"There is no way of coming at a true theory of society, but
by inquiring into the nature of its component individuals.
humanity in its combinations, it is necessary to
analyze humanity in its elementary
We quickly find that every
phenomenon exhibited by an
amalgamation of men, originates in some quality of the individual
A little consideration
shows us, for instance, that the very existence of society, implies some
natural affinity in its members for such a union.
It is pretty clear
too, that without a certain fitness in
mankind for ruling, and being
ruled, government would be an
complex organizations of commerce, have grown up under the stimulus of certain
desires existing in each of us.
It is from our possession of an
emotion to which they appeal, that religious institutions have been called into
We see throughout nature that the properties of a
community are dependent upon the attributes of its component parts.
Every social phenomenon must have
its origin in a property of the individual.
Just as the attractions and affinities which
are latent in separate atoms, become visible when those atoms are approximated;
so the forces that are dormant in the isolated men, are rendered active by
juxtaposition with his fellows.
Social philosophy suggests moral law
originates in some attribute of the human being.
Had we no other
inducement to eat than that arising from the prospect of certain advantages to
be thereby obtained, it is scarcely probable that our bodies would be so well
cared for as now.
If, in addition to these needs of the body, all other
requirements of our nature were similarly consigned to the sole care of the
intellect - were knowledge, property, freedom, reputation, friends, sought only
at the intellects dictation - then our investigations would be perpetual, our
estimates complex, our decisions so difficult that life would be wholly
occupied in the collection of evidence and the balancing of
Quite different, however, is the method of nature.
We find in ourselves some prompter called a desire; and the more
essential the action, the more powerful is the impulse to its performance, and
the more intense the gratification derived therefrom.
Thus, the longings for
food, for sleep, for warmth, are irresistible; and quite independent of
The continuance of humanity is secured not in
obedience to reason
but often in defiance of it.
men are not impelled to
accumulate the means of subsistence solely by a view to consequences, is proved
by the existence of misers, in whom
the love of acquirement is gratified to the neglect of the ends meant to be
We find employed a like system of regulating our conduct to
That we may behave in the public sight in the most
agreeable manner, we possess a love of praise.
desirable that there should be a
segregation of those best fitted for companionship - hence the sentiment of
May we not then reasonably
expect to find a like
instrumentality employed in impelling us to that line of conduct, in the due
observance of which consists what we call morality ?
We are guided to
our bodily welfare by instincts; that from instincts also, spring those
domestic relationships - and that similar agencies are used to secure our
indirect benefit, by regulating social behaviour.
As upright conduct in
each is necessary to the happiness of all, there exists in us an impulse
towards such conduct; or, in other words, that we possess a "Moral Sense," a
duty of which is to dictate
rectitude in our transactions with each other; which receives gratification
from honest and fair dealing; and which gives birth to the sentiment of
"And so you think," says the patrician, "that the
object of our rule should be
'the greatest happiness to the greatest number.'"
"Such is our
opinion," answers the
Whereupon, after some shuffling, our petitioner is
forced to confess, that he has no other authority but his own
feelingthat he has simply an
innate perception of the fact; or, in other words, that "his moral sense tells
In truth, none but those committed to a preconceived theory, can
fail to recognise, on every hand, the workings of such a faculty.
early times downward there have been constant signs of its presence - signs
which happily thicken as our own day is approached.
The articles of
Magna Charta embody its protests against oppression, and its demands for a
better administration of justice.
But how, it may be asked, can an
emotion have perception?
How can a desire give rise to a moral sense
To elucidate this we must take an example.
Contrast the miser and the
Accompanying his devotedness to
accumulation, the miser has a quite peculiar belief in the worth of money.
The most stringent economy he thinks virtuous; and anything like the
most ordinary liberality vicious; whilst of extravagance he has an absolute
Whatever adds to
his store seems to him good, whatever takes from it, bad.
passing gleam of generosity lead him on some special occasion to open his
purse, he is pretty sure afterwards to reproach himself as having done
Whilst the spendthrift is deficient in the instinct of
acquisition, he also
fails to realize the intrinsic worth of property;
regards saving habits as mean; and holds that there is something noble in
Is there not
here a confounding of intellectual intelligence with emotional
It is clear that these opposite perceptions of the
propriety or impropriety of certain lines of conduct, do not originate with the
intellect, but with the emotional faculties.
uninfluenced by desire, would show both miser and spendthrift that their habits
were unwise; whereas the intellect, influenced by
desire, makes each think the other
a fool, but does not enable
him to see his own foolishness.
is accompanied by a moral sense of the rightness of those actions which give it
Human desire generates the moral sense that things are
good or bad, according to the pleasure or pain they bring; and would always
generate such convictions, were it unopposed.
However, there is nearly
always a perpetual emotional conflict - an antagonism throughout life resulting
from the incongruity of belief.
It is only where a desire is very
predominant, or where no adverse desire exists, that the connection between the
instincts and the opinions they
dictate, becomes distinctly visible.
"If," say the objectors, "this
'moral sense' originates different notions of
duty in each age, each race, each
individual, how can it afford a safe foundation for a systematic
What can be more
absurd than to seek a definite rule of right, in the answers of so uncertain an
The phenomena of social life,
both past and present, well illustrate the influence of the moral sense which
is not readily explicable upon any other hypothesis.
decisions of the moral sense upon the complex cases referred to it are
inaccurate and often contradictory, it may still be capable of generating a
fundamental moral intuition, which can be logically unfolded into a scientific
morality." - Herbert Spencer
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of Life - a rational religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not
occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values have
declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
distributed without profit to
those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information
for research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved