"There is no way of coming at a true theory of society, but
by inquiring into the nature of its component individuals.
humanity in its combinations, it is necessary to
analyze humanity in its elementary
We quickly find that every phenomenon exhibited by
an amalgamation of men, originates in
some quality of the individual man.
A little consideration shows us, for instance, that the very existence
of society, implies some natural affinity in its members for such a union.
It is pretty clear too, that without
a certain fitness in mankind for
ruling, and being ruled,
government would be an
complex organizations of commerce, have grown up under
the stimulus of certain
desires existing in each of us.
It is from
our possession of an emotion to
which they appeal, that religious institutions have been
called into existence.
throughout nature that the properties of a community are dependent upon the
attributes of its component parts.
Every social phenomenon must
have its origin in a property of the individual.
the attractions and affinities which are
latent in separate atoms, become visible when those atoms are approximated;
so the forces that are dormant in
the isolated men, are rendered active by juxtaposition with his
suggests moral law originates in some attribute of the human being.
Had we no other inducement to eat than that arising from the prospect
of certain advantages to be thereby obtained, it is scarcely probable that our
bodies would be so well cared for as now.
If, in addition to these
needs of the body, all other requirements of our nature were similarly
consigned to the sole care of
the intellect - were knowledge, property, freedom, reputation, friends,
sought only at the intellects dictation - then our
investigations would be perpetual, our
estimates complex, our decisions so difficult that life would be wholly
occupied in the collection of evidence and the balancing of
Quite different, however, is the method of nature.
We find in ourselves some prompter
called a desire; and the more essential the
action, the more powerful
is the impulse to its performance, and
intense the gratification derived therefrom.
Thus, the longings
for food, for sleep, for warmth, are irresistible; and quite independent of
The continuance of humanity is secured not in
obedience to reason but
defiance of it.
That men are not impelled to accumulate the means
of subsistence solely by a
view to consequences, is proved by the existence of skinflints, in whom the
love of acquirement is gratified to the neglect of the ends.
We find employed a like system of
regulating our conduct to our fellows.
That we may behave in the public
sight in the most agreeable manner, we possess a love of
desirable that there should be
a segregation of those best
fitted for companionship - hence the sentiment of
May we not then
reasonably expect to find a
like instrumentality employed in impelling us to that line of conduct, in the
due observance of which consists what we call
We are guided to
our bodily welfare by instincts; that from instincts also, spring those
domestic relationships - and that
similar agencies are
used to secure our indirect benefit, by regulating social behaviour.
As upright conduct in each is necessary to the happiness of all, there
exists in us an impulse towards such conduct; we possess a " Moral Sense," a
duty of which is to dictate rectitude in
our transactions with each other; which receives gratification from honest
and fair dealing; and which gives birth to
the sentiment of justice.
"And so you think," says the patrician, "that the
object of our rule should be
'the greatest happiness to the greatest number.'"
"Such is our
opinion," answers the
Whereupon, after some shuffling, our petitioner is
forced to confess, that he has no other authority but his own feeling-that he
has simply an innate perception of the fact; or, in other words, that "his moral sense tells him so."
In truth, none but those committed to a preconceived theory, can fail to
recognise, on every hand, the workings of such a faculty.
times downward there have been constant signs of its presence - signs which
happily thicken as our own day is approached.
The articles of Magna
Charta embody its protests against oppression, and its demands for a better
administration of justice.
But how, it may be asked, can an emotion
can a desire give rise to a moral sense ?
To elucidate this we must
take an example.
Contrast the skinflint and
Accompanying his devotedness to
accumulation, the skinflint has a quite peculiar belief in the worth of
The most stringent economy he thinks virtuous; and anything
like the most ordinary liberality vicious; whilst of extravagance he has an
adds to his store seems to him good, whatever takes from it, bad.
a passing gleam of generosity lead him on some special occasion to open his
purse, he is pretty sure afterwards to reproach himself as having done
Whilst the spendthrift is deficient in the instinct of
acquisition, he also fails to realize the intrinsic worth of
The spendthrift regards saving habits as mean; and holds that
there is something noble in profuseness.
Is there not here a confounding of
intellectual intelligence with emotional intelligence?
It is clear
that these opposite perceptions of the propriety or impropriety of certain lines
originate with the intellect, but with
The intellect, uninfluenced by
desire, would show both skinflint and spendthrift
that their habits were unwise;
whereas the intellect, influenced by
desire, makes each think the other a fool, but
does not enable him to see
his own foolishness.
Every desire is accompanied by a
moral sense of the rightness of those actions which give it
generates the moral sense that things are good or bad, according to the
pleasure or pain they bring; and would always generate such convictions, were
However, there is nearly always
a perpetual emotional
conflict - an antagonism throughout life
resulting from the incongruity of belief.
It is only where a desire
is very predominant, or where no adverse desire exists, that the connection
between the instincts and the opinions they dictate, becomes
"If," say the objectors, "this 'moral sense'
originates different notions of duty in each age, each race, each individual,
how can it afford a safe foundation for
a systematic morality?"
What can seem to be more absurd
than to seek a definite rule of right, in the answers of so uncertain an
The phenomena of social life, both past and present, well
illustrate the influence of the
which is not readily explicable upon any other hypothesis.
decisions of the moral
sense upon the complex cases referred to it are
inaccurate and often
contradictory, it may still be capable of generating
a fundamental moral
intuition, which can be logically unfolded into a scientific
morality." - Herbert Spencer
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational religion based on reason which
requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church
buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a
personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the
knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has
enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of
The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the
author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in
America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site in no way condones
violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is
already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control
the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world
economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military
entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the
elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems.
Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point
of a gun.
American social mores and values have declined precipitously
over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and
more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been
preprogrammed into the population through prior mass media psychological
operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the
destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
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site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
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presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
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