Colonial projects did not
begin with nation-states but as joint-stock company ventures with private stock
sold to private investors (aristocracy).
Using the capital raised from
the joint-stock company, the company would assemble a crew of prospectors.
The prospectors only goal was maximizing profits for the shareholders
in the joint-stock company.
The most common methods are:
convert agriculture to a cash-crop, exploit resources and exploit
A colonial mission nearly always includes all three.
Before colonization, most of these economies were food sovereign,
meaning, they could grow enough food to feed the population.
process of colonization, all the variety of crops and produce are replaced by
the single cash-crop or
a small group of
cash crops that maximizes profit for the colonizing entity.
850 AD Benin's inner wall, a 7 mile earthen rampart girded by
a moat 20 feet deep, is built.
1200 Benin City
and Timbuktu have thriving economies based on trading salt, gold, spices and
As the wealth of Timbuktu grows it becomes a center of learning
attracting Muslim scholars.
1440 36 known Ogiso
are accounted for as rulers of Benin when Oba Ewuare, also known as Ewuare the
Great, takes power.
1485 Portuguese Joao Afonso
de Aveiro visits Benin City.
trading developed between England and Benin based on the export of ivory, palm
oil, pepper, and slaves.
successfully repells an attempt by
Portugal to conquer it at
the Battle of Alcácer Quibir.
With Morocco, on the verge of
bankruptcy, Sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi turns his attention to looting the
Sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi commands Judar Pasha, a
Spanish eunuch, to take the salt mines at Taghaza and advance on the capital
1591 Judar Pasha sacks and loots Gao but
finding few riches moves on to the richer trading centers of Timbuktu and
The looting of the three cities marked the end of the
1593 Ahmad I al-Mansur citing
"disloyalty" arrests and subsequently kills or exiles many of Timbuktu's
scholars, including Ahmad Baba al Massufi.
Virginia Company begins as a joint-stock company.
1661 Compagnie des aventuriers d'Afrique, a joint-stock
company was given exclusive rights to exploit Africa by the "Sun King", Louis
XIV of France.
The Sun King consolidated a system of absolute
monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution, a direct
result of absolutism.
1691 "Great Benin,
where the king resides, is larger than Lisbon. all the streets run straight and
as far as the eye can see. The houses are large, especially that of the king,
which is richly decorated and has fine columns. The city is wealthy and
industrious. It is so well governed that theft is unknown and the people live
in such security that they have no doors to their houses."
1701 Ashanti king Osei Tutu and his adviser Okomfo Anokye
establish the Ashanti Kingdom, with the Golden Stool of Asante, conquer
early 1800s Search for ivory, often
used in the production of
luxury goods, led many white traders into the interior of
With the exception of trading posts along the coasts, the
continent is essentially ignored.
French invade Algiers.
One of France's longest-held overseas
territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European
immigrants known as colons.
rebels organized the Algerian resistance movement against French
1903 "pacification campaign" by the
colonial forces, who use chemical weapons, mass executions of civilians,
concentration camps and other atrocities.
Algerian Genocide: Setif massacre
Genocide by France
1876 King Léopold II of Belgium, founds and controls
the International African Association, inviting Henry Morton Stanley to join
him in researching and 'civilizing' the continent.
1878 International Congo Society is formed, with economic
goals but still closely related to the former society.
secretly purchases foreign investor stock in the Congo Society, which turn to
imperialistic goals, with the Society serving as a philanthropic
1884 The Berlin Conference ushers in a
period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, eliminating and
overriding most existing forms of African autonomy and
Before the conference, European diplomacy treated
African natives in the same manner as New World natives: by forming trading
relationships with the indigenous chiefs.
German colonialists and missionaries arrived in Rwanda.
times, Rwanda's rich farmland grows an assortment of fruits, vegetables as well
as cassava and yam as their staple carbohydrate.
first by the Germans and then by the Belgians, the land is converted to a large
industrial coffee farm.
Rwanda, no longer able to feed itself, is
forced to import basic foodstuff from the mother country.
Many of the
vegetables that once grew in Rwanda are now extinct.
Benin City is
captured by Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, who razes and burns the city, stealing
and destroying treasured art.
The "Benin Bronzes" - stolen portrait
figures, busts, and groups created in iron, carved ivory, and especially in
brass - are now displayed in museums around the world.
1899 United Fruit Company (UFCO), the merger of Minor C.
Keith's banana-trading concerns with Andrew W. Preston's Boston Fruit Co.,
Manuel Estrada Cabrera.
Spain lacks the wealth
and interest to develop its African colonies during the first half of the 20th
However, through a paternalistic system, particularly on
Bioko Island, Spain develops large
with thousands of imported Nigerian laborers.
1931 Following the fall of the monarchy, the Spanish African
colonies including Spanish Guinea and Spanish Morocco became part of the Second
1936 Francisco Franco, a general
of the Army of Africa, rebels against the republican government and starts the
Spanish Civil War which lasts
1956 When French Morocco becomes
independent, Spain surrenders Spanish Morocco, but retains control of Sidi
Ifni, the Tarfaya region and Spanish Sahara.
Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea is established with a status similar to
the provinces of metropolitan Spain.
pressure from nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announces it will
grant Equatorial Guinea independence.
international pressure, Spain returned Sidi Ifni to Morocco.
Green March prompts withdrawal from Spanish Sahara under Moroccan military
Bantu groups migrate into
Rwanda and began to clear forest land for agriculture.
coalesced, first into clans (ubwoko), and then, by 1700, into eight
The Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi Nyiginya clan,
became the dominant kingdom in the mid-eighteenth century.
neighbouring Burundi were assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of
German policy was to rule the country through the Rwandan
The colonists favoured the Tutsi over the Hutu when assigning
administrative roles, believing them to be migrants from Ethiopia and racially
1935 Belgium introduces a permanent
division of the population by strictly dividing the population into three
ethnic groups, with the Hutu representing about 84% of the population, Tutsi
about 15%, and Twa about 1% of the population.
Identity cards issued
label each individual: Tutsi, Hutu, Twa, or Naturalised.
emancipation movement beglns to grow after World War II.
1957 Hutu scholars write the "Bahutu Manifesto".
document labels the Tutsi and Hutu as separate races, and called for the
transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu based on "statistical law".
1964 300,000 Tutsis have fled.
1990 To make the economic, social and political conflict look
more like an ethnic conflict propaganda campaigns of fabricated events of
ethnic crisis caused by the Tutsi and the Rwandan Patriotic Front.
process is described as "mirror politics", whereby a person accuses others of
what the person himself/herself actually wants to do.
primarily recruited from the vast pool of Hutu internally displaced persons
driven from their homes in the North, and claimed a total member of 50,000 on
the eve of genocide.
October 1993 President of
Burundi, Melchior Ndadaye, elected in June as the country's first ever Hutu
president, is assassinated by extremist Tutsi army officers.
April 6, 1994 The airplane carrying Rwandan President
Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu president of
Burundi, is shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali, killing everyone on
Jean-Louis Bruguière concluded Paul Kagame ordered the
Genocidal killings began the following day.
Soldiers, police, and militia quickly executed key Tutsi and moderate
Hutu military and political leaders who could have assumed control in the
ensuing power vacuum.
Checkpoints and barricades are erected to screen
all holders of the national ID card of Rwanda, which contains ethnic
This enables Hutu to systematically identify and kill
|"Now, I am
under attack by the biggest force in military history, my little African son,
Obama wants to kill me, to take away the freedom of our country, to take away
our free housing, our free medicine, our free education, our free food, and
replace it with American style thievery, called "capitalism," but all of us in
the Third World know what that means, it means corporations run the countries,
run the world, and the people suffer" ~
Muammar Gaddafi, April 8, 2011
2011 United Nations Security Council adopts French-proposed Resolution
1973 on the situation in Libya.
The resolution forms the legal basis
for military intervention in the Libyan civil war, authorizing UN member states
to "take all necessary measures to protect civilians and civilian
January 1, 2016
releases 3,105 of Hillary Clinton's
personal emails as Secretary of State.
An email raises serious
questions about the real motives behind the military intervention in
To Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
"Qaddafi has nearly bottomless financial resources to
continue indefinitely, according to the latest report we have received:
On April 2, 2011 sources with access to advisors to Salt al-Islam
Qaddafi stated in strictest confidence that while the freezing of Libya's
foreign bank accounts presents Muammar Qaddafi with serious challenges, his
ability to equip and maintain his armed forces and intelligence services
According to sensitive information available to these
individuals, Qaddafi's government holds 143 tons of gold, and a similar amount
During late March 2011, these stocks were moved to SABHA
(southwest in the direction of the Libyan border with Niger and Chad); taken
from the vaults of the Libyan Central Bank in Tripoli.
This gold was
accumulated prior to the current rebellion and was intended to be used to
establish a pan-African currency based on the Libyan golden Dinar.
plan was designed to provide the Francophone African Countries with an
alternative to the French franc (CFA)."
According to knowledgeable individuals this quantity of gold and silver is
valued at more than $7 billion.
French intelligence officers discovered
this plan shortly after the current rebellion began, and this was one of the
factors that influenced President Nicolas Sarkozy's decision to commit France
to the attack on Libya."
"According to these individuals
Sarkozy's plans are driven by the following issues: A desire to gain a greater
share of Libya oil production, Increase French influence in North Africa,
Improve his internal political situation in France, Provide the French military
with an opportunity to reassert its position in the world, Address the concern
of his advisors over Qaddafi's long term plans to supplant France as the
dominant power in Francophone Africa".
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