"The universe is written in the language of mathematics."

Galileo Galilei


Galileo Galilei, professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa, drops two spheres of different masses from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent is independent of their mass.

This disproves the theory of gravity according to Aristotle which states objects fall at speed proportional to their mass.


Galileo Galilei comes to the attention of the Inquisition for the first time for his Copernican views.


Dominican friar, Niccolo Lorini, who has criticized Galileo's view in private conversations, files a written complaint with the Inquisition against Galileo's Copernican views.

Galileo subsequently writes a long letter defending his views to Monsignor Piero Dini, a well connected official in the Vatican, he then writes his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina arguing for freedom of inquiry and travels to Rome to defend his ideas


A committee of consultants declares to the Inquisition the proposition the Sun is the center of the universe and the Earth has an annual motion is absurd in philosophy, at least erroneous in theology, and formally a heresy.

On orders of the Pope Paul V, Cardinal Bellarmine calls Galileo to his residence and administers a warning not to hold or defend the Copernican theory.

Galileo is forbidden to discuss Copernican theory.


Galileo meets repeatedly with his patron Pope Urban VIII, he is allowed to write about Copernican theory as long as he treats it as a mathematical hypothesis.


A complaint against Galileo's publication The Assayer is lodged at the Inquisition by a person unknown.

The complaint charges atomistic theory embraced by Galileo cannot be reconciled with official church doctrine regarding the Eucharist, in which bread and wine are "transubstantiated'' into Christ's flesh and blood.

After the Inquisition investigation Galileo is exonerated.


Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which the Ptolemaic and Copernican models are discussed and compared, is cleared (conditionally) to be published by the Vatican.


Pope Urban VIII, convinced by the arguments of various Church officials, stops the distribution of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.

The case is referred to the Inquisition and Galileo is summoned to Rome despite his infirmities.


Galileo is ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy, "for holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the sun is the center of reality".

Galileo is interrogated and threatened with torture.

June 22, 1633

Galileo is found guilty of heresy, and the sentence of the Inquisition is in three parts:

1) Galileo is found "vehemently suspect of heresy:"

the Sun lies motionless at the center of the universe;

the Earth is not at the center of the universe and moves;

one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture.

He is required to "abjure, curse, detest" these opinions.

2) He is sentenced to formal imprisonment at the pleasure of the Inquisition.

On the following day this is commuted to house arrest, in which he remains under for the rest of his life.

3) His offending Dialogue is banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works is forbidden, including any he might write in the future.

Galileo's work advocating Copernicanism remains on the Index of banned books until 1758.

His sentence prohibited him from "teaching, defending or discussing" Copernicanism.

In Germany, the works of Johannes Kepler are also banned by papal order.

The Milky Way ate 11 other galaxies

Ancient astronomy taught that above the seven planetary spheres was an eighth, the sphere of the fixed stars.

"The distance and size of the celestial bodies can be found by determining the size of their eccentric and epicyclic circles relative to the radius of the Earth.

The spherical Earth can be projected onto a plane map using geometrical techniques; localities can be plotted on a standard grid of latitude and longitude lines.

Problems in plane and spherical trigonometry can be solved with the help of a table of the chords subtending the arcs from 0° to 90°.

The data derived from experiments can be represented by mathematical equations and can be presented in tabular form." - Ptolemy I Soter (Savior)

"Contemplate all the events in the sky; how the lights in the sky do not change their courses, how each rises and sets in order, each at its proper time, and they do not transgress their law." - Book of Enoch

"Motion is relative.

The Earth is not the

Center of the Universe.

The Sun, the Planets,

and Stars revolve not around the Earth; the Earth is a planet, revolving around the Sun, as do the other planets.

The apparent "loops" that the planets make in their motions across the heavens are not real motions; they are mere appearances, caused by our position on the Earth and motion around the sun relative to the other planets.

The appearance of heavens rotation about the Earth is due to the fact that we are on the surface and the Earth is rotating about its axis once every twenty four hours." - Nicholas Copernicus

"God did not create the universe haphazardly:

A rational architecture underlies the solar structure.

Celestial matter is not fundamentally different from terrestrial matter; and the physics of celestial motion is no different from terrestrial motion." - Johannes Kepler

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