholarship has shown that we know far less
about the historical Jesus than we thought we did." - Karen Armstrong

All Christian documents in existence before the 4th century are on papyrus.

Papyrus is fragile, only fragments of these works have been preserved.

Before the invention of the printing press documents were copied by hand, the laborious process that invited variations: misspellings, altered wording, grammatical corrections, stylistic improvements, insertions, omissions, etc.

Many New Testament versions have marginal notes added.

These marginalia were often copied into the main text of later versions.

No two New Testaments written before the 15th century are identical !

20th century versions of the New Testament are primarily based on parchment uncial codices of the 4th through the 9th century.

Many of the earliest of these, like Sinaiticus, have undergone extensive "correction" by later scribes.



parchment uncial codices of the 4th through the 9th century

5th century Codex Alexandrinus is largely an Alexandrian witness and the oldest text of the Gospels.

A passage - "All things came into being through him; and apart from him no single thing came into being. In him was life; and the life was the light of men."

5th to 7th century Codex Washingtonensis or Codex Freerianus paleographers have deduced that the original scribe corrected some of his own errors, followed by another who made revisions. Finally, two later hands made a few additional changes.

Codex Washingtonensis is variegated in its representation and believed to be copied from one that had been pieced together out of fragments of several manuscripts. Readings representative of all of the major text types can be found in this manuscript.

A passage - "All things came into being through him; and apart from him no single thing came into being. What has come into being in him (is or was) life. And the life was the light of humanity."


6th century Codex Bezae: the left hand page is the Greek and the right hand side is Latin. As many as nine correctors worked on the manuscript between the sixth and twelfth century.

"All things came into being through him; and apart from him nothing came into being. What has come into being in him is life. And the life was the light of humanity."


9th century Alcuin of York during the reign of Charlemagne attempts to purify the corrupted text. This correction is the basis for the Paris edition that was widely disseminated among the clergy in northwestern Europe.


12th or 13th century Codex 666 reads as follows:

A passage - "All things came into being through him; and apart from him no single thing came into being that has come into being. In him was life; and the life was the light of men."

Corrected passage - "All things came into being through him; and apart from him no single thing came into being. What has come into being was life in him; and the life was the light of men."


15th century Printing press reaches Europe.

The Vulgate, produced by Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg, is not entirely without error as several editions of the first printed work vary.

Conclusion:

the 66 books that make up the Bible where written at different times in history, in different languages;

some are compilations of earlier myths while others synthesize myths of neighboring cultures;

the inclusion of the writing of Saul of Tarsus carry forward the dialectic victim perpetrator ponerology of the Sadducees.

The choice of the 66 books included in the Bible at the Council of Rome shift the subconscious image of the Creator from Nature to the State.



Septuagint


3rd century BC

The Septuagint is the Greek translation named 'The Translation of the Seventy' for the group of Hebrew scholars that translated Hebrew scripture into Greek.

The Letter of Aristeas requests the Hebrew Torah be translated into Greek for Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–247 BCE).

The date of the 3rd century BCE is supported for the Torah translation by a number of factors including the Greek being representative of early Koine Greek, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, and early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.

The Septuagint found widespread use in Hellenistic culture as well as Jerusalem which had become a cosmopolitan city.

Several factors led Hebrews to abandon the Septuagint including:

Christians favored the Septuagint;

Greek scribes were not subject to the same rigid rules imposed on Hebrews;

Gradual decline of the Greek language among Hebrews after they fled the Greek-speaking Roman Empire into the Aramaic-speaking Persian Empire when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans.


1st century BC The Hebrew historian Josephus canonical list of sacred Hebrew scriptures has three parts: five books of the Torah, thirteen books of the prophets, and four books of hymns.

Sapiential Books or Books of Wisdom is a term used in biblical studies to refer to a subset of the books in the Septuagint version.

There are seven of these books - Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Book of Wisdom, the Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), and Sirach.

The Testament of Job is a book written in the 1st century BC.

The author of Wisdom of Solomon was an Alexandrian Jew during the silent persecution initiated in Egypt under Caesar Augustus.

The Wisdom of Sirach is a work of ethical teachings written by Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira of Jerusalem about 175 BC.

Ecclesiastes includes the presence of Persian loan-words and Aramaisms which point to a date no earlier than 450 BC and no later than 180 BC, when Eliezer ben Sira quotes from it.

The early Christian Church used the Septuagint since most of its earliest members were Greek-speaking and because the Messianic passages most clearly pointed to Jesus as the Messiah.

Even when Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian appeared, the Septuagint continued to be used by the Greek-speaking portion of the Christian Church.

Scribes of the New Testament, written in Greek, quoted from the Septuagint frequently, though not exclusively, when relating prophesies and history.

The Eastern Orthodox Church still prefers to use the Septuagint as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages, and the Greek Orthodox Church continues to use it in its liturgy even today.

Many modern Catholic translations of the Bible, while using the Masoretic text, employ the Septuagint to decide between different possible translations of the Hebrew text whenever the latter is unclear, corrupt, or ambiguous.

The Greek of the Septuagint has many idioms and phrases based on Hebrew, and the grammatical phenomenon known as attraction is common there.

Some parts of it have been described as "Hebrew in Greek words".

However, other sections show an ignorance of Hebrew idiom, so that the literal translation provided makes little sense.

The translators usually, but not always, employed one and the same Greek word for one Hebrew word whenever it occurs.

Thus the Septuagint can be called a mostly concordant translation.

However, as in most translations of any literary work, often more than one Hebrew word gets translated into one and the same Greek word, removing some nuance from the text.

The main ponerological element comes in the claim the Hebrews are direct descendents of Yahweh.

Monotheistic adults, seeing god as all encompassing, subconsciously relate God to Nature.

This is not true with children as adults are gods to them when they are infants.

This model creates a subconscious desire in the child to become a god.

As Hebrews are descendants of God a child of god will be of the same essence as God.





67 AD Christianity initially followed the Oral Tradition picking up right where Jesus left off as wandering Tannaim, with Paul as the First Christian.

There are several references to the "Words of Jesus".

Early collections of sayings are more than likely, fragments still exist.

The Roman Catholics chose which information was to be made available.

Without a uniform dogmatized religion the Roman Catholics realized they would lose control of adherents and, later, even coined the word propaganda.

From this Church lists of approved, canonical, and heretical texts issued.

Even now within the Church, as has always been, there is dissension.

The order of creation of the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke was debated and revised.

The Synoptic Gospels were originally anonymous.

Decisions of authorship came about in the 2nd century based on legend.

Christian writers before 150 years after the birth of Jesus do not generally refer to any document as their source for Words of Jesus.

The Gospel of John was considered heretical and was added later.

Revelation was considered heretical and then added later.

The Gospel of John, a highly intellectual account of Jesus' life , is most likely penned by John the Presbyter.

John the Presbyter most likely penned Revelation as well.



selfless Jesus


120 AD According to Tertullian, Valentinus, a rejected candidate for bishop of Rome, founds a Gnostic mystery school.

The first commentary made on the Gospel of John is by the Gnostics Ptolemaeus and Heracleon, as quoted by Irenaeus and Origen.

Ptolemaeus and Heracleon were disciples of Valentinus the Gnostic.

Valentinus taught that there were three kinds of people.

These were the material, emotional and spiritual.

Those of a material nature were doomed to perish.

Those of an emotional nature could attain a lesser form of salvation.

Only those of a spiritual nature received knowledge that allowed them to return to the divine Pleroma after inhabiting a material human body.

Gospel of Thomas is not included in the Vulgate.

All copies are thought to have been purged.

Transcribed from Greek to Coptic, about half of the sayings have direct parallels to sayings recorded in the canonical gospels, and much of the other half can be linked theologically to the rest of the New Testament.

Throughout the text of the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus offers numerous ways to attain the Kingdom of Heaven.

This makes redemption personal bypassing the need for a priest. an intercessor or an organized church hierarchy.

From an Orthodox Catholic standpoint, the Gospel of Thomas would have been dangerously thought provoking.





177 AD Irenaeus succeeds the martyr Saint Pothinus and becomes the second Bishop of Lyon.

From Smyrna Irenaeus had seen and heard the preaching of Polycarp.

Irenaeus insisted there could be only one orthodox (literally, "straight-thinking") church outside of which "there was no salvation."

(Note: There are no straight lines in Nature, everything orbits.)

Social engineers began early on to stamp out any train of thought which did not strictly adhere to Roman Catholic dogma which continued to evolve.

After the gnostic confrontation and until the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church was the overwhelmingly dominant force in Christianity.

The rigid, entrenched mentality of Catholic orthodoxy must be taken into account in any reasonable examination of the Christian religion.

Schisms, dissensions, and new ideas were crushed by a pronouncement of spiritual death (excommunication) or physical death ( inquisition/crusade).

God is supernatural (outside of nature);

God is three-in-one (Father, Son and Holy Spirit);

God requires humans to worship him as a descended God;

Dogma is not to be challenged as dogma is inflexible to change;

Eternal Soul, existing outside nature, may end in a place called hell.





180 AD Clement reaches Alexandria where he attends lectures of Pantaenus at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.

Clement used the term 'Gnostic' to describe anyone who had penetrated deeper into the Gnostic Mysteries .

Clement saw sin as involuntary and irrational - removed only through the Wisdom of the Logos.

Clement states in Paedagogus that only through conversion to Christianity can man fully participate in the Logos, which is Universal Truth.

Christ is neither male or female; God the Father has both male and female aspects; the Eucharist is described as milk from the breast of the Father.

Clement argues that both promiscuity and sexual abstinence are unnatural, and that the main goal of human sexuality is procreation.

In an attempt to demonstrate the primacy of Moses, Clement gives an extended chronology of the world, wherein he dates the birth of Christ to May 25, 3 BC, and the creation of the world to 5592 BC.

To Clement, scripture is an innately true primitive philosophy which is complemented by human reason through the Logos.

Clement condemns those who actively seek out a martyr's death, arguing that they do not have sufficient respect for the gift of life.

Clement exhibits extensive knowledge of both Hellenism and Judaism.

Clement emphasized the permanent importance of the use of philosophy to understand the relation between knowledge and faith.

As faith involves a comprehensive knowledge of essentials, knowledge allows the believer to penetrate deeply into the understanding of what he actually believes and by so doing perfect his faith.

To go beyond reception of truth on authority metaphysics are a necessity.

The test of real wisdom was living a moral life.

Against anti-intellectual pietists, Clement championed enlightenment.

Gnosis, communion with the Father, could be held by common Christians.

Clement characterization of a Christian as an intellectual whose life is a moral example for others influenced the development of the monastic ideal.

Although Clement believed himself to have experienced the Lumière Infinie that is unlikely as he was focused on faith rather than Gnosis.

Gnostikos philosophers, in touch with the Lumière Infinie, never spoke about Christ Consciousness as something that required faith.

Clement is succeeded at Alexandria by Origen.




cathedral maze

Salve Regina: A Templar Chant


"All rational creatures in the natural order have free will."

Origen



231 Origen is ordained presbyter by Eusebius of Caesarea.

Origen distinguished between different types of biblical interpretation, historical, moral and spiritual, and argued that biblical works were primarily theological compositions.

Origen, the most prolific and influential Christian writer prior to the legalization of Christianity by Rome, was responsible for the intellectual triumph of Catholic Christianity over gnostic Christianity.

This created ponerological problems at a contextual moral level when Origen was condemned as a heretic a century after his death.

Origen had declared the Son was separate from and less than the Father.

Origen, mentions the Gospel of Thomas on a list of Coptic gospels.



authoritative revsionism

Old Latin Vulgate

The Latin Bible used before the Vulgate is usually referred to as the Vetus Latina, or Old Latin Bible, or occasionally the Old Latin Vulgate.

The Old Latin Vulgate remained in use in some circles even after the Vulgate translation of Jerome of Stridon became the accepted standard throughout the Roman Catholic Church.

Gauls continued to prefer the Old Latin Vulgate for centuries.

The Old Latin Vulgate was not translated by a single individual or institution.

Not uniformly edited each book varies in quality of translation and style.

The Old Latin Vulgate books were translated from Greek, not from the Hebrew Septuagint as each book varies.



Nicene Creed


325 Anno Domini

"Persistent attempts were made to poison the mind of Constantine against the most able champion of the Nicene Creed, namely, Athanasius, who had become Bishop of Alexandria shortly after the adjournment of the council.

Slanderous charges were urged, and finally had their desired effect in securing the banishment of the cold-hearted bishop.

Meanwhile, Arius had been recalled from banishment and restored to imperial favor, since he succeeded in convincing Constantine of his substantial agreement with the Nicene formula, and declared upon oath that he did not hold the faith for which he had been condemned.

To complete his triumph and that of his friends, it only remained that he should formally be restored to church fellowship." - Henry C. Sheldon


The Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia, convoked by the Imperial Roman Emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the Roman Catholic Church.

"Many bore on their bodies the marks of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Paul, Bishop of Neo-Cæsarea, a monastery situated on the Euphrates, had been deprived of the use of both hands by the application of a red-hot iron.

Some had the right eye torn out, others had lost the right arm.

In short, it was an assembly of martyrs." - Theodoret, noting assembled bishops previous trials and tribulations under Emperor Diocletian

Council of Nicaea is historically significant as the first effort to attain consensus in the fellowship of Christ through an assembly.

With the creation of the Nicene Creed, a precedent is established for subsequent general councils to create a statement of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy hoping to create a unifing textual source.

Pauline Christianity is formalized as the 'official' form of Christianity.

You could become a Christian layman through baptism but you could only be a Christian clergyman, initially by being born into the group.

The Nicene Creed solved this problem by the decree that after ordination a priest could not marry (prefigures the pedophilia?) with the likely conclusive theory that Constantine wanted to reign in the power of the priests.

"He said that the crimes of priests ought not to be made known to the multitude, lest they should become an occasion of offence or of sin.

He also said, that, if he had detected a bishop in the very act of committing adultery, he would have thrown his imperial robe over the unlawful deed." - Eusebius speaking of the Emperor Constantine's opening speech

The primary purpose of the council is to resolve disagreements in the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to the Father.

Is Jesus of the same or merely a similar substance to God the Father?

Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position; presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arian controversy comes, took the second.

1,800 bishop invited; 300 attended; huge majority from the Eastern church.

The council decides against the Arians overwhelmingly.

The council decides in favor of celebrating the date of the Christian Passover on the first Sunday after the first full moon following the Vernal Equinox.


"Athanasius, who succeeded Alexander as bishop in 328, a violent vengeful man, shaped the future of the church when his side won the theological war.

His adversaries, who were many, charged him with bribery, theft, extortion, sacrilege, treason and murder.

He was excommunicated, anathematized, beaten, intimidated, kidnapped, imprisoned, and exiled no less than five times by four Roman emperors, spending 17 of the 45 years he served as Bishop of Alexandria in exile.

Athanasius felt only a strong God, a strong Church, and a strong empire could provide people with the security they craved." - Ed Taylor


Athanasius maintained God transformed himself into a man, suffered, was nailed to a cross, had his liver pierced, died, and then resurrected himself.


"While Athanasius accused the Arians of demeaning Christ to the point his majesty and saving power were lost, Arians accused Athanasius of elevating him to the point that his love and God's majesty were lost."- Ed Taylor


Constantine, Empire builder, agreed with Athanasius' perspective.


"The essential feature of the Nicene Creed was the safeguard against denial of the Son's divinity which, it provided, through the explicit statement that the Son is homoousion, or consubstantial, with the Father; not of an essence dissimilar to that of the Father, or even of an essence merely similar, but of the same essence.

Only two of the assembled bishops, Theonas and Secundus, refused to sign; and they were excommunicated and banished, together with Arius.

Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis, while they subscribed the creed, refused to sanction the sentence against Arius.

For this cause they were deposed and banished shortly after the adjournment of the council, but ere long were restored and regarded by Constantine with favor." - History of the Christian Church by Henry C. Sheldon of Boston University, Thomas Y. Crowell and Company, New York ©1895

352   Council of Laodicea decrees women are not to be ordained.

361   Julian the Apostate is the last Pagan Roman Emperor.

364   Following Julian came Emperor Valentinian who sent his brother Emperor Valens to rule in the East.




Latin Vulgate


382   Emperor Theodosius I orders Jerome of Stridon under the direction of Pope Damasus I and the Council of Rome to produce the Latin Vulgate.

When Jerome of Stridon begins the translation of the Vulgate into Latin he starts with the Septuagint.

The Vulgate is written in everyday Latin, versio vulgata, as opposed to Ciceronian Latin of which Jerome of Stridon was a master.

Roman Catholicism unites Western Europe under the Pope for over a thousand years until Martin Luther translates the Bible into German.

The closest equivalent in English to the Latin Vulgate is the King James Version which shows a marked influence from the Vulgate in the vigorous rhythm of its prose and poetry.

The Vulgate, designed to be easier to understand, was directly translated from Hebrew rather than the Greek Septuagint.

Jerome of Stridon was responsible for at least three slightly different versions of the Vulgate.

The Romana Vulgate was the first, soon replaced by later versions except in Britain, where it continued to be used until the Norman Conquest in 1066.

The Gallicana Vulgate was produced a few years later with revisions.

The Hispana Vulgate is largely identical to the Romana Vulgate except for the book of Psalms, which Jerome of Stridon translated from Hebrew.

Council of Rome makes it a capital offense to practice any form of religion accept Nicene Christianity or Judaism.

385   Pope Siricius leaves his wife in order to become pope then decrees that priests may no longer sleep with their wives.

391         * TEMPLES RAZED *



Reformation

Church of Rome strives to refute the doctrines of Protestantism, the Vulgate is reaffirmed in the Council of Trent as the sole authorized text of the Bible.

To reinforce this decree, an attempt is made to standardize spelling and text of the Vulgate out of the countless editions written during the Middle Ages.

1590   Pope Sixtus V (1585-90) produces the Sistine Vulgate.

1592   Clement VIII (1592-1605) produces the Clementine Vulgate which has been the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church until the 1960s, when worship in vernacular languages was first permitted.

Results are 7 Sacraments:

Catholicism is the only religious truth

Pope holds the place of Christ on Earth

Bread and wine is physically transubstantiated

Sale of indulgences ends

Dogma to be clearly defined

List of forbidden Protestant translations

Mass to be in Latin using the Latin Vulgate


Forbidden: Simony, Nepotism, Pluralism, Absenteeism

Seminaries to train priests 'properly' in the art of flogging


1907 Nova Vulgata commissioned in by Pope Pius X of the Benedictine Monastery in Rome, many decades pass before it is completed.

The main difference between the Nova Vulgata and the Vulgata Clementina is that it takes account of the modern textual criticism.

There are a number of changes where the modern scholars felt that Jerome of Stridon had failed to grasp the meaning of the original languages.

Many modern scholars believe that the Greek Hexapla is the main source for "iuxta Hebraeos" by Jerome.

Jerome's translation of Exodus Iuxta Hebraeos

[Starting from a careful textual comparison between Jerome's translation of the Book of Exodus with the Hebrew and the Greek translations, the dissertation delineates three ways in which Jerome engages the Hebrew Bible. He interprets the Hebrew by itself, he may compare the Hebrew with the Greek versions, or he may rely on or respond to an exegetical tradition. Furthermore, Jerome's method of translation reflects the influence of a Classical philological model. According to this philological method, Jerome seeks to render the sense of the text rather than produce a slavishly literal translation. In addition, like the Classical commentators of his day, he initially concentrates on the semantics and syntax of the text before him. Only when the Hebrew is unclear does Jerome consider the other translations and exegetical traditions. Thus, I demonstrate that the Vulgate interprets the Bible from a Classical, Christian, and Jewish point of view and that Jerome integrates these traditions through a philological method. Therefore, Jerome's rendition must be understood as more than a plain translation. Rather, it should be read as a text that reflects the intellectual currents of its day. It must also be read as a Latin interpretation of Scriptures. The Vulgate must be treated as a work of Latin scholarship and Latin literature.]

Spelling reflects a more Classical leaning than the Renaissance spelling of the Clementine edition.

Nova Vulgata does not contain some books found in some editions of the Vulgate - for example the 3rd and 4th Book of Ezra.

The Nova Vulgata is currently the official Latin version published and approved by the Roman Catholic Church.

The Nova Vulgata has not been widely embraced by conservative Catholics, as it sounds unfamiliar to the Clementine, common in the history of the Bible as new translations attempt to supplant older, more familiar ones.

The Stuttgart Vulgate is published by the German BibleSociety (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft), based in Stuttgart.

In this edition, Biblia Sacra Vulgata, the German BibleSociety seeks to reproduce the original, pure Vulgate text that Jerome of Stridon.

The Stuttgart Vulgate attempts, through critical comparison of important, historical editions of the Vulgate, to achieve the original text, cleansed of the errors of a millennium and a half's time.

The critical source for the Stuttgart Vulgate is Codex Amiatinus, an 8th century one-volume manuscript of the Latin Bible produced in England, is regarded as the best medieval witness to original text of Jerome of Stridon.

1952 Papyrus 1 and 655 are found to be fragments of the Gospel of Thomas.




unique library index

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