stacks



Roman Empire

Gnosticism and the Roman Empire

Gnosis

Minute Faith ~ Gnosticism

The Law: Sovereigns, time to stand up! Reclaim your rights!

"Roman influence divested Christianity of some of its profound primeval psychological knowledge. Christian fellowships developing under different cultural conditions forged forms so variegated that maintaining unity turned out to be an historical impossibility." - Andrew M. Lobaczewski

"It used to be thought absolutely necessary that all the inhabitants of a country should have the same religion, but we now know that there is no such necessity." - Bertrand Russell


Human beings have grappled with the Mystery of Life for time immemorial.

As we have done so human consciousness has evolved.

In the beginning we walked hand in hand with the Creator in the Garden.

Then the Veil of Cognitive Blindness descended and we were cut off from the Garden.

No longer could this bicameral mind, transformed by rational concentration, sense the pulsing energies, waveforms and frequencies surrounding it.

Instead it now experienced vague, occasionally undefined, 'feelings'.

2,000 years ago a wide ranging Gnostic Mystery tradition flourished among all the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean.

City states surrounding the Mediterranean had been trading, conquering and synthesizing neighboring cultural philosophy for centuries.

Plato described Mediterranean peoples as "frogs around a small pond."

Alexander III of Macedonia transformed the Mediterranean into essentially one culture spreading Greek Hellenistic culture - the culture of the Archons.

Hellenism ran head on into the Gnostic Mystery traditions, Zoroastrianism, Hermopolitanism and Judaism.

Gnosis, spontaneous True Knowledge, clashes with set belief systems.

The Greek language distinguishes between scientific or reflective knowledge ("He knows mathematics") and knowing through observation and experience ("He knows me"), which is Gnosis.

In Gnosticism the broad term 'gnostic' is defined as 'knower' referring to all individuals who have insight into the Noumenon even though they express these insights through the window of their own cultural traditions.

Gnosis involves an intuitive process of learning to know oneself as only by knowing oneself is it possible to know the Pleroma.

With proper preparation it is possible to experience an ultra awake state called 'lucid living' - an awakened state of enlightenment.

Rational Consciousness is, comparatively, a trance or hazy dream.

An epiphany supercharges the brain with an experience of the undeniable oneness of all that lives tearing away the Veil of Cognitive Blindness.

Living lucidly is living in Integral Consciousness.

Ancient sacred texts are collections of advice.

Originally given as proverbs or parables they later became narrative myths.

At the foundational cores we find unimaginably archaic primitive concepts.

These are modified culturally over time as a society shifts focus.

Hebrew mystics synthesize Hebrew and Hellenistic mythology in Alexandria.

Catholic Christianity evolved out of the inter-racial emanational and incarnational salvific monotheism that coursed through the Mediterranean trading federations with the coming of the Gnostic Mystery traditions.

Contaminated by ponerological elements it is easily distorted.

Those familiar with ponerology recognize the psychosis of the Zaddikim.

Alexandrian Hebrew literature includes a sacred narrative history designed after the model of Herodotus blended with the purer Gnosticism.

Under the influence of a priesthood clique seeking power Hellenized Hebrew mystics sought to prove direct descendance from Yahweh.

A fake the history of the tribes of Israel is cobbled together.

Tribal tales and legends are hermeneutically harmonized by generating an integrated genealogy that portrays a very disparate group of tribes as "One".

These are the books known as the Septuagint in the Latin Vulgate.

The first five books are considered Torah:

Bereshit ("In [the] beginning", Genesis), Shemot ("Names", Exodus), Vayikra ("He called", Leviticus), Bamidbar ("In the desert", Numbers) and Devarim ("Words", Deuteronomy).

True Torah Hebrews reject all other Hebrew Bible books as Alexandrian Hellenized Hebrew additions.

The Torah, particularly Bereshit/Genesis, is based on older Sumerian and Akkadian creation myths.



esoteric versus exoteric


The last synthesis of inter-racial emanational and incarnational salvific monotheism, an amalgamation of Hellenism and all the other indigenous tribes surrounding the Mediterranean produced the Cult of Serapis centered in Alexandria which eventualy evolved into Roman Catholicism.

The tradition of Serapis, an amalgamation and synthesis of the traditions of the tribes surrounding the Mediterranean was the indigenous form of what Hindus think of as Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism.

The tradition of monotheism was founded by Akhenaten the Heretic.

There are many similarities between Serapis and Yahweh the first being Serapis was a supreme god.

The Hellenized Alexandrian Hebrews declared their history to have an even deeper level of mystical allegory than the Mystery traditions.

They used a magical form of exegesis claiming to be inheritors of secret mystical teachings passed down from their Master, Moshe Rabbenu.

They went so far as to claim that the Gnostikos philosophers had originally received their wisdom from Moshe Rabbenu and that all other intellectual advances were thanks to the Hebrews - God's Chosen Ones.

Under the temple of Serapis archeologists unearthed strange mechanical contrivances within a Labyrinth which indicate severe "testing" of the initiates reminiscent of a modern hospital - or a torture dungeon.

History becomes obscure and incomprehensible in a world dominated by synthetically cobbled together religious traditions.

It is unlikely the Hellenized Hebrew mystics understood the ponerological aspects of the cobbled together history that later followers studied.

"The Christians and the worshippers of Serapis are the same." - Roman Emperor Hadrian

Within the community Hellenized Hebrew mystics, the Essenes, were attempting to reformulate their religion to be universally inclusive.

The Essenes penned the Dead Sea Scrolls.

To be universally inclusive elements of the Mystery of Serapis were included.

The Hebrew Gnostic, Philo, described two branches of a single Gnostic Mystery school - the Essenes, of Hebrew ethnicity, and the Therapeutae, of Greek ethnicity.

The Essenes were in contention with the remnants of the Hasmonean dynasty high priest cult, the Sadducees, and with the Pharisees who now held the religious authority of the Hebrews.

Philo, the Hebrew Gnostic, was known as "the Pythagorean."

Philo derived the name Therapeutae/Therapeutides from the related adjective therapeutikos meaning of attending to heal, or treating in a spiritual or medical sense.

The Pythagorean Mysteries formulated principles that influenced the thought of Plato and Aristotle and contributed to the development of mathematics and Western rational philosophy.

The Hebrew historian, Josephus, tells us that the Essenes were comparable to the Pythagoreans.

The bulk of the mystic tradition that originating with Pythagoras belongs to gnostic mystical wisdom rather than to scientific scholarship but using that approach did lead to the theory of the functional significance of numbers in the objective world and in music, as well as the Pythagorean theorem for right triangles.

Philo used Stoic philosophical allegory and Pharisaic exegesis in attempt to fuse and harmonize Greek philosophy with Hebrew philosophy.

The Hellenized Hebrews honored not only their own master, Moses, but also followed the Gnostikos philosopher, Pythagoras.

The Zaddikim high priests encouraged and informed the Sadducees.

The Dead Sea Scrolls portray a central role for the followers of Melchizedek.

The Essenes synthesized the Greek and Hebrew mythology.

The synthetic result ended in monotheistic salvationist Pauline Christianity.

The Essene tradition lives on in a modified form in Kabbalah.

At the foundation of the Sephirot, the Tree of Life, or Etz haChayim we find the Pythagorean Mysteries and the numerology of the Babylonians, which the Pharisees allowed to creep into exegesis when in exile in Babylon.

Three simultaneous crises: invasion, civil war, and economic collapse nearly caused the total collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284.

The changes in the institutions, social culture and religion were so profound and fundamental, that the "Crisis of the Third Century" is seen as the historical dividing line between the classical world and the medieval world.





"The Empire that emerged under Diocletian and Constantine was administered by a government that was larger, more complex, more highly organized, and that commandered larger and more powerful military forces.

It taxed its citizens more heavily, conscripted their labor, and regulated their lives and their occupations.

It was a coercive, omnipresent, all-powerful organization that subdued individual interests and levied all resources toward one overarching goal: THE SURVIVAL OF THE STATE." - Joseph A. Tainter

Diocletian takes control of the Roman Empire in 284.

After watching numerous internal struggles for power which culminated in civil wars Emperor Diocletian understood most of shifts in the balance of power were facilitated by soldiers personal allegiance to charismatic commanders which stemmed from the fraternity experienced by soldiers belonging to the military and the fellowship of the Mysteries of Mithras.

Emperor Diocletian recognized that social control had to be based on something more than simply military force, so he sought imperial legitimacy in a new state religion, with himself as divine monarch as Akhenaten had done 1650 years earlier in Egypt and Ptolemy 600 years earlier in Eygpt.

The observance of religious rites was a public duty even though Roman state religious beliefs were founded on a chaotic unconnected inconsistent pagan mythological tradition adopted from Greek models and cross-pollinated with influence from the cultures the Roman Empire had conquered.

Secret societies and Mystery brotherhoods were a threat to Diocletian's power so he aligned himself with the Mysteries of Mithras outlawing all others.

Emperor Diocletian declared himself Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) and later equated himself to the paternal father god of Rome, Rome's Great Father and Savior (Jupiter Optimus Maximus Soter); the patron deity of the Imperial Roman state.

By outlawing the Eleusinian mysteries, and the Gnostic Christian Mysteries and declaring himself a divine intercessor - a descended god on Earth - Diocletian hoped to gain social control through religious unification.

292 Anno Domini

Emperor Diocletian divides the Roman Empire into West and East taking personal control of the East.

303

Emperor Diocletian issues a series of four increasingly harsh edicts designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial religion.

Emperor Diocletian orders all Gnostic Christian sanctuaries to be destroyed, all Gnostic Christian books to be burned and Gnostic Christians themselves are denied the protection offered by Roman law.

Gnostic Christians are arrested, tortured, mutilated, burned, starved, and forced into gladiatorial contests until 311.

306

Constantine starts a civil war in the West.

312  Constantine, needing a great and powerful father god, unrelated to the father god of Emperor Diocletian, embraces the Gnostic Christian Mystery of Christ and wins the decisive battle.

But Constantine modifies his benefactor god returning to an image first modeled by the Cult of Yahweh, reinvigorated by the Sadducees, adopted by Saul of Tarsus and applied to Jesus the Tekton as his model of Chrestus.

"The Empire that emerged under Diocletian and Constantine was administered by a government that was larger, complex, highly organized, and that commandeered larger and more powerful military forces.

It taxed its citizens more heavily, conscripted their labor, and regulated their lives and their occupations.

It was a coercive, omnipresent, all-powerful organization that subdued individual interests and levied all resources toward one overarching goal: THE SURVIVAL OF THE STATE." - Joseph A. Tainter


313  Freedom of Religion rescripting Edict issued (freedom of, not freedom from, religion).

"Our purpose is to grant both to the Christians and to all others full authority to follow whatever worship each person has desired, whereby whatsoever Divinity dwells in heaven may be benevolent and propitious to us, and to all who are placed under our authority.

Therefore we thought it salutary and proper to establish our purpose that

no person should be refused complete toleration,

who has given up his mind either to the Cult of the Christians or to the religion which he personally feels best suited to himself.

It is our pleasure to abolish all conditions whatever which were embodied in former orders directed to your office about the Christians, that every one of those who have a common wish to follow the religion of the Christians may from this moment freely and unconditionally proceed to observe the same without any annoyance or disquiet."- Edict of Milan, 313 AD


Christians in independent, "free" churches have long regarded the Constantinian revolution as little short of the fall of Christianity, a Babylonian captivity of Christianity to State power - almost as calamitous as the fall of Adam and Eve.

One thing is clear: The unqualified toleration for all decreed at Milan did not last long, nor has it often prevailed in later centuries.

The rescript's noble sentiments cemented the foundation of Western cutural ideals first sketched by the Christian philosopher Lactantius:

Coercion and faith don't mix as "God wishes to be adored by free people".



"Azazel taught men to make swords, and daggers, and shields, and breastplates."

Book Of Enoch



325  Constantine takes the eastern half of the Roman Empire from Licinius, his brother-in-law and rules the entire Roman Empire until his death in 337.

Constantine summons the Council of Nicaea which defines "Nicene Christianity," in the Nicene Creed.

This synthesis of Mediterranean mythology, a combination of the Mithras Mysteries, Hellenism, Gnosticism and Judaism tainted by the Zaddikim was designed to direct the passions of the right brain into subservience to the State while partitioning the left brain into the proper cubicle required for the enrichment of the State.

The Nicene Creed carries the razor sharp leading edge of human social control philosophy of the major cultures on the stage of Roman Empire.

In essence you have competing dialecticisms of incongruent sets creating fragmentation of both the conscious and the subconscious which thickens the Veil of Cognitive Blindness creating cognitive bias and cognitive blindness.

The decree of the Imperial Roman Catholic monopoly as intercessors for God sought to integrate diverse social cultural traditions with intent of creating a unified social culture in the hope of ending the constant political strife.

(Note: When the first Monarchy (mono) collapsed and the first Repubic was founded opposing political camps emerged (duality). Political 'strife' will always be a factor in every human grouping as each group holds different values and strives toward, possibly, opposing goals.)

Legend claims Constantine, the first imperial Christian Emperor, only allowed himself to be baptized on his death bed in the hope that he would avoid eternal damnation by being unable to sin after being baptized, suggesting he was a starry eyed believer.

Rational minds feel he may have followed in the footsteps of Akhenaten.





Constantine eliminated Roman Festivals or Feriae ("holidays" in the sense of "holy days"; singular also feriae or dies ferialis) which were either public (publicae) or private (privatae).

Constantine replaced the myraid Roman State holidays, public funded celebrations for the citizens of Roman, with thirteen State holidays setting the Birth of Jesus as December 25 on the Gregorian calendar and Pascha (Resurrection Day) as the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon.

361 to 363  Power is fractured under Constantine's sons.

The throne is intermitently unified under Julian and Valentinian I.

Julian the Apostate, a notable philosopher and author in Greek, is Roman Emperor.

Julian, the last Pagan emperor, witness' the destruction of Mediterranean civilization in the nihilistic forces of Imperial Christianity, driving the people to be the 'most perfect righteous Ones'.

Julian attempted to reverse the direction Roman social culture is headed by repealing the edicts that only Imperial Christianity may be practiced.

364 to 375

Gnostic Christian Emperor Valentinian the Great rules from Milan.

March 28, 364  Valentinian I, finding it hard to govern the entire Roman Empire, gives his brother, Valens, control of the East.

Emperor Valens, residing in Constantinople, orders the governor of Minor Asia to exterminate all the Hellenes and all documents of their wisdom - wisdom being considered heretical.

In Antioch, among many other Hellenes, the ex-governor Fidustius and the priests Hilarius and Patricius are executed.

Tons of scrolls are burnt in the squares of the cities of the Eastern Roman Empire.

The associates of last pagan emperor Julian are persecuted (Orebasius, Sallustius, Pegasius), the philosopher Simonides is burned alive and the philosopher Maximus is decapitated.

Emperor Valens hubris is his undoing.

Emperor Valens makes the fatal mistake of underestimating the Goths who kill Valens and wipe out his forces at the Battle of Adrianople.

The Gods have been unfavorable.



roman empire


381  In yet another vain attempt to unify the social culture of the Roman Empire through religious conformity Roman Catholic Emperor Theodosius I commissioned Pope Damasus I and the Council of Rome to name the Hebrew books and the books about Christianity that are to be included in the Latin Vulgate.

The last man to attempt reunification and succeed is Roman Catholic Emperor Theodosius I.

395  Upon Emperor Theodosius I death the division of the Roman Empire into East and West becomes permanent.

Jerome of Stridon translates the Greek into Latin.

Imperial Roman Catholic intolerance of Gnostic mysteries is crucial to its own success and necessary in the eyes of Emperor Theodosius I and Pope Damasus I who continues to systematically eradicate practitioners of any religion other than the Imperial Roman state religion as their recent predecessors had done.

All religion, with the exception of Judaism, is condemned.

Practitioners unwilling to bow are executed.

At this point the requirement of accepting and repeating dogmatic belief of the Nicene Creed becomes the only vehicle for entry into heaven.

In the Catholic Church, a dogma is a definitive article of faith (de fide) that has been solemnly promulgated by the college of bishops at an ecumenical council or by the pope when speaking in a statement ex cathedra, in which the magisterium of the Church presents a particular doctrine as necessary for the belief of all Catholic faithful.

Not to be overlooked is the most important decree:

No one may engage in predictions.

No divination?

No transubstantiation !?

No weather forecasting !!

No trend analysis ! ! !

!!!! NO PROPHECY !!!!





Judaism is unaffected as Mosiac law, later codified as the Mishnah Torah of Moses Maimonides, commands Jews not to practice divination, "black" magic, soothsaying, the charmer's art, not to consult the dead, a ghost or a familiar spirit and are not to practice witchcraft.

Mishnah Torah of Moses Maimonides does not disallow "white magic".

For any question about the future all Christian citizens are told to open the Latin Vulgate, while the moneychangers and tax collectors are told to study the commentaries of the Pharisees, Midrash, as only there could they find an answer.

395  Alaric the Visigoth leads a imperial Christian mob against the temple of Sanctuary of Demeter at Eleusis and attempts to execute the Iærophántis Næstórios and Prískos.

Elderly Iærophántis Næstórios ends the Eleusinian mysteries and announces the predominance of spiritual darkness over the human race.

Næstórios is credited with having predicted the appointment of the unlawful and final Iærophántis, a non-Athenian consecrated to Mithras, and the sacking and destruction of the sanctuary during the reign of this unlawful Iærophántis.

The mysteries of Samothrace are ended and the Gnostikos slaughtered.

Praetorian Prefect Maternus Cynegius scours the East sacking and destroying hundreds of Hellenic temples, shrines and altars.

Among others they destroy the temple of Edessa, the Cabeireion of Imbros, the temple of Zeus in Apamea, temple of the Semitic Moon-god Sin at the citadel of Carrhae on the Persian border, the temple of Apollo in Dydima and all the temples of Palmyra.

All pagan temples, including all Mithraeum, are destroyed.

Thousands of innocent Gnostikos from all parts of the empire suffer martyrdom in Scythopolis (Beit She'an). (Grim Reaper)

Nonconforming sacred scrolls and books are burned.

Private ownership of Gnostikos sculpture is outlawed.

The philosopher Olympius leads a revolt in Alexandria.

In response Theophilus demolishes the Temple of Serapis (The Serapeion) which is believed to have housed the Library of Alexandria.





In Constantinople, the temple of goddess Aphrodite is turned into a brothel and the Temples of Apollo and Artemis into stables.

415 Hypatia of Alexandria is renowned in her own lifetime as a great teacher and a wise counselor.

Hypatia is a prominent thinker of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria, where she teaches philosophy and astronomy.

She is the first female mathematician whose life is reasonably well recorded.

Hypatia is known to have constructed astrolabes and hydrometers.

Hypatia advised Orestes, the Roman prefect of Alexandria, who is in the midst of a political feud with Cyril, the bishop of Alexandria.

Rumors spread accusing her of preventing Orestes from reconciling with Cyril and she is murdered by a mob of Christians led by a lector named Peter.

Hypatia is stripped naked and dragged through the streets flayed with ostrakois and set ablaze while still alive.

A Neoplatonist philosopher, she follows a school of thought characterized by the 3rd century Plotinus discouraging mysticism while encouraging logical and mathematical studies.

Hailed as a "valiant defender of science in the face of religious postulates," some suggest that her murder marked the end of the Hellenistic Age of Reason.

The Gnostic Christian sanctuary on the Euphrates is burned.

Gnostic Christian belief systems are condemned and outlawed.

Gnostic Christian mysteries, Mithras mysteries, Eleusinian mysteries and all other mystery schools are banned.

Gnostic Christians believe that Æon - the true, ultimate and transcendent One - It who is beyond all forged universes - "emanated" or brought forth from within Itself all substance, visible and invisible.

Its emantions permeate reality. All things share It in common.

This was anathema to the Imperial Roman Catholic dogma of Emperor Theodosius I as Imperial Roman Catholic dogma taught that man had been separated from God in the Garden of Eden.

Separation from God shifts temporal power from God onto state religious institutions.

The common man must now go through an authorized intercessor - an intercessor serving in an official government religious position.

Gnostic Christians, commonly misunderstood and misdefined, know that each and every human can experience God personally.

Roman Catholic Christian theologians coined the word propaganda.

Theologians look at other religions through the prism of their own religion.

The Romans used the word Gnostic to refer to a "know-it-all".

Gnostikos is used by individuals to describe themselves as "knowers".

Often the term is used more widely to identify groups that emphasized the self-redemptive benefit of individual wisdom.

Gnostic Christians believe the noumenon is revealed through observation.

Critical thinking breeds individual wisdom but those sharing individual wisdom tend to be excommunicated or burned at the stake due to the subconscious ponerolgical aspects of the Crucifixion.

January 3, 1521  Martin Luther is excommunicated by Leo X.

September 1522  Translation of the New Testament by Martin Luther published in German.

1526  New Testament translated into English by William Tyndale.

1536  William Tyndale tried on a charge of heresy and condemned to be burned at the stake.

October 6, 1536  William Tyndale is strangled and his dead body burnt.

Emperor Theodosius I set the example for Western civilization that the only way to retain control of the social culture was to outlaw any concept or idea that does not fit within the official narrative.

This mindset, theocratic absolutism, led to the Dark Ages.





1756  John Smeaton rediscovers concrete, lost for 13 centuries.

Ancient Roman Concrete Outlasts Our Own

Phillipsite and Al-tobermorite mineral cements

Is secret to Roman concrete in volcanic rock?

'Super concrete' made with FUNGUS can heal itself if it cracks




'Roman' roads were actually built by the Celts


unique library index

This web site is not a commercial web site and is presented for educational purposes only.




This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.


Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information see: www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Dedicated to the establishment of knowledge, truth, justice and a clear understanding of reality as the American way!
Copyright © Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved