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nuclear radiation insanity

Radiation Exposure Debate Rages Inside EPA

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FDA Ignored Radiation Warnings

FDA suppressed imaging safety concerns

fukushima leak

Radioactivity in the Ocean: Diluted, But Far from Harmless

GE designed reactors in Fukushima have 23 sisters in US


Radioactive for 100,000 years !

Chernobyl Death Toll: 985,000, Mostly from Cancer

The units used to measure ionizing radiation are rather complex. The ionizing effects of radiation are measured by units of exposure:The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing radiation exposure, and measures the amount of radiation required to create 1 coulomb of charge of each polarity in 1 kilogram of matter.The roentgen (R) is an older traditional unit that is almost out of use, which represented the amount of radiation required to liberate 1 esu of charge of each polarity in 1 cubic centimeter of dry air. 1 Roentgen = 2.58×10-4 C/kg.However, the amount of damage done to matter (especially living tissue) by ionizing radiation is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited rather than the charge. This is called the absorbed dose.The gray (Gy), with units J/kg, is the SI unit of absorbed dose, which represents the amount of radiation required to deposit 1 joule of energy in 1 kilogram of any kind of matter.The rad (Roentgen absorbed dose), is the corresponding traditional unit which is 0.01 J deposited per kg. 100 rad = 1 Gy.

radiation dose damage

Herman Joseph Muller, Nobel Prize Medicine, 1946

Herman Joseph Muller, an American scientist, concluded from his investigations that low dose exposure, and therefore even natural background radiation, is mutagenic and there is no harmless dose range for heritable effects or for cancer induction.

Equal doses of different types or energies of radiation cause different amounts of damage to living tissue.

1 Gy of alpha radiation causes about 20 times as much damage as 1 Gy of x-rays. Therefore the equivalent dose was defined to give an approximate measure of the biological effect of radiation. It is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose by a weighting factor WR which is different for each type of radiation (see above table).The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose. Although it has the same units as grays, J/kg, it measures something different. It is the dose of any type of radiation in Gy that has the same biological effect on a human as 1 Gy of x-rays or gamma radiation.The rem (Roentgen equivalent man) is the traditional unit of equivalent dose. 1 sievert = 100 rem. Because the rem is a relatively large unit, typical equivalent dose is measured in millirem (mrem), 10-3 rem, or in microsievert (µSv), 10-6 Sv. 1 mrem = 10 µSv.

The 'background' dose of natural radiation is ~ 3 mSv (300 mrem) per year.

fukushima warning label

The lethal dose of radiation for a human is around 4 - 5 Sv (400 - 500 rem).

The biological effects of radiation are thought of in terms of their effects on living cells. For low levels of radiation, the biological effects are so small they may not be detected in epidemiological studies. The body repairs many types of radiation and chemical damage. Biological effects of radiation on living cells may result in a variety of outcomes, including: Cells experience DNA damage and are able to detect and repair the damage. Cells experience DNA damage and are unable to repair the damage. These cells may go through the process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, thus eliminating the potential genetic damage from the larger tissue. Cells experience a nonlethal DNA mutation that is passed on to subsequent cell divisions. This mutation may contribute to the formation of a cancer.Other observations at the tissue level are more complicated. These include: In some cases, a small radiation dose reduces the impact of a subsequent, larger radiation dose. This has been termed an 'adaptive response' and is related to hypothetical mechanisms of hormesis.Radiation hormesis is the unproven theory that a low level of ionizing radiation (i.e. near the level of Earth's natural background radiation) helps "immunize" cells against DNA damage from other causes (such as free radicals or larger doses of ionizing radiation), and decreases the risk of cancer. The theory proposes that such low levels activate the body's DNA repair mechanisms, causing higher levels of cellular DNA-repair proteins to be present in the body, improving the body's ability to repair DNA damage. This assertion is very difficult to prove (using, for example, statistical cancer studies) because the effects of very low ionizing radiation levels are too small to be statistically measured amid the "noise" of normal cancer rates.Therefore, the idea of radiation hormesis is considered unproven by regulatory bodies, which generally use the standard "linear, no threshold" (LNT) model, which states that risk of cancer is directly proportional to the dose level of ionizing radiation. The LNT model is safer for regulatory purposes because it assumes worst-case damage due to ionizing radiation; therefore, if regulations are based on it, workers might be over-protected, but they will never be under-protected.

In biology, radiation is mainly used for sterilization, and enhancing mutations.

radiation milkl

The Forgotten Story Of The Radium Girls

Grace Fryer started work as a dial painter at the United States Radium Corporation (USRC) in Orange, New Jersey.

Dial painting was "the elite job for the poor working girls"; it paid more than three times the average factory job, and those lucky enough to land a position ranked in the top 5% of female workers nationally, giving the women financial freedom in a time of burgeoning female empowerment.

Radium's luminosity was part of its allure, and the dial painters soon became known as the "ghost girls" - because by the time they finished their shifts, they themselves would glow in the dark.

Believed to be beneficial to health: People drank radium water as a tonic, and one could buy cosmetics, butter, milk, and toothpaste laced with the wonder element. Newspapers reported its use would "add years to our lives!"
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