"There are biological differences between the sexes, including average body size and upper body strength, and aspects of reproductive physiology.

There is a range of gendered differences in behavior and perception in social structure developmental patterns.

But there are more biological similarities than differences, and more gender overlaps than discontinuities.

Differences and similarities shape roles in performance on specific tasks by individuals and by classes of individuals.

We actually know quite a bit about human evolution and the patterns and processes that our ancestors faced.

Men made the tools?

We have no evidence of any sort that there were any sex or gender differences in the creation and use of stone, wood, bone or other technologies.

Evidence in bones for gender differences show up with emergence of specialization, domestication and sedentism.

Men hunted and fought one another?

For the vast majority of human evolution there is strong likelihood that both sexes participated in hunting.

Earlier humans where substantially more robust than today.

Evidence of interpersonal violence is minimal.

When we do start to see more robust evidence for war-like events the distribution of injuries and evidence of participation is not biased by sex until quite recently.

There are no clear biases in regards to gender representation in hunting and violence until recently." - Agustin Fuentes, Ignorance of Evolutionary Processes


Kenya evidence of 10,000-year-old massacre

Prehistoric Massacre Hints at War Among Hunter-Gatherers

Massacres and Oppression of the Kurds in 20th Century Türkey

Haiti's Raboteau Massacre Digitized At Duke University

Anthropology and Genocide

The El Mozote Massacre

Massacre is defined as the wholesale slaughter of one group of people by an opposing group of people.

1215 Waldensian teachings come into conflict with the Catholic Church and the Waldensians are declared heretical.

1487 Pope Innocent VIII issues a package leaflet for the extermination of the Waldensians.

November 18, 1541 The Parlement of Provence issued the "Arrêt de Mérindol".

1545 After a series of appeals Francis I of France orders the Waldensians of the village of Mérindol to be punished for dissident religious activities.

In April, Maynier raised an army of Provençal troops, who were joined by forces from the Papal Comtat Venaissin against the Waldensians of Mérindol and Cabrières.

The leaders were Jean Maynier d'Oppède, First President of the Parlement of Provence, and Antoine Escalin des Aimars, returning from the Italian Wars with 2,000 veterans, the Bandes de Piémont.

In total, they destroyed between 22 and 28 villages.

Hundreds of men were impressed into forced labour in the French galleys.

1650 The New Council of Propagation of the Faith and the Extermination of Heresy (Concilium Novum de Propaganda Fide et Extirpandis Haereticis), an institution of the Roman Catholic Church that regularly convened in the palace of the Archbishop of Turin exerts constant pressure to exterminate the Waldensians.

Edict of 15 May 1650 abrogates Waldensian religious privileges.

1655 Edict of 25 January 1655 is an expulsion order.

"That every head of a family, with the individuals of that family, of the reformed religion, of what rank, degree, or condition soever, none excepted inhabiting and possessing estates in Lucerne, St. Giovanni, Bibiana, Campiglione, St. Secondo, Lucernetta, La Torre, Fenile, and Bricherassio, should, within three days after the publication thereof, withdraw and depart, and be withdrawn out of the said places, and translated into the places and limits tolerated by his highness during his pleasure; particularly Bobbio, Angrogne, Vilario, Rorata, and the county of Bonetti. And all this to be done on pain of death, and confiscation of house and goods, unless within the limited time they turned Roman Catholics."

The Piedmontese Easter is a series of massacres on Waldensians by Savoyard troops in the Duchy of Savoy.

The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 460 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party, in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.

l838 General Winfield Scott arrived at Calhoun, Tennessee in command of 7,000 soldiers to forcible remove l6,000 Cherokee to the West.

25 stockades were established in North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama to be used as "holding pens" for the Cherokee until they could be marched to Rattlesnake Springs.

From there, they would begin the forced march under armed escort known as the Trail of Tears.

Tsali farmed a small hillside plot and hunted to provide for his family.

Tsali’s brother-in-law came to Tsali’s cabin: General Winfield Scott said all Cherokee people must begin the long march west before the next new moon.

Soldiers arrived at Tsali’s cabin and told him that he and his family must go to the stockade at Bushnell, down the Little Tennessee River from Tsali’s cabin
Second Lieutenant Andrew Jackson Smith, accompanied by three soldiers, march five men, seven women and some children.

Four United States military personal, carrying rifles, one on horseback were overcome with only Second Lieutenant Andrew Jackson Smith surviving.

General Scott gave orders to Colonel William S. Foster to hunt down and shoot the "murderers."

Chief Drowning Bear and Will Thomas enlisted.

Thomas was the white adopted son of Chief Drowning Bear of Quallatown.

Colonel Foster entered the upper Little Tennessee country with nine companies of the US Fourth Infantry but fail to find them.

Thomas convinced the Quallatown Cherokee if they would help catch Tsali and the other "murderers," they would be allowed to stay in North Carolina.

Oconaluftee Cherokee provide a total force of about sixty men.

Soon the Oconaluftee turn over to Tsali’s oldest son, Nantayalee Jake, and Tsali’s brother-in-law, Nantayalee George, whom Foster claimed were the "principal actors in the murder."

Tsali’s wife and the wife of Nantayalee George and her small daughter had also been brought in by the Oconaluftee Cherokee.

The adult males are executed by a six man the Oconaluftee firing squad.

At noon on the next day, Tsali is tied to a tree and shot.

1868 Opelousas: 300 Blacks killed over Right to Vote

July 29, 1910 Slocum Massacre

Convenient Amnesia in Texas

La Matanza

Rangers Killed Hundreds of Latinos

Texas Rangers Killed Hundreds of Hispanic Americans

September 30, 1919 Elaine Massacre

June 1, 1921 Tulsa Massacre

2012 "While working at the Israel State Archives in Jerusalem, I came across highly classified material from Israel’s 1982 War in Lebanon that had just been opened to researchers.

This access was in line with the thirty-year rule of declassification governing the release of documents in Israel.

Sifting through Foreign Ministry files, I stumbled upon the minutes of a September 17 meeting between Israeli and American officials that took place in the midst of the Sabra and Shatila massacre.

The startling verbatim exchange between Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon and US diplomat Morris Draper demonstrated how the slaughter of civilians in the Palestinian refugee camps of south Beirut was prolonged.

Sharon sued Time for libel over its coverage of his role in the massacre.

Cravath, Swaine & Moore obtained classified material from the appendix of the official Israeli report into the massacre, known as the Kahan Commission

Between 16 and 18 September 1982, while the camps were under the guard of the Israeli Defence Force, Palestinian refugees were massacred by Christian Lebanese Phalangists (Ḥizb al-Katā'ib al-Lubnānīya).

The al-Kata'ib party, formed in 1936 as a Maronite paramilitary youth organization by Pierre Gemayel, modeled the party after Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista & Partito Nazionale Fascista.


No Gun Ri

In the chaotic early days of the Korean War, groups of refugees fleeing a North Korean advance attempted to cross American lines despite warning shots.

Up to 400 refuges, mostly women and children, were shot in one incident.

American soldiers suspected the group contained Communist gunmen.


30 survivors from South Korea and relatives of victims file a lawsuit that describes a three-day period of killing, claiming American planes strafed hundreds of refugees fleeing North Korean troops, leaving 100 people dead.

The survivors fled under the bridge, where they were pinned by American troops who shoot and kill almost all the refugees.

April 2007 A document found in the National Archives notes that the army had a policy of shooting approaching civilians.

A memo, dated July 25, 1950, from the United States Fifth Air Force regarding "Policy on Strafing Civilian Targets", written by USAF Colonel Turner C. Rogers recalls that, "the army has requested that we strafe all civilian refugee parties that are noted approaching our positions," and that, "to date, we have complied with the army request in this regard."

My Lai

'I sent them a good boy and they made him a murderer'

The soldiers found no insurgents in the village of My Lai on the morning of March 16, 1968.

One platoon led by Lt. William Calley, killed hundreds of civilians - primarily old men, women, children, and babies.

Some were tortured or raped.

Dozens were herded into a ditch and executed with automatic firearms.

Spring 1972 Survivors of the My Lai massacre, are "accidently" slaughtered by "friendly" airstrikes and artillery bombardment.

Vietnam War Crimes Working Group

The archives of the Vietnam War Crimes Working Group, made up of staff members assigned to General William C. Westmoreland, filed at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland substantiated 300 atrocities which included:

seven massacres from 1967 through 1971 in which at least 137 civilians died; seventy-eight other attacks on noncombatants in which at least 57 were killed, 56 wounded and 15 sexually assaulted;

one hundred forty-one instances in which American soldiers tortured civilian detainees or prisoners of war with fists, sticks, bats, water or electric shock.

Members of a reconnaissance platoon swept through the Que Son Valley, burning homes, slaughtering animals and killing civilians.

Members of the platoon killed:

an unarmed boy standing outside a cluster of huts;

three women and three children in a hut;

executed an elderly woman and a baby;

raped a woman and a young girl and then executed civilian detainees.

The unit reported the victims as enemy killed in action.

On the same day as the massacre at My Lai, American soldiers from the same division killed an undetermined number of women and children in neighboring My Khe.

American soldiers tossed grenades into shelters and shot women, and children as they ran for cover or tried to flee.

Over the next three days, members of the unit burned three hamlets to the ground and tortured detainees with electric shocks.

The unit reported 39 enemy combatants killed but recovered no weapons and suffered no casualties.

An American helicopter "hunter-killer" team attacked a village in Cambodia with rockets and machine gun fire, killing eight civilians, including two children, and wounding 15.

After the attack, an American captain landed with a platoon of South Vietnamese troops.

No enemy weapons or other war materiel were found.

The troops provided no medical treatment to the wounded.

The American captain returned to the aircraft with a motorcycle and the Vietnamese troops made off with large quantities of civilian property, including tobacco, poultry, and radios.

The documents, archives of the Vietnam War Crimes Working Group have now been reclassified "secret" and removed from the public domain.

US Bombed Cambodia Secretly After Invasion in 1970

last refuge

'I didn't think of Iraqis as humans'

Haditha massacre

"Haditha holds a mirror up not just to American troops in the field but to our whole society.

Not just to the liars in government but to those that believe them too easily.

It is past time for Americans to summon the civil courage to face what is being done in their name and refuse to be accomplices." - Daniel Ellsberg

Witness' to the slaying of Iraqi civilians by American Marines in the village of Haditha say the American Marines shot men, women and children at close range in retaliation for the death of a Marine in a roadside bombing.

Aws Fahmi, a Haditha resident watched and listened as American Marines went from house to house killing members of three families.

Aws Fahmi heard Younis Salim Khafif plead in English for his life and the lives of his family members.

"I heard Younis speaking to the American Marines, saying: 'I am friend. I am good,' they killed him, his wife and daughters."- Aws Fahmi

The girls killed inside Younis Salim Khafif's house are ages 14, 10, 5, 3 and 1.

Abdul Hamid Hassan Ali, 76; Khamisa Tuma Ali, 66 (wife); Iman, 8; Abdul Rahman, 5; Abdullah, 4; were killed in the house next door.

Khafif, 43; Aeda Yasin Ahmed, 41; a son, 8 and five young daughters and an infant were killed in the third house.

Only 13-year-old Safa Younis lived - saved by her mother's blood spilling onto her making her look dead.

One marine claimed that in a pistol fire fight while unloading his pistol he shot three Iraqs in the head. (Trained by Clint Eastwood!)

"Democracy assassinated the family that was here" - graffiti seen later

Warplanes conducted airstrikes, dropping 500 lb bombs on more than one house to cover up the massacre.

"In addition to the American Marines' individual actions, "jets dropped 500 lb bombs". The buck for the "total breakdown in morality and leadership" doesn't stop with a single unit of stressed out, third tour of duty American Marines. It stops at the very top, with George Walker Bush." - Jess Winfield

joker clapping

unique library index

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