stacks



colony

Why do so many African leaders die in office?

14 African Countries Forced by France to Pay Colonial Tax



850 AD Benin's inner wall, a 7 mile earthen rampart girded by a moat 20 feet deep, is built.

1200 Benin City and Timbuktu have thriving economies based on trading salt, gold, spices and dyes.

As the wealth of Timbuktu grows it becomes a center of learning attracting Muslim scholars.

1440 36 known Ogiso are accounted for as rulers of Benin when Oba Ewuare, also known as Ewuare the Great, takes power.

1485 Portuguese Joao Afonso de Aveiro visits Benin City.

1553 Significant trading developed between England and Benin based on the export of ivory, palm oil, pepper, and slaves.

1578 Morocco successfully repells an attempt by Portugal to conquer it at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir.

With Morocco, on the verge of bankruptcy, Sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi turns his attention to looting the Songhai Empire.

Sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi commands Judar Pasha, a Spanish eunuch, to take the salt mines at Taghaza and advance on the capital Gao.

1591 Judar Pasha sacks and loots Gao but finding few riches moves on to the richer trading centers of Timbuktu and Djenné.

The looting of the three cities marked the end of the Songhai Empire.

1593 Ahmad I al-Mansur citing "disloyalty" arrests and subsequently kills or exiles many of Timbuktu's scholars, including Ahmad Baba al Massufi.

1691 “Great Benin, where the king resides, is larger than Lisbon. all the streets run straight and as far as the eye can see. The houses are large, especially that of the king, which is richly decorated and has fine columns. The city is wealthy and industrious. It is so well governed that theft is unknown and the people live in such security that they have no doors to their houses.”

1701 Ashanti king Osei Tutu and his adviser Okomfo Anokye establish the Ashanti Kingdom, with the Golden Stool of Asante, conquer Denkyira.

1897 Benin City is captured by Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, who razes and burns the city, stealing and destroying treasured art.

The "Benin Bronzes" - stolen portrait figures, busts, and groups created in iron, carved ivory, and especially in brass - are now displayed in museums around the world.

1900 Spain lacks the wealth and interest to develop its African colonies during the first half of the 20th century.

However, through a paternalistic system, particularly on Bioko Island, Spain develops large cocoa plantations with thousands of imported Nigerian laborers.

1931 Following the fall of the monarchy, the Spanish African colonies including Spanish Guinea and Spanish Morocco became part of the Second Spanish Republic.

1936 Francisco Franco, a general of the Army of Africa, rebels against the republican government and starts the Spanish Civil War which lasts until 1939.





1956 When French Morocco becomes independent, Spain surrenders Spanish Morocco, but retains control of Sidi Ifni, the Tarfaya region and Spanish Sahara.

1959 Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea is established with a status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain.

1968 Under pressure from nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announces it will grant Equatorial Guinea independence.

1969 Under international pressure, Spain returned Sidi Ifni to Morocco.

1975 Green March prompts withdrawal from Spanish Sahara under Moroccan military pressure.





In Nigeria, a Strongman Tightens the Vise






map of Africa

Africa is HUGE !!!



natural resource expropriation




unique library index

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