"A new scientific truth does not triumph by
convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its
opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with
it." - Max Planck
The goal of
Science is to obtain True
Knowledge of Reality, precisely the same goal as that of
Philosophy of science deals with the systemic nature of
scientific inquiry which is equivalent to gnostic inquiry.
understand the philosophy of science, which is also to understand the methods
of gnostic inquiry, it is necessary to understand basic components of science
which include data, theories, and
Collections of information about physical processes
are termed data.
Collecting data to support scientific theories is
assumptions are made in data collection.
Details of that process are
often excluded when forming a scientific theory.
overgeneralized data is easier to fit into a scientific theory than specific
Scientific theories come in two forms.
theories are empirical generalizations of data.
They merely describe
the recurring processes of nature and do not refer to their causes or
Phenomenological theories are also called
scientific laws, physical
laws, and natural laws.
Explanatory theories attempt to explain the
observations rather than
laws are descriptions of
empirical regularities, explanatory theories are conceptual constructions
to explain why the phenomena exist.
Shaping principles are non-empirical fundamental assumptions that
form the basis of science and go into selecting every
Originally science, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge,
was seen as absolutely objective, rational, and based on purely empirical
This traditional image of science held that
scientific theories and laws
were to be conclusively confirmed or conclusively falsified based on objective
It was believed that "the scientific method"
excluded cognitive bias,
assumptions and was based entirely
on logic and reason.
definition of what "the
scientific method" is has changed over time.
In the early
seventeenth century Baconian inductivism
was considered to be "the scientific method."
The basic concept:
collect as numerous of observations as humanly
possible, remain unaffected by any prior prejudice, theoretical preconceptions
or cognitive bias while
gathering the data, inductively infer theories from that data (by generalizing
the data into physical laws); then collect more data to modify or reject the
hypothesis if needed.
Unfortunately, when using inductivism to arrive
at natural laws, certain
theoretical preconceptions are absolutely vital.
To generalize the data into
physical laws, the individual must assume that the laws apply for physical
processes not observed.
This results in several assumptions being
held, such as a uniform operation of nature.
Even if we put aside
the fact that inductive logic is invariably based on such postulations, there
is another problem.
Science deals with concepts and explanatory
theories that cannot be directly observed, including atomic theory and the
theory of gravity.
Many other theories include unobservable concepts
like forces, fields, and subatomic particles.
There is no known
rigorous inductive logic that can infer those theories and concepts solely from
the data they explain.
Isaac Newton developed
hypothetico-deductivism in the late 1600s.
Essentially, one starts
with a hypothesis, basically a provisional theory, and then deduces what we
would expect to find in the empirical world as a result of that hypothesis.
The concept was to quarantine
human irrationality or cognitive
A theory did not become a valid theory by its origins, but
because of the hypothetico-deductive method of
Hypothetico-deductivism fails if rigorous proof is
necessary for valid science.
We must assume: sense experience,
memory, and testimony are all generally
reliable; we have examined all the data and there is no possibility future
observations will behave
Unfortuanetely every theory has an infinite
number of expected empirical outcomes, and we are incapable of testing all of
As a result of the underdetermination of
theories and the risk of undiscovered, contradictory empirical evidence, a
scientific theory cannot be conclusively proven merely through the
Karl Popper recognized that one could not record everything
Some sort of selection is needed, and thus
observation is always
Karl Popper felt a hypothesis had to be created first for
scientific investigation to begin as there is no other way to determine which
data is to be observed.
Karl Popper developed the idea of falsification
which suggests that if a prediction does not come true, then the scientific
theory must be false.
The necessity for a scientific theory to be
conclusively falsifiable is known as the demarcation criterion.
Surprisingly, the problem is that it is impossible to conclusively
falsify theories by empirical data.
Scientific theories, by themselves,
are incapable of making predictions.
Empirical results of an experiment
invariably rest on auxiliary assumptions - assumptions auxiliary to the
original fundamental assumptions.
Assume we have a particle theory
that says if we process a certain particle in a particular way, we will get
specified values on various measurements.
First we must assume that all
foundational theories involved in deriving the prediction are correct; the
models we are using in deriving the prediction are all correct; the predictions
derived from those theories and specific versions of those models are all
logically correct; some other things we'll skip
Predictions of future occurence of events
are dependent on the fundamental assumptions of previous scientific
Unfortunately scientific theories cannot be conclusively
The dependence on
foundational assumptions to make predictions is sometimes called the
Theories can neither be conclusively proven nor
conclusively falsified by empirical data.
It is possible to salvage a troubled
theory or make arguments against a
well-supported theory simply by altering auxiliary assumptions to produce
different predictions or change the meaning of
It is also possible to modify virtually
any theory so that it's consistent with whatever data that might come
The shaping principles used to build theories form
the foundation of
Examples of shaping principles include: there exists an
external objective reality; uniformity of nature - the belief that natural
processes operate in a fairly consistent manner; our senses are generally
Due to the underdetermination of theories, there is always an
infinite number of competing theories that can accommodate any given set of
Razor or the Law of Parsimony, the fundamental shaping principles of logic,
states that, if all other aspects are equal,
the simplest theory is preferred over
other theories involving additional complexity.
There are a few exceptions to the idea that there is no conclusive
proof in science.
intuitively feel how rational scientific theories are, rather than having a
precise logical method for making such judgements.
Most of the
shaping principles are frequently unspoken and many times
scientists themselves do
not know they are using them.
principles influence the data we perceive as there is
a tendency for the mind to
unconsciously fill in patterns based on these notions.
contamination is called internal theoretical orientation of data.
As a result, totally objective data can never be obtained.
A delicate tapestry, a spider's
web, is woven based on fundamental assumptions and a collection of theories
combined with their shaping and background principles which thus make up an
explanatory matrix, or conceptual grid, in which to fit the observed
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of Life - a rational religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not
occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values have
declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
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redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
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