musical hypnosis

History of Being Mesmerized

How Music Enchants the Brain

Our brains learn to love music's harmony

These brain rhythms let us process music

Why your brain acts like a jazz band

"You have to ignore 99% of what is around you, just to cross the road.

Catalysts allow you to access all the information you have been ignoring."

Alexander Theodore Shulgin

"All sensation is true;
sensation is the primary source of knowledge."


What Epicurus Can Teach Us about Freedom and Happiness

How Many Senses Do You Really Have?

sense is defined as:

to grasp;

to perceive;

to understand;

good judgement;

moral apprehension

natural apprehension

complying with consensus;

a general conscious awareness;

a sensation produced by a stimulus;

an intuitive acquired ability to estimate;

the normal ability to think or reason soundly;

to become aware of; meaning; import; significance;

intellectual perception; apperception; recognition; discernment.

Any of the faculties by which stimuli from outside or inside the body are received and felt, as the faculties of hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste, and equilibrium.

Sense is the mind acting in the direct cognition of material objects or of its own mental states.

Understanding is the logical power of apprehending general conceptions while classifying, arranging, and making deductions.

Reason is the power of apprehending fundamental truths which are the conditions of all real and scientific knowledge, and which control the mind in all its processes of investigation and deduction.

"All our knowledge begins with the senses,
proceeds to understanding, and ends with reason."

Immanuel Kant

nine major sense groups

eyes are useless when the mind is blind

"Visually most of us can immediately perceive only four or so items."
Samuel Arbesman


"He who sees, sees Reptilians;
he who sees not, sees Demigods."

what makes ‘unique yellow’ unique?

it takes effort to remember what we see

new ‘light meter’ discovered in the eye

eye trick reveals musicians even see in tune

to keep us sane, brain ignores tiny visual changes

phoenix tears


"He who smells, gets hungry;
he who smells not, desires Monsanto."

10 types of odors

fear supercharges sensitivity

sense of smell individually unique

empathetic touch


"He who touches, feels;
he who touches not, feels not."

can hugs keep us from catching colds?

Touch sends vibrations far beyond our fingertips

baby brain response to touch sets stage for empathy

The Interactive Relationship between Pain, Psychosis, and Agitation in
People with Dementia: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Clinical Trial

great taste !


"He who tastes, knows bitterness, saltiness and sourness;
he who tastes not, knows only the flavor of HFCS."

Fat is sixth taste but it’s ‘unpleasant’ alone

NSA hearing


"He who hears, awakens;
he who hears not, remains a sleeper."

Recent studies show that the cSlo gene uses alternative splicing to create 576 different proteins, each with a slightly different electrical response.

As a result, when researchers studied the hair cells on one end of the cochlea, they found one of the proteins.

When they looked at the hair cells on the other end, they found another protein.

In between, they found 574 other proteins, each of which was ideal for producing a strong response to a specific sound frequency!

In other words, the exons and introns of the cSlo gene have been set up so that each hair cell can use alternative splicing to produce a protein that is perfect for the frequencies to which it is supposed to respond most strongly!

The design is so detailed that each hair cell can choose from among 576 different proteins in order to get a good response.

All of this is the result of a single gene!

Douglas L. Black, "Splicing in the Inner Ear: a Familiar Tune, but What Are the Instruments?"; Neuron 20:165–168, 1998

that ringing in your ears

how ventriloquists trick us

your baby’s cry can rattle your brain

why nothing else sounds like a scream

how our brains visually locate the sounds we hear

ringing ears light up the brain's emotion center

weirdly common form of synaesthesia

noisy places change brain cells

shocking noise sticks

do not be afraid to feel


"He who feels, desires to feel more;
he who feels not, desires to feel nothing."

equilbrium system


"He who is in balance, walks a straight line;
he who is not in balance, falls down."


"He who is moral, rejects political expediency;
he who is immoral, becomes a predator."


"She who has her attention captured, may have been blinded;
she who is appears to be wearing blinders, may not be blind at all."

working memory faulty, needs network support

"Our senses are limited.

We 'see' only some wavelengths of light ;

we 'smell' only a range of odours;

we 'hear' only a range of sounds.

If we see nothing, then this does not mean that nothing is there.

The extents of our senses, both quantitatively and qualitatively, are also the results of an adaptive selection process that must allocate scarce resources.

We could have evolved eyes that were thousands of times more sensitive, but that ability would need to have been paid for by using resources that could have been used elsewhere.

We have ended up with a package of senses that makes efficient use of the scarce resources available." - John D. Barrow

dorothy can hear !

Although human senses are limited they are truly quite magnificent.

A human with normally functioning senses can;

feel on the fingertips or face a pressure that depresses the skin a .00004 inch,

feel the weight of a bee's wing falling on the cheek from less than half an inch away,

see a small candle flame from 30 miles away on a clear, dark night,

distinguish among more than 300,000 different color variations,

smell one drop of perfume diffused through a three-room apartment,

taste .04 ounce-of table salt dissolved in 530 quarts of water,

gauge the direction of a sound's origin based on a .00003 second difference in its arrival from one ear to the other.

21 senses

Humans Have a Lot More Than Five Senses

How we touch, smell, and see all at once

The commonly held definition of a "sense" is "any system that consists of a group of sensory cell types that respond to a specific physical phenomenon and that corresponds to a particular group of regions within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted.

The commonly held human senses are as follows:


This technically is two senses given the two distinct types of receptors present, one for color (cones) and one for brightness (rods).


This is sometimes argued to be five senses by itself due to the differing types of taste receptors (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), but generally is just referred to as one sense. For those who don't know, umami receptors detect the amino acid glutamate, which is a taste generally found in meat and some artificial flavoring. The taste sense, unlike sight, is a sense based on a chemical reaction


This has been found to be distinct from pressure, temperature, pain, and even itch sensors.


Obvious sense is obvious. ;-)


Surprisingly, this is a distinct sensor system from other touch-related senses.


Ability to sense heat and cold. This also is thought of as more than one sense. This is not just because of the two hot/cold receptors, but also because there is a completely different type of thermoceptor, in terms of the mechanism for detection, in the brain. These thermoceptors in the brain are used for monitoring internal body temperature.


Detecting vibrations along some medium, such as air or water that is in contact with your ear drums. Smell: Yet another of the sensors that work off of a chemical reaction. This sense combines with taste to produce flavors.


This sense gives you the ability to tell where your body parts are, relative to other body parts. This sense is one of the things police officers test when they pull over someone who they think is driving drunk. The "close your eyes and touch your nose" test is testing this sense. This sense is used all the time in little ways, such as when you scratch an itch on your foot, but never once look at your foot to see where your hand is relative to your foot.

Tension Sensors:

These are found in such places as your muscles and allow the brain the ability to monitor muscle tension.


In a word, pain. This was once thought to simply be the result of overloading other senses, such as "touch", but this has been found not to be the case and instead, it is its own unique sensory system. There are three distinct types of pain receptors: cutaneous (skin), somatic (bones and joints), and visceral (body organs).


Physical limits to magnetogenetics

Engineering a Genetically Encoded Magnetic Protein Crystal

Biosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles by human mesenchymal stem
cells following transfection with the magnetotactic bacterial gene mms6


This is the ability to detect magnetic fields, which is principally useful in providing a sense of direction when detecting the magnetic field of the Earth. Unlike most birds, humans do not have a strong magentoception, however, experiments have demonstrated that we do tend to have some sense of magnetic fields. The mechanism for this is not completely understood; it is theorized that this has something to do with deposits of iron oxide in our noses. This would make sense if that is correct as humans who are given magnetic implants have been shown to have a much stronger magnetoception than humans without.


The sense that allows you to keep your balance and sense body movement in terms of acceleration and directional changes. This sense also allows for perceiving gravity. The sensory system for this is found in your inner ears and is called the vestibular labyrinthine system. Anyone who's ever had this sense go out on them on occasion knows how important this is. When it's not working or malfunctioning, you literally can't tell up from down and moving from one location to another without aid is nearly impossible.

Stretch Receptors:

These are found in such places as the lungs, bladder, stomach, and the gastrointestinal tract. A type of stretch receptor, that senses dilation of blood vessels, is also often involved in headaches.


These trigger an area of the medulla in the brain that is involved in detecting blood born hormones and drugs. It also is involved in the vomiting reflex.


This system more or less allows your body to monitor its hydration level and so your body knows when it should tell you to drink.


This system allows your body to detect when you need to eat something.


This one is debated as no singular mechanism has been found that allows people to perceive time. However, experimental data has conclusively shown humans have a startling accurate sense of time, particularly when younger. The mechanism we use for this seems to be a distributed system involving the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Long term time keeping seems to be monitored by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (responsible for the circadian rhythm). Short term time keeping is handled by other cell systems.

Did you know humans have the ability to ignore one or more of the sensory systems at any given time ?

unique library index

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