Nathan Mayer RothschildNapoleon Bonaparte

"The greatest advances of civilization,
whether in architecture or painting,
science and literature, industry or agriculture,
have never come from centralized government."

Milton Friedman

November 1793 Reign of Terror

"Jean Baptiste Carrier, a wholesale executioner in the French Revolution, willing tool of Marat whom this little misshapen hideous dwarf resembled in many ways enrolled companies of criminals, negroes and mulattos, one of which was called 'The Company of Marat'.

Carrier butchered men, women and children, chiefly of the peasant class, in wholesale drownings.

According to the estimate of one of Carrier's own committee, 9,000 people, priests, peasants, and women with babies were herded into barges which were taken out and sunk in the Loire.

Carrier's own declaration of the intense joy he experienced in seeing his victims suffer are recorded at his eventual trial after the downfall of Robespierre. "I have never laughed so much", he declared, "as when I saw the grimaces those priests made as they died." - George Pitt-Rivers, 1920

1800 Rothschilds hire general Napoleon Bonaparte of the French Revolutionary Army to restore order.

The privately owned central bank of France, is founded.

"The bankers owned its shares, and even Napoleon himself bought shares in the bank." - Andrew Gavin Marshall

Eventually Napoleon Bonaparte decides France has to break free of debt.

Napoleon Bonaparte declares that when a government is dependent on bankers for money, it is bankers - not government leaders - in control.

"The hand that gives is among the hand that takes.

Money has no motherland, financiers are without patriotism and without decency, their sole object is gain." - Napoleon Bonaparte

A central bank is granted a charter over the production and distribution of governement a financial institution given privileged control of money and credit for a nation or a group of nations.

A central bank formulates monetary policy and regulates member banks.

Central banks are referred to as "lenders of last resort."

Central banks provide liquidity to critical nodes - choke points - in monetary supply chains allowing "smooth circulation" of promissary notes.

Private central banks are joint stock incorporations.

1803 Napoleon Bonaparte strikes a deal with Thomas Jefferson, the Louisiana purchase, exchanging the Mississippi basin for $3,000,000 in gold which Napoleon Bonaparte uses to hire an army for the Napoleonic Wars:

the War of the Third Coalition (1805),

the War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-7),

the War of the Fifth Coalition (1809),

the War of the Sixth Coalition (1813),

and the War of the Seventh Coalition (1815).

Before industrilization military forces are organized around "foraging" principles.

Soldiers extensively interact with locals to acquire supplies in the conflict zone.

As they move forward they strip the land to continue the forward march.

This is how the Russian scorched earth policy worked to defeat Napoleon.

The Napoleonic Wars have profound consequences for global and European history.

They lead to:

the spread of nationalism and liberalism;

the rise of the British Empire as the premier world power;

the independence movements in Latin America;

the collapse of the Spanish Empire;

the fundamental reorganization of German and Italian territories into larger states;

and the establishment of radically new methods in warfare.

Land warfare becomes dependent on mechanized travel.

1806 Landgrave of Hesse-Cassell, William IX flees to Denmark, leaving 600,000 lb (about $3,000,000) with Mayer Amschel Bauer for safekeeping when Hesse-Kassel is annexed by the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Jérôme Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother.

These funds were desginated to go to the mercenaries or their dependants and not to the Landgrave as the agreement-for-hire did not expire when peace was declared, but only one full year after the peace was declared and only when the mercenaries have returned home.

Instead of the principal being sent to Cassel, the home of the Landgrave, the money is retained in England where it is invested.

Interest is paid to the Landgrave in drafts.

The money actually transferred to Cassel is used to provide high interest loans.

This results in a massive movement of funds in and out of Cassel with substantial income for the Landgrave, who had taken up with the Thurn und Taxis family (Grafschaft Thurn und Taxis, State of the Holy Roman Empire) who hold the postal monopoly for all of Europe.

The mercenaries, who had done the most to earn the money, got nothing, but the bare promised amounts, as they were not privy to the "private" interest bearing side-agreements done behind their backs.

Bank of England quickly rises to oppose Napoleon Bonaparte and finances every nation in his path profiteering off war.

Prussia, Austria, and then finally Russia all go heavily into debt to City of London Money Power.

When Napoleon falls, there remained but one grand imperialism in the world - the imperialism of massive capital - Money Power in the City of London.

1810 William Brown establishes William Brown & Co. in England.

1811 A bill is put before Congress to renew the charter of the First Bank of the US.

The legislatures of both Pennsylvania and Virginia pass resolutions asking Congress to kill the bank.

The national press openly attacks the bank: a great swindle; a vulture; a viper; and a coiled cobra.

"Either the application for renewal of the charter is granted, or the US will find itself involved in a most disastrous war." - Nathan Mayer Rothschild

The renewal bill clears the House of Represenatives by a single vote and becomes deadlocked in the Senate.

James Madison, a staunch opponent of the central bank, sends his Vice-President, George Clinton, to break the tie in the Senate which kills the central bank.

War of 1812

The charter for the First Bank of the US is not renewed and the British attack America.

As the British are still busy fighting Napoleon Bonaparte they are unable to mount much of an assault and the war ends with America undefeated.

1815 British Treasury owes a debt of £ 885,000,000 due to the compounding of interest to the Bank of England.

1818 John Alexander Brown establishes John A. Brown and Co. in Philadelphia.

1825 James Brown establishes Brown Brothers & Co. on Pine Street in New York.

1833 Brown Brothers & Co. relocates to Wall Street.

Panic of 1837 Brown Brothers withdraws from the lending business to focus on currency exchange and international trade.

During the Civil War Brown Brothers ships carry 75% of the slave cotton from the American South to British mill owners.

1861 Moses Taylor, Chairman of the Loan Committee to finance the Union in the Civil War, offers the government another $5,000,000 at 12% to continue financing the war by shaving 33% off US treasury bonds.

Colonel Dick Taylor of Chicago suggests Abraham Lincoln have Congress pass a bill authorizing the printing of full legal tender treasury notes.

1862 Legal Tender Act of 1862, allows the printing of $150 million Greenback with the US Treasury acting as the Bank.

"The government should create, issue and circulate all the currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of the people.

The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of government, but it is in the government's greatest creative opportunity.

By the adoption of these principles the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest.

Money will cease to be master and become the servant." - Abraham Lincoln

July 11, 1862 Second Legal Tender Act enacted allows another $150 million Greenback to be printed.

"If that mischievous financial policy, which had its origin in the North American Republic, should become indurated down to a fixture, then that government will furnish its own money without cost.

It will pay off debts and be without a debt.

It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce.

It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of civilized governments of the world.

The brains and the wealth of all countries will go to North America.

That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe." - The Times of London

November 15, 1862 A letter from Napoleon III is published proposing that France, Britain, and Russia acted as joint mediators in the American conflict.
The Emperor cites three reasons for such an action – the suffering of the American people, the harmful economic impact of the war on Europe (notably the cotton crisis), and the seeming impossibility of the two sides reaching a resolution quickly and independently.

December 17, 1862 General Order No. 11 decreed:

1. The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby expelled within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order.

2. Post commanders will see to it that all of this class of people be furnished passes and required to leave, and any one returning after such notification will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permit from headquarters.

3. No passes will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application of trade permits."


… they come in with their Carpet sacks in spite of all that can be done.

The Jews seem to be a privileged class that can travel any where.

They will land at any wood yard and make their way through the country.

If not permitted to buy Cotton themselves they will act as agents for someone else who will be at a Military post, with a Treasury permit to receive Cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes which the Jew will buy up at an agreed rate, paying gold … all traders … a curse to the Army … expelled." - Ulysses S. Grant to Christopher Wolcott, the United States Assistant Secretary of War

March 3, 1863 Third Legal Tender Act allows another $150 million Greenback to be printed.

June 3, 1864 Abraham Lincoln, failing to garner congressional authority to print more Greenback signs the National Banking Act into law.

The North is being financed by the Rothschilds through their American agent, August Belmont, while the South is being financed through the Erlangers, Rothschild relatives.

"The agents of the banks fell upon the bill in haste and disfigured it." - Thaddeus Stevens

Tsar Alexander II states Russia would consider active British or French military action a declaration of war and sends part of his Pacific Fleet to San Francisco.

Tsar Alexander II, like Otto Von Bismarck in Germany, could clearly see what the soulless central bankers were up to, indeed he had already refused to let them set up a central bank in Russia.

Abraham Lincoln is re-elected.

"The money power preys upon the nations in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity.

It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy." - Abraham Lincoln, November 21

"My agency in promoting the passage of the National Banking Act was the greatest financial mistake in my life. It has built up a monopoly which affects every interest in the country." - Salomon P Chase

"While boasting of our noble deeds we're careful to conceal the ugly fact that by an iniquitous money system we have nationalized a system of oppression which, though more refined, is not less cruel than the old system of chattel slavery." - Horace Greeley

"Importers were obliged to go to Wall Street bankers to buy gold to pay duties on their goods, and the Wall Street gamblers held the power to fix the price.

Gold went to a premium.

Had the greenbacks been permitted to retain their full legal tender quality, there would have been no need for gold to pay import duties.

The price of gold rapidly rose and before the war closed had reached the price of $2.85, measured in greenbacks.

Thus during the entire war these gold gamblers speculated in gold, making fortunes from the blood and tears of the American people.

This 'sacred war debt' was only a gigantic of fraud, concocted by European capitalists and enacted into American law with the aid of congressmen, who were their paid hirelings or their ignorant dupes." - Mrs M. E. Hobart

April 15, 1865

Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, at Ford's Theater.

Allegations that international bankers were responsible for Lincoln's assassination surfaced in the Canadian House of Commons in 1934.

Gerald G. McGeer obtained evidence deleted from the public record provided by Secret Service agents that stated John Wilkes Booth was a mercenary working for Rothschild.

"They were the men opposed to his national currency program and who had fought him throughout the whole Civil War on his policy of the Greenback.

They were the men interested in the establishment of the Gold Standard and the right of the bankers to manage the currency and credit of every nation.

With Abraham Lincoln out of the way they were able to proceed with that plan and did proceed with it in the United States.

8 years after Lincoln's assassination, silver was demonetized and the Gold Standard set up in the US." - Gerald G. McGee, Vancouver Sun, May 2, 1934

"It was during the Civil War that the conspirators launched their first concrete efforts.

We know that Judah Benjamin, chief advisor of Jefferson Davis, was a Rothschild agent.

We also know that there were Rothschild agents planted in Abraham Lincoln's cabinet who tried to sell him into a financial dealing with the House of Rothschild.

Old Abe saw through the scheme and bluntly rejected it thereby incurring the undying enmity of the Rothschilds; exactly as the Russian Tsar did when he torpedoed their first League of Nations at the Congress in Vienna.

Investigation of the assassination of Lincoln revealed that the assassin Booth was a member of a secret conspiratorial group. " - Myron Fagan

The soulless central bankers wanted the reinstitution of a central bank under their control and an American currency backed by gold.

Gold was chosen as gold had always been relatively scarce, was a lot easier to monopolize , than silver - now plentifully found in huge quantities in Aspen, Caribou, Telluride and Leadville Colorado, Virginia City Nevada and the Calico Mountains of California.

1866 Congress passes the, "Contraction Act," which authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to contract the money supply by retiring some of the Greenback in circulation.

"The hard times which occurred after the Civil War could have been avoided if the Greenback legislation had continued as Abraham Lincoln had intended.

Instead there were a series of money panics, what we call recessions, which put pressure on Congress to enact legislation to place the banking system under centralized control. " - Theodore R. Thoren and Richard F. Walker

Congress passes the "Contraction Act"

The money supply falls as currency is withdrawn from circulation.

1866 - $1,800,000,000 in circulation - approximately $50.46 per capita

1867 - $1,300,000,000 in circulation - approximately $44.00 per capita

1876 - $600,000,000 in circulation - approximately $14.60 per capita

1886 - $400,000,000 in circulation - approximately $6.67 per capita

federal incorporation

1872 Ernest Seyd appears in America with $100,000 to bribe as many Congressmen as necessary for the purposes of getting silver demonetized.

Ulysses S. Grant signs the Coinage Act (H. R. 2934 written in 67 sections filling 35 pages of the House Journal on May 27, 1872) which results in the minting of silver dollars being abruptly stopped.

Representative Samuel Hooper, who introduced the bill in the house, admits Ernest Seyd drafted the legislation.

Western mining interests and others who want silver in circulation labeled this measure the "Crime of '73."

1873 "I went to America in the winter of 1872 - 1873, authorized to secure, if I could, the passage of a bill demonetizing silver.

It was in the interests of those I represented, the governors of the Bank of England, to have it done.

By 1873, gold coins were the only form of coin money." - Ernest Seyd

1876 13 of the workforce is unemployed and unrest is growing.

There are even calls for a return to Greenback or silver.

Congress creates the US Silver Commission to investigate the problem.

This commission states that the deliberate contraction of the money supply created the current "monetary crisis."

"The disaster of the Dark Ages was caused by decreasing money and falling prices. Without money, civilization could not have had a beginning, and with a diminishing supply, it must languish, and unless relieved, finally perish. History records no other such disastrous transition as that from the Roman Empire to the Dark Ages." - US Silver Commission

Despite this report no action is taken.

1877 Rioting breaks out from Pittsburgh to Chicago.

American Bankers Association urges membership to do everything in their power to put down any notion of a return to Greenbacks.

The American Bankers Association secretary, James Buel, writes a letter to the members:

"It is advisable to do all in your power to sustain such prominent daily and weekly newspapers, especially the Agricultural and Religious Press, as well as oppose the Greenback issue of paper money and that you will also withhold patronage from all applicants who are not willing to oppose the government issue of money.

To repeal the Act creating bank notes, or to restore to circulation issue of money will be to provide the people with money and will therefore seriously affect our individual profits as bankers and lenders.

See your Congressman at once and engage him to support our interests that we may control legislation." - Secretary James Buel of the Associated Bankers of New York, Philadelphia, and Boston

1878 Congress passes the Sherman Law.

This law allows the minting of a limited number of silver dollars, ending the 5 year hiatus.

However this did not mean that anyone who brought silver to the US Mint could have it struck into silver dollars, free of charge, as in the period prior to Ernest Seyd's Coinage Act in 1873.

Gold backing of the American currency also remains.

The Sherman Law ensures that some money begans to flow into the economy again.

James Abram Garfield

1881 James Abram Garfield, Chairman of the Appropriations Committee and a member of Banking and Currency, is elected President.

"Whosoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce.

And when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled, one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be told how periods of inflation and depression originate." - James Abram Garfield

July 2, 1881 James Abram Garfield is shot by the assassin Charles J. Guiteau.

1892 "Let us make use of the courts.

Let us go forward as fast as possible at foreclosing on debentures and mortgages.

Through the intervention of law, the common people shall have lost their homes, they will be more easy to control and more easy to govern.

They shall not be able to resist the strong hand of the government acting in accordance with the orders of the central power of imperial wealth, under the control of the leaders of finance.

Our top leaders are presently working at establishing an imperialism of capital to rule the world.

While they are implementing this plan, they must keep the people busy with political antagonisms." - United States Bankers' Magazine 1892

1893 "The year 1893 saw the biggest economic crisis in the country's history. After several decades of wild industrial growth, financial manipulation, uncontrolled speculation and profiteering, it all collapsed: 642 banks failed and 16,000 businesses closed down. Out of the labor force of 15 million, 3 million were unemployed." - Howard Zinn

1894 "Were the Government to establish banks as depositories for all the money in the country it is safe to presume that nearly all the money in the country would come into these banks.

We cannot enumerate in an hour all the benefits of government ownership of the banking system but you will recognize the following:

I. Absolute safety of the bank as a place for depositing money.

II. Relief from anxiety to all persons who deposit money in the banks.

III. The inducement for the common people to acquire and save money that they may place it in the bank and get 3 per cent interest on their deposits.

IV. The constant abundance of money in the bank by which any person can always borrow who has security.

V. The absolute impartiality by which the poor can borrow as cheaply as the rich, the man in Idaho borrow as cheaply as the man in New York.

VI. Freedom from broken banks, which precipitate the financial panic, which shut down business, which starves out the laboring man, which compels the poor to sell for what they can get in order to have something to eat.

VII. Freedom from the hard times, resulting from bank failures, in which period the rich take advantage of the poor, who are out of work, to buy that which they are compelled to sell at a quarter of the value.

VIII. Freedom from the distressed conditions from time to time in which the millionaire so rapidly doubles and trebles his fortune.

IX. The abolition of the chattel mortgage shark that gets his 5 per cent a month when banks are failing and money is hidden.

X. The abolition of the money broker who gets his living through the simple finding of places where money can be borrowed during the continual period of hard times.

XI. The settled financial conditions by which people can know what to depend upon when they engage in business.

XII. The immense revenue to the Government - a clear profit over and above all present means of revenue.

XIII. Freedom from the expense borne by people who pay annually hundreds of thousands of dollars to save manufacturers and the proprietors of depositories for the custody of money in these hiding places.

XIV. The convenience and safety from robbery of doing business with checks instead of being compelled to carry and use money in all business, transactions.

XV. The low rate of interest to borrowers by which the money expended in interest can be saved and put into general circulation instead of going into rich money loaner's hands at the great financial centers." - Thomas E. Hill

1895 Supreme Court finds an income tax law similar to the 16th amendment unconstitutional.

1896 The central issue in the Presidential campaign is the issue of more silver money.

Senator William Jennings Bryan from Nebraska makes an emotional speech at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, labeled, "Crown Of Thorns And Cross Of Gold."

"We will answer their demand for a Gold Standard by saying to them, you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." - Senator Jennings Bryan

William McKinley favors the Gold Standard.

Manufacturers and industrialists inform their employees that if William Jennings Bryan is elected all factories and plants would close.

William McKinley beats William Jennings Bryan by a small margin.

1898 Spanish-American War ensues.

"On the one hand there is the party which holds the power because it holds the wealth, which has in its grasp all labor and all trade, which manipulates for its own benefit and its own purposes all the sources of supply, and which is powerfully represented in the councils of State itself.

On the other side there is the needy and powerless multitude, sore and suffering.

Rapacious usury, which, although more than once condemned by the Church, is nevertheless under a different form but with the same guilt, still practiced by avaricious and grasping men so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the masses of the poor a yoke little better than slavery itself." - Pope Leo XIII

The US annexes Guam, the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico and gains temporary control over Cuba.

The Anti-Imperialist League opposed annexation on economic, legal, and moral grounds.

Propaganda identifies William McKinley as an imperialist.

1900 William McKinley is re-elected with imperialist foreign policy paramount.

William Jennings Bryan did not want war with Spain, opposed the annexation of the Philippines and campaigned for silver money.

William McKinley claimed to want American producers supreme in global markets and after the passage of the Gold Standard Act of 1900 William McKinley easily won re-election.

1901 Leon Frank Czolgosz assassinates William McKinley.

Leon Frank Czolgosz is heavy influenced by the anarchists Emma Goldman and Ovsei Osipovich Berkman who are deported under the Anarchist Exclusion Act of 1903.

JP Morgan

1907 Two stock market crashes occur.

In March 1907 and then again in October 1907 with the stock market falling nearly 50% from its peak in 1906.

There were numerous runs on banks and trust companies leading to the closings of many banks and businesses.

Shortly before the Panic of 1907 Jacob Hirsch Schiff, the head of Kuhn & Loeb, speaking to the New York Chamber of Commerce:

"Unless we have a central bank with adequate control of credit resources, this country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching money panic in its history."

"If the Tsar will not accord our people desired liberties, then a revolution will bring about a republic which will assure us our rights." - Jacob Schiff

John Pierpont Morgan, threatened by the developing trusts, refuses to help Knickerbocker Trust which is experiencing a run on deposits.

Charles T. Barney, the president of Knickerbocker Trust, Charles Morse and his partners Otto and Augustus Heinze, have failed in a hostile takeover attempt of United Copper .

October 21 National Bank of Commerce announces it will stop accepting cheques from Knickerbocker Trust and Knickerbocker Trust collapses.

October 23 New York Times runs front-page article describing the run on the Knickerbocker Trust with a companion article describing the Trust Company of America, the second largest trust in New York City, as the current "sore point" in the panic according to George W. Perkins, a senior Morgan partner.

"Oakleigh Thorne testified before a congressional committee that his bank had been subjected to only moderate withdrawals … that he had not applied for help, and that it was the [Morgan's] 'sore point' statement alone that had caused the run on his bank.

Morgan interests took advantage of the unsettled conditions during the autumn of 1907 to precipitate the panic, guiding it shrewdly as it progressed so that it would kill off rival banks and consolidate the preeminence of the banks within the Morgan orbit." - Frederick Lewis Allen, Life Magazine April 25, 1949

John Pierpont Morgan publicly announces he will provide liquidity to the Trust Company of America to stave off collapse.

John Pierpont Morgan takes control of many smaller New York banks by manufacturing over $40,000,000 completely reserveless private money (fungible instruments), purchasing goods and services with it while sending some of it to his branch banks to be lent out at interest.

"Capital must protect itself in every way.

Debts must be collected and loans and mortgages foreclosed as soon as possible.

When through a process of law the common people have lost their homes, they will be more tractable and more easily governed by the strong arm of the law applied by the central power of leading financiers.

People without homes will not quarrel with their leaders.

This is well known among our principle men now engaged in forming an imperialism of capitalism to govern the world.

By dividing the people we can get them to expend their energies in fighting over questions of no importance to us except as teachers of the common herd." - John Pierpont Morgan

"A study of the panics of 1873, 1893, and 1907 indicates that these panics were the result of the international banker operations in London." - Eustace Mullins

1908 Theodore Roosevelt signs into law a bill creating the, National Monetary Commission.

This commission is packed with friends and cronies of John Pierpont Morgan including chairman Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich representing America's richest banking families from Newport Rhode Island.

Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich's daughter Abby marries John D. Rockefeller Jr., and together they have five sons including Nelson who would become Vice President in 1974 and David who would become Head of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich's son Winthrop Aldrich became chairman of the Chase National Bank.

Following the setting up of this National Monetary Commission, Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich immediately embarks on a 2 year 'fact finding' tour of Europe, where he consulted at length with the central bankers in England, France, and Germany, or rather Rothschild, Rothschild, and Rothschild.

"Finance and the tariff are reserved by Nelson Aldrich as falling within his sole purview and jurisdiction.

Mr. Aldrich is endeavoring to devise, through the National Monetary Commission, a banking and currency law.

A great many are firmly of the opinion that Mr. Aldrich sums up in his personality the greatest and most sinister menace to the popular welfare of the US." - Harper's Weekly, May 7, 1910

Shortly after Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich return the most wealthy and powerful men in America board his private railcar in the strictest secrecy and journey to Jekyll Island off the coast of Georgia.

In this group is Paul Warburg who has been lobbying for over five years for a privately owned central bank in America and Jacob Hirsch Schiff who has recently purchased control of Kuhn & Loeb shortly after he arrives in America from England.

The Rothschilds, Warburgs and Schiffs are interconnected by marriage.

Paul Warburg married Nina Loeb, daughter of Solomon Loeb of Kuhn & Loeb.

Felix Warburg married Frieda Schiff, daughter of Jacob Hirsch Schiff.

Felix, Max and Paul are sons of Charlotte Esther (Oppenheimer) Warburg and Moritz Moses Warburg.

Kuhn is a Germanized version of Cohen.

"I was as secretive indeed, as furtive as any conspirator.

Discovery we knew, simply must not happen, or else all our time and effort would be wasted.

If it were to be exposed that our particular group had got together and written a banking bill, that bill would have no chance whatever of passage by Congress." - Frank Vanderlip, Saturday Evening Post, February 9, 1935

"In the US today we have in effect two governments.

We have the duly constituted Government.

Then we have an independent, uncontrolled and uncoordinated government in the Federal Reserve system, operating the money powers which are reserved to Congress by the Constitution." - Represenative Wright Patman, Chairman of the House Banking Committee

Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich

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