front of the towering golden sandstone entrance to the temple of Edfu stands an
imposing granite statue of a falcon, about 12-feet tall, representing
Sculpted into Horus' chest is a small figure of Ptolemy.
buttress his political legitimacy, the
alien neo-pharaoh carved himself into the stone of a powerful god.
of Egypt had been playing this game for 5,000 years.
millenniums before the birth of
Jesus of Nazareth
descended gods, the Pharaohs, had already built a unified kingdom down the
valley of the Nile.
The Pharaohs presented themselves as children and
intimates of the sun god
Ra, of Isis and Osiris and of
their divine offspring - Horus.
Ra, the sun god, went through a daily
cycle of death and rebirth, dying at the end of each day and being reborn in
the morning as Ra-Horakhty or Horus, and it was through this cycle that the
blessed dead traveled so as to enjoy rebirth along with the Sun.
Local deities in the
Mediterranean region were interchangeable in whole or in part for the deities
of like nature or kind of trade partners due to the large movement of trade
Over the centuries, as the politics changed, there were
hostile deity takeovers and
synthetic blending of religious
Luxor luminaries Amun and Ra eventually merged to
become Amun-Ra, a strong new
Ptolemy I Soter
declares himself Pharaoh of Egypt and creates a powerful Hellenistic dynasty
that rules an area stretching from southern
Syria to Cyrene and south to
Ptolemy founds the 'museum' of Alexandria within the precincts of
the Catechetical School of Alexandria and installs the
Ancient temples added the prefix of the Mystery to the
begining of the word that described the thought form the temple followed - "Serapeum", "Mithraeum".
term harkens back to the Muses
and is museum.
to the Serapeum, within the
Catechetical School, the
Library of Alexandria contains between two hundred thousands and half
million of books and manuscripts.
The Ptolemaic successors of
Alexander III of
Macedonia promoted Serapis, a
deliberate blending of gods worshiped by the tribes surrounding the
Mediterranean with the most well known Greek and Roman gods.
was part of a sacred triad.
deified 'emanations' of the
supreme, unknowable godhead.
reigned for forty centuries, an
Eternal Evolving Godhead.
Crucially, the Egyptian priests linked the
gods directly to their ruling kings:
'Throughout the 4000
years of Egyptian history every Pharaoh was
the incarnation of the youthful Horus, and therefore the son of Isis, the
Goddess Mother who had suckled and reared him.
At death ... as Osiris he
held sway over 'Those Yonder' in the shadowy kingdom of the dead.' R. E.
Witt (Isis in the Ancient World, p15)
Thus the 'Father' and
'Son' were inseparable, were of 'one essence,' the same
The pharaohs stepped into the trinity on
Earth (as Horus) and became the heavenly element (as Osiris) after death.
In the endless cycle Isis
functioned as sister, wife and mother, a sort of 'ḦṍḸẙ ṦṕḯṝḭṰ',
keeping the cycle flowing." - Kenneth Humphreys
At the Greco-Roman temple of
Philae, you see a mother-and-child image sculpted on the walls of the
sanctuary, but the face of the mother has been chiseled away.
Christian time, Isis was rebranded Mary, turning
287 BC Perhaps the most consequential of the religious
developments that took place in the Hellenistic period were the dramatic growth
of Judaism in the Greek-speaking world, and in Judaea itself the beginnings of
both Pharisaic and
Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt gave a royal welcome to the
Seventy Sages from the Land of
Israel whom he invited to Alexandria to translate the Law
of Moses into the Greek language.
At the feast, the Sages of Israel
were seated at a separate table on which Kosher food was served for them.
The feast lasted for seven days, and each day the King asked the Sages
of Israel, in turn, one question each.
Turning to the
oldest one among them, he asked, "What would your Torah advise the King to do
so the years of his reign be peaceful and
The Sage replied, "The King should reign with justice. He
should know that there is a supreme King of kings over all the world, Who
reigns with justice and mercy, and every king should be a servant to Him."
The King turned to the next Sage and asked him, "How can man find
happiness in his life?"
Replied the Sage, "Let man remember that
G-d knows everything he does,
sees or thinks. Let him be kind and just and worship G-d."
the third Sage the King asked, "How should a man win friends?"
replied, "Let him be a friend to others, always trying to do somebody a favor
without expecting anything in return, just as G-d is kind to all His creatures,
without demanding a reward."
To the fourth Sage the King addressed the
following question, "What should the King do to those who find fault with his
The Sage replied, "Let the King be patient and forgiving.
Even in his anger he should not be harsh in his judgment and show mercy always.
Then his subjects will speak well of the King."
It was the turn of the
fifth Sage to answer the following question: "How should the King deal with
"Let him seek peace always, for peace is stronger than all
armies and weapons," was the reply.
"Would not the enemies think that
this is a sign of the King's weakness?" asked the King of the sixth Sage.
"While seeking peace always, the King should not neglect his army. He
must be ready to beat off any enemy attack," was the reply.
now turned to the seventh Sage and asked him, "What is the greatest treasure in
The Sage replied, "The knowledge of G-d; to know that G-d
is the Master of the world and the Source of All Life and All Good."
Ptolemies, like the Persian kings from the sixth to the late fourth century BC,
were happy to put the local government of Judaea in the hands of the high
priest at the Jerusalem temple and the Sanhedrin.
The Jewish supreme
court, consisting of 71 rabbis, was called the Sanhedrin ha-Gadol.
August 29, 30 BC Caesarion, Ptolemy XV, executed on
the orders of Octavian.
With the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt
is made into a Roman colony, marking the end of the Hellenistic
January 27 BC Octavian, having amassed
constitutional power for the new Egyptian colony, renames himself Augustus
('the Revered') and establishes himself as the first Roman emperor,
inaugurating the Principate era of the Roman Empire.
"Politics, seen from this perspective
of 5,000 years of Egyptian history, is something very different from what you
find in American civics
It's not about the installation of this or that
logically and legally constructed political system, based on this or that
rulers borrowing, blending
and merging gods, ideologies and legal systems, adapting to internal and
external forces, mixing coercion and patronage, sharing some of the spoils
where necessary, but always with
the goal of maximizing their
own power and wealth and hanging on to it for as long possible - for yourself,
and your children, and your children's children.
Those who take the
legitimating religion or ideology too seriously - be it Osirisism or
socialism - are
missing the point. The gods are continually morphing;
what endures over
the millenniums is men's lust for power and wealth and their vain quest for
immortality." - Timothy Garton Ash
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This website defines a
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forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
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Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
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encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
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