"A new scientific truth does not triumph by
convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its
opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with
it." - Max Planck
The goal of Science is to obtain
True Knowledge of Reality,
precisely the same goal as that of the
Philosophy of science deals with the systemic
nature of scientific inquiry which is equivalent to gnostic inquiry.
properly understand the philosophy of science, which is also to understand the
methods of gnostic inquiry, it is necessary to understand basic components of
science which include data, theories, and
of information about physical processes are termed data.
data to support scientific theories is laborious.
Fundamental assumptions are made in data
Details of that process are often excluded when forming a
Vague or overgeneralized data is easier to fit into
a scientific theory than specific data.
Scientific theories come in two
Phenomenological theories are empirical generalizations of data.
They merely describe the recurring processes of nature and do not refer
to their causes or mechanisms.
Phenomenological theories are also
called scientific laws, physical laws, and
Explanatory theories attempt to explain the
observations rather than
Whereas laws are
descriptions of empirical regularities, explanatory theories are conceptual
constructions to explain why the phenomena exist.
Shaping principles are
non-empirical fundamental assumptions
that form the basis of science and go into selecting every
Originally science, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge, was
seen as absolutely objective, rational, and based on purely empirical
traditional image of science held that scientific theories and laws were to be
conclusively confirmed or conclusively falsified based on objective data.
It was believed that "the scientific method"
excluded cognitive biases,
emotion, intuition, assumptions and was based entirely on
logic and reason.
The definition of what "the scientific method" is
has changed over time.
In the early seventeenth century
Baconian inductivism was considered to be
"the scientific method."
The basic concept: collect as numerous of
observations as humanly
possible, remain unaffected by any prior prejudice, theoretical preconceptions
or cognitive bias while gathering the data, inductively infer theories from
those data (by generalizing the data into physical laws), and collect more data
to modify or reject the hypothesis if needed.
Unfortunately, when using
inductivism to arrive at natural laws, certain theoretical preconceptions are
To generalize the data into physical laws, the
individual must assume that the laws apply for physical processes not observed.
This results in several assumptions being held, such as a
uniform operation of nature.
Even if we put aside the fact that
inductive logic is invariably based on such postulations, there is another
Science deals with concepts and explanatory theories that
cannot be directly observed, including atomic theory and the theory of gravity.
Many other theories include unobservable concepts like forces, fields,
and subatomic particles.
There is no known rigorous inductive logic
that can infer those theories and concepts solely from the data they explain.
Sir Isaac Newton developed hypothetico-deductivism in the late
Essentially, one starts with a hypothesis, basically a
provisional theory, and then deduces what we would expect to find in the
empirical world as a result of that hypothesis.
The concept was to
quarantine human irrationality or cognitive bias.
A theory did
not become a valid theory by its origins, but because of the
hypothetico-deductive method of verification.
fails if rigorous proof is necessary for valid science.
We must assume:
sense experience, memory, and testimony are
all generally reliable; we have examined all the data and there is no
possibility future observations will behave
Unfortuanetely every theory has an infinite number of
expected empirical outcomes, and we are incapable of testing all of those
As a result of the underdetermination of theories and the
risk of undiscovered, contradictory empirical evidence, a scientific theory
cannot be conclusively proven merely through the data.
recognized that one could not record everything observed.
Some sort of
selection is needed, and thus observation is always
Karl Popper felt a hypothesis had to be created first for
scientific investigation to begin as there is no other way to determine which
data is to be observed.
Karl Popper developed the idea of falsification
which suggests that if a prediction does not come true, then the scientific
theory must be false.
The necessity for a scientific theory to be
conclusively falsifiable is known as the demarcation criterion.
Surprisingly, the problem is that it is impossible to conclusively
falsify theories by empirical data.
Scientific theories, by themselves,
are incapable of making predictions.
Empirical results of an experiment
invariably rest on auxiliary assumptions - assumptions auxiliary to the
original fundamental assumptions.
Assume we have a particle theory that
says if we process a certain particle in a particular way, we will get
specified values on various measurements.
First we must assume that all
foundational theories involved in deriving the prediction are correct; the
models we are using in deriving the prediction are all correct; the predictions
derived from those theories and specific versions of those models are all
logically correct; some other things we'll skip
future occurence of events are dependent on the fundamental assumptions of
previous scientific theories.
Unfortunately scientific theories cannot
be conclusively proven.
The dependence on
foundational assumptions to
make predictions is sometimes called the Duhem-Quine problem.
can neither be conclusively proven nor conclusively falsified by empirical
It is possible to salvage a troubled theory or make arguments
against a well-supported theory simply by altering auxiliary assumptions to
produce different predictions or change the meaning of theory-laden
It is also possible to modify virtually any theory so
that it's consistent with whatever data that might come up.
shaping principles used to build
theories form the foundation of science.
shaping principles include: there
exists an external objective reality; uniformity of nature - the belief that
natural processes operate in a fairly consistent manner; our senses are
Due to the underdetermination of theories, there is
always an infinite number of competing theories that can accommodate any given
set of empirical data.
Razor or the Law of Parsimony, the fundamental
shaping principles of logic, states
that, if all other aspects are equal, the
simplest theory is preferred over other theories involving additional
are a few exceptions to the idea that there is no conclusive proof in
Scientists intuitively feel how rational scientific theories
are, rather than having a precise logical method for making such
Most of the shaping
principles are frequently unspoken and many times
scientists themselves do not
know they are using them.
Shaping principles influence the data we
perceive as there is a tendency for the mind to unconsciously fill in patterns
based on these notions.
Such human contamination is called internal
theoretical orientation of data.
As a result, totally objective data
can never be obtained.
delicate tapestry, a spider's web, is woven based on fundamental assumptions
and a collection of theories combined with their shaping and background
principles which thus make up an explanatory matrix, or conceptual grid, in
which to fit the observed data.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of Life - a rational religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not
occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values have
declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
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