"The military forces that successfully defeat insurgencies are usually those able to overcome their institutional inclination to wage conventional war against insurgents."Counterinsurgency, US Army Field Manual1980 to 1988 Iraq and Iran wage war.
US provides military aid and intelligence information to both sides.
"It's a pity both sides can't lose." - Henry Kissinger
"It's been a leading, driving doctrine of US foreign policy since the 1940s that the vast and unparalleled energy resources of the Gulf region will be effectively dominated by the US and its clients, and that no independent indigenous force will be permitted to have a substantial influence on the administration of oil production and price." - Noam Chomsky
During the Iran-Iraq war, Iraq receives the lion's share of American support as Iran is regarded as the greater threat to US interests.
The United States, Soviet Union, France, and most Arab countries provided support for Iraq, while Iran is largely isolated.
1985 to 1989 According to a 1994 Senate report, private American suppliers, licensed by the Department of Commerce, export a brew of biological and chemical weapons which often produce slow, agonizing death.
* Bacillus Anthracis, anthrax; * Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin;* Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord, and heart; * Brucella Melitensis, a bacteria that can damage major organs; * Clostridium Perfringens, a highly toxic bacteria causing systemic illness; * Clostridium tetani, a highly toxigenic substance.
Also on the list: Escherichia coli (E. coli), genetic materials, human and bacterial DNA, and dozens of other pathogenic biological agents.
The following is listing of biological materials, provided by the American Type Culture Collection, which were exported to agencies of the government of Iraq pursuant to the issuance of an export licensed by the Department of Commerce:
Date: February 8, 1985 Sent to: Iraq Atomic Energy Agency - Materials Shipped:Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup
Date: February 22, 1985 Sent to: Ministry of Higher Education - Materials Shipped: Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (ATCC 32136) Class III pathogen
Date: July 11, 1985 Sent to: Middle and Near East Regional A - Materials Shipped: Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (ATCC 32136) Class III pathogen
Date: May 2, 1986 Sent to: Ministry of Higher Education - Materials Shipped: Bacillus Anthracis Cohn (ATCC 10) Class III pathogen; Bacillus Subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC 82); Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 3502) Class III Pathogen; Clostridium perfringens (Weillon and Zuber) Hauduroy, et al; Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051); Francisella tularensis var. tularensis Olsufiev (ATCC 6223); Clostridium tetani (ATCC 9441) highly toxigenic; Clostridium botulinum Type E (ATCC 9564) Class III pathogen; Clostridium tetani (ATCC 10779); Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 12916); Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 13124) Type A, alpha-toxigenic, produces lecithinase; Bacillus Anthracis (ATCC 14185) G.G. Wright (Fort Detrick) V770-NP1-R. Bovine anthrax Class III pathogen; Bacillus Anthracis (ATCC 14578) Class III pathogen; Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14581); Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14945); Clostridium botulinum Type E (ATCC 17855) Class III pathogen; Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 19213); Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 19397) Class III pathogen; Brucella abortus Biotype 3 (ATCC 23450) Class III pathogen; Brucella abortus Biotype 9 (ATCC 23455) Class III pathogen; Brucella melitensis Biotype 1 (ATCC 23456) Class III pathogen; Brucella melitensis Biotype 3 (ATCC 23458) Class III pathogen; Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 25763) Class III pathogen; Clostridium botulinum Type F (ATCC 35415) Class III pathogen
Date: August 31, 1987 Sent to: State Company for Drug Industries - Materials Shipped: Saccharomyces cerevesiae (ATCC 2601); Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis Serotype typhi (ATCC 6539); Bacillus subtillus (ATCC 6633); Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (ATCC 10031); Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536); Bacillus cereus (11778); Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228); Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 14884)
Date: July 11, 1988 Sent to: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission - Materials Shipped: Escherichia coli (ATCC 11303) Phage host; Cauliflower Mosaic Caulimovirus (ATCC45031) plant virus; Plasmid in Agrobacterium Tumefaciens (ATCC37349) Ti plasmid for co-cultivation with plant integration vectors in E. Coli;
Date: April 26, 1988 Sent to: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission - Materials Shipped: Hulambda4x-8, clone: human hypoxanthine; phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 (ATCC 57236) Phage vector; Hulambda14-8, clone: human hypoxanthine, phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57240) Phage vector; Hulambda15, clone: human hypoxanthine, phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 (ATCC 57242) Phage vector;
Date: August 31, 1987 Sent to: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission - Materials Shipped: Escherichia coli (ATCC 23846); Escherichia coli (ATCC 33694);
Date: September 29, 1988 Sent to: Ministry of Trade - Materials Shipped: Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 240) Class III pathogen; Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 938) Class III pathogen; Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 3629); Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 8009); Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 8705) Class III pathogen; Brucella abortus (ATCC 9014) Class III pathogen; Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 10388); Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 11966) Class III pathogen; Clostridium botulinum Type A Class III pathogen;' Bacillus cereus (ATCC 33018); Bacillus ceres (ATCC 33019)
Date: Janaury 31, 1989 Sent to: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission - Materials Shipped: PHPT31, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 (ATCC 57057); plambda500, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase pseudogene (HPRT) Chromosome(s): 5 p14-p13 (ATCC 57212)
Date: January 17, 1989 Sent to: Iraq Atomic Energy Commission - Materials Shipped: Hulambda4x-8, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 (ATCC 57237) Phage vector; Hulambda14, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 (ATCC 57240) Cloned from human lymphoblast Phage vector; Hulambda15, clone: human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 (ATCC 57241) Phage vector;
"These biological materials were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction," the Senate report stated. "It was later learned that these microorganisms exported by the US were identical to those the United Nations inspectors found and removed from the Iraqi biological warfare program." The report noted further that US exports to Iraq included the precursors to chemical-warfare agents, plans for chemical and biological warfare production facilities, and chemical-warhead filling equipment.
The exports continued to at least November 28, 1989, despite evidence that Iraq was engaging in chemical and biological warfare against Iranians and Kurds as early as 1984.
"The neocons hoped that the first Gulf war would lead to the removal of Saddam Hussein and the American occupation of Iraq. However, despite the urgings of then - Defense Secretary Richard Bruce Cheney and Undersecretary of Defense Paul Dundes Wolfowitz, the full conquest of Iraq was never accomplished because of the opposition of General Colin Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs, and General Norman Schwarzkopf, the field commander. Moreover, the US had a UN mandate only to liberate Kuwait, not to remove Saddam Hussein." - Stephen J. Sniegoski
Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 28 February 1991) is waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
1996 Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, an Israeli think tank, publishes a political blueprint titled "A clean break: a new strategy for securing the realm" for the incoming government of Benjamin Netanyahu.
The paper is authored by Richard Perle, Douglas Feith and David Wurmser.
They present a plan whereby Israel would "shape its strategic environment," beginning with the removal of Saddam Hussein and the installation of a Hashemite monarchy in Baghdad, to serve as a first step toward eliminating the anti-Israeli governments of Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Iran.
William Jefferson Clinton signed into law HR 4655, the "Iraq Liberation Act" which supported the pursuit of regime change in Iraq.
"The suggestion that the war with Iraq is being planned at Israel's behest, or at the instigation of policymakers whose main motivation is trying to create a secure environment for Israel, is strong." - Stephen J. Sniegoski
March 2001 Cheney Energy Task Force
Secrets of Cheney's Energy Task Force Come to Light
Cheney Energy Task Force Documents Detail Iraqi Oil Industry
2002 National Security Strategy states : "For centuries, international law recognized that nations need not suffer an attack before they can lawfully take action to defend themselves against forces that present an imminent danger of attack."
Legal scholars and international jurists often condition the legitimacy of preemption on the existence of an imminent threat - most often a visible mobilization of armies, navies, and air forces preparing to attack as in World War II.
George Walker Bush knew that the three pillars supporting the invasion - stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction, ties to al-Qa`ida and the purchase of yellow cake uranium - was propaganda penned by Douglas Feith.
Douglas Feith working for Dick Cheney and Don Rumsfeld by running Paul Dundes Wolfowitz's brainchild, the Office of Special Plans, forges the propaganda 'product' that ties Saddam Hussein to al-Qa`ida.
CIA director George Tenet briefed Bush Saddam Hussein did not have weapons of mass destruction
"There's no doubt Iraq hasn't fully complied with its disarmament obligations as set forth by the Security Council in its resolution. But on the other hand, since 1998 Iraq has been fundamentally disarmed: 90-95% of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capacity has been verifiably eliminated. " - Scott Ritter, USMC intelligence officer, September 25, 2002
2003 March 19 Iraq is invaded by coalition forces.
"Washington was heavily supporting Iraq in her war against Iran. It was during this period of US support that Iraq used poison gas against the Iranians and the Kurds, a tactic that the US government and its media supporters now describe as so horrendous. In fact, 'intelligence' facilitated the Iraqi use of gas against the Iranians. " - Stephen J. Sniegoski, February 10, 2003
George Walker Bush and his neoconservative supporters sought to depose an Iraqi regime hostile to Israel - and to demonstrate to Arabs and others in the Middle East who was the real master of the region." - Dimitri K. Simes
Man whose WMD lies led to 100,000 deaths confesses all
Kanan Makiya takes 7 million pages of documents from the Ba'ath Party headquarters and deposited them with the Hoover Institute at Stanford University.
"More than any single figure Kanan Makiya made the case for invading because it was the right thing to do." - Dexter Filkins
Society of American Archivists claims seizing and removing the documents is "an act of pillage" prohibited under international laws of war.
Hoover Institute is funded by Archer Daniels Midland, Atlantic Richfield, Boeing, Chrysler Corporation, Dean Witter, ExxonMobil, Ford Motor, General Motors, JP Morgan, Merrill Lynch, Procter & Gamble, Rockwell, Transamerica.
L. Paul Bremer* controls all contracts in Iraq in much the same manner that Bernard Baruch did for the War Industries Board during World War I.
L. Paul Bremer, a mismanaging director at Kissinger and Associates since 1989, gives one last order which denies the Iraqi government the ability to give preference to Iraqis in the reconstruction effort.
American bankster guarding pallets of money
"This was more cash than Donald John Trump had ever seen in his life." - Joel Stein
"In the last 10 days, the military has dropped
nearly 100,000 lb of explosives on a gateway for
Sunni militants into Baghdad.
2004 US Treasury sends 363 tons of cash, shrink wrapped into $400,000 bricks on pallets, which amounted to $12 billion to jump start the new Iraqi government.
"Who in their right mind would send 363 tons of cash into a war zone?" - Henry Waxman*
150 American company awarded contracts total more than $50 billion.
Halliburton's contract is initally worth over $11 billion; 13 other American companies contracts are initally worth more than $1.5 billion each.
Policy of "money as a weapon system" leaves the battlefield awash in cash.
Ahmad Chalabi acts as key figure on the De-Ba'athification Commission.
De-Ba'athification declared that all public sector employees affiliated with the Ba'ath Party are to be removed from their positions and banned from any future employment in the public sector.
The policy was highly controversial as all executive, managerial and engineering positions required Ba'ath Party membership.
Effectively no one was left with technical administrative experience.
Coalition Provisional Authority official Robert J. Stein Jr. is sentenced to nine years in prison for his role in a bribery, theft and money laundering case in connection with contracts given to Philip H. Bloom.
Army Capt. David Gilliam stashes $400,000 in his luggage when he comes home from assignment as a disbursement officer in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
Capt. Lee W. Dubois steals $39.6 million in fuel from the Army's Camp Liberty and sells it on the black market - the scheme nets him $450,000.
"In the case of the Iraq invasion and occupation,
the journalists who have placed themselves in danger most often are local Iraqi
"There is an important difference between the Marshall Plan for Europe and the debacle that is Iraq: The Marshall Plan actually helped Europe. " - Richard Mallery
"There is no accountability. Organizations charged with overseeing contracts are not held accountable. Contractors are not held accountable. The individuals responsible are not held accountable." - David M. Walker, Congressional head auditor
2005 Oil production has fallen over a million barrels a day since the invasion as oil pipelines have been blown up over 300 times by insurgents.
2006 "The George W. Bush administration's newly unveiled National Security strategy might well be subtitled "The Irony of Iran."
Three years after the invasion of Iraq and the invention of the phrase "axis of evil," the George W. Bush administration now highlights the threat posed by Iran - whose radical government has been vastly strengthened by the invasion of Iraq." - Madeleine Albright
On a contract of $13.7 billion, Kellogg, Brown and Root, a subsidiary of Halliburton, agrees to return $9 million to the federal government after auditors discover $208 million in overcharges in Iraq.
Halliburton keeps $199 million in overcharges and returns less than 4%.
"I can unequivocally state that the abuse related to contracts awarded to KBR represents the most blatant and improper abuse I have witnessed." - Bunnatine H. Greenhouse, former chief contracting officer of the US Army Corps of Engineers
Bunnatine H. Greenhouse objects to a decision to give a five-year, no-bid contract to KBR for putting out the oil fires that Pentagon officials 'thought' retreating Iraqi troops 'might' set as the United States invaded.
Bunnatine H. Greenhouse is demoted.
In 2011 a settlement agreement is signed for $970,000 to cover lost wages, legal fees ...
"As we look back on what we've done, we're real proud of being able to go into a war theater like that as a private contractor and support 200,000 troops." - William P. Utt, chairman of KBR
"One former Halliburton employee after another tells the same story of outrageous and intentional overcharging. Yet no one in the George Walker Bush administration seems to care." - Henry Waxman*
Coalition provisional authority is unable to account for $97 million of $120 million in oil revenue from southern Iraq.
Three top auditors overseeing work in Iraq tell a house panel that their review of $57 billion in Iraq contracts found that State and Defense department officials condoned or allowed repeated work delays, bloated expenses and payment for shoddy work or work never done.
Over $13 billion that America sent to Iraq to pay for reconstruction projects has been wasted, stolen or diverted to al-Qa`ida in Iraq, according to Salam Adhoob, a former chief investigator for Iraq's Commission on Public Integrity.
In one case, Salam Adhoob said that America had spent $24.4 million on an electricity project in Nineveh province, but that an oversight agency found that it "existed only on paper."
"The evidence of widespread corruption in the Iraq rebuilding effort is beyond dispute. Before the war, Halliburton used subsidiaries to do business with Iran, Iraq, and Libya, despite official American trade sanctions against all three countries." - Cullen Murphy
(actual badge worn by military personel)
2007 Midway Trading, based in Reston, Virginia, pleads guilty to grand larceny charges and agrees to pay a $250,000 fine.
Texas oilman, Oscar S. Wyatt Jr., founder and former chairman of Coastal Corporation, is sentenced to 1 year and 1 day in prison for paying millions of dollars in kickbacks to the regime of Saddam Hussein.
Compass Group suspends Peter Harris, chief executive of its UK & Ireland, Middle East and Africa companies.
Chevron pays $30 million; El Paso Corp. pays $2.7 million; Textron pays $4.6 million; Ingersoll-Rand Co. pays $6.7 million and York International pays $22 million in SEC fines based on charges of corruption.
"The "use of strength" does cause terrorist attacks.
This is not an argument for weakness, but a simple statement of fact.
Military analysts call it asymmetric warfare, or fourth generation warfare (4GW, in military jargon).
Any military analyst worth his salt will tell you a military superpower can expect adversaries to avoid direct military confrontations.
This is realism, not defeatism." - Rosa Brooks
2008 550 tons of Nigerian yellowcake stockpiled prior to the Gulf War which had been declared to the International Atomic Energy Agency and was under IAEA safeguards is shipped to Canada.
"The fact that a great many Jewish neoconservatives people like Joe Lieberman and the crowd over at Commentary pumped for this war, and now for an even more foolish assault on Iran, raised the question of divided loyalties: using US military power, US lives and money, to make the world safe for Israel." - Joe Stein, June 24, 2008
Pentagon sponsored study labeled Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents, based on the review of more than 600,000 Iraqi documents captured after the invasion finds no direct connection between the regime of Saddam Hussein and al-Qa`ida.
12 US soldiers die in Iraq due to accidental electrocution from faulty wiring.
"Over $300 million US tax dollars will be paid to private contractors to propagandize Iraq over the next three years.
The money will be used to "produce news stories, entertainment programs and public service advertisements for the Iraqi media in an effort to 'engage and inspire' the local population to support US objectives and the Iraqi (vassal) government.
The four companies that will share in the new contract are SOSi, the Lincoln Group, MPRI and Leonie Industries." - Washington Post, October 3, 2008
2009 "The Wartime Contracting Commission presented a bleak assessment of how tens of billions of dollars have been spent since 2001.
The 111-page report, obtained by the Associated Press, documents poor management, weak oversight, and a failure to learn from past mistakes as recurring themes in wartime contracting.
More than 240,000 private sector employees are supporting military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Despite the huge size and importance of the massive support contract known as "LOGCAP", the main program office managing the work for both Afghanistan and Iraq has only 13 government employees.
For administrative help, it must rely on KBR Inc., the primary LOGCAP contractor in Iraq - paid nearly $32 billion since 2001 (for LOGCAP administration). " - Richard Lardner June 07, 2009
"Militants in Iraq have used $26 off-the-shelf software to intercept live video feeds from US Predator drones, potentially providing them with information they need to evade or monitor US military operations.
Senior defense and intelligence officials said Iranian-backed insurgents intercepted the video feeds by taking advantage of an unprotected communications link in some of the remotely flown planes' systems.
Shi'a fighters in Iraq use software programs such as SkyGrabber - available for as little as $25.95 on the Internet - to regularly capture drone video feeds, according to a person familiar with reports on the matter." - Sioban Gorman, Yochi J. Dreazen, August Cole
2016 Monsanto, Cargill & Dow Chemical Took Over Iraqi Agriculture
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