"The medieval Islamic world offered vastly more freedom than any
of its predecessors, its contemporaries and most of its successors."
Bernard Lewis
(paid to have a change of heart)

A Gift of Love

Sweet Surrender

Islamic Schools of Thought

Prophet Muhammad's Compassion

In the name of the merciful and compassionate Lord.

0 thou who art enwrapped!

Rise by night except a little the half, or deduct there from a little, and chant the sacred text.

Verily, we will cast on thee a heavy speech.

Verily, the early part of the night is stronger in impressions and more upright in speech!

Verily, thou hast by day a long employment; but mention the name of thy Lord,

Devote thyself thoroughly to Him; there is no Allah but He; then take Him for a guardian!

And endure patiently what they say, and flee from them with a decorous flight.

And leave those who say it is a lie, who are possessed of comfort; and let them bide for a while.

Those who bear the throne and those around it celebrate the praise of their Lord,

Believe in Him, and ask pardon for those who believe.

'Our Lord, thou dost embrace all things in mercy and knowledge, then pardon those who turn repentant and follow thy way, and guard them from the torment of hell!'

'Our Lord make them enter into the Garden of Paradise which thou hast promised to them, and to those who do well of their fathers, and their wives, and their seed; verily, thou art the mighty, the wise.

Guard them from evil deeds, for he whom thou shalt guard from evil deeds on that day, thou wilt have had mercy on, and that is mighty bliss!

Gems of Divine Mysteries

IN the name of the merciful and compassionate Allah.
By the night when it veils!
And the day when it is displayed!
And by what forged male and female!
Verily, your efforts are diverse!
As for him who gives resources
and stands in awe of Allah,
And believes in the best,
We will send him easily to ease!
As for him who is closefisted,
And longs for wealth,
And calls the good a lie,
We will send him easily to difficulty!
And his wealth shall not avail him!

Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and in the succession of night and day, are signs to those possessed of minds; who remember Allah standing and sitting or lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the Earth.

'0 Lord! Thou hast not forged it all in vain.

We celebrate you Lord!

610 AD

The archangel Jibril (Gabriel) reveals Islam to Muhammad.

The first three years of his ministry Muhammad shared Islam privately among relatives and close acquaintances.

Vehement opposition arises in Mecca.

615 Muhammad sends emissaries to Aạḥama ibn Abjar in Abyssinia.

622 Muhammad makes 26 day trek to Medina - Hijrah.

The Hijrah marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar

Rules of War in Islam

Chinese charater for surrenderChinese charater for God

The word 'Islam' is defined as the submission
and/or surrender to the Will of Allah.

Those that submit to the Will of Allah
abandon the unnatural desires of Agency.

"To submit the soul to Allah out of compassion for Allah
ignites the essential life of the soul in a blazing fire."

Prophet's lifestyle

Apostasy in Islam

In some interpretations of an Islamic state, conversion by Muslims to other religions is forbidden and is termed apostasy.

In Muslim theology, apostasy resembles the crime of treason, the betrayal of one's own country.

Penalties may include ostracism or even execution if they live or have lived in an "Islamic State" and are deemed enemies of the state.

By analogy, in the age of nation states, an individual who commits treason (turning state's secrets to a foreign power, or spies for a foreign power, etc) is subject to severe penalty - historically, death.

A well known example of a Muslim "apostate" undergoing persecution is that of Salman Rushdie, whose novel The Satanic Verses prompted Ayatollah Khomeini to issue a fatwa (religious opinion) for his execution.

Even though some suspect that Khomeini issued this fatwa more because of the lampooning of Khomeini himself it could be argued that Khomeini's motivation for issuing the fatwa is irrelevant as Rushdie's apostasy was the formal ground for the imposition of the death sentence.

"Some of us are righteous, and some are less than righteous; we follow various paths.

We knew full well that we can never run away from Allah on Earth and escape.

When we heard the guidance, we believed therein.

Anyone who believes in Allah will never fear any injustice, nor any affliction.

Among us are the submitters, and among us are the compromisers.

As for those who submitted, they are on the right path.

As for the compromisers, they will be fuel for Gehenna.

If they remain on the right path, we will bless them with abundant water.

We will surely test them all.

As for him who disregards the message of Allah, Allah will direct him to ever increasing retribution. "

Qur'an Jinn 72:11-17

The language of the Qur'an has been described as "rhymed prose" as it partakes of both poetry and prose; however, this description runs the risk of failing to convey the rhythmic quality of Quranic language, which is more poetic in some parts and more prose-like in others.

Cutural excellence revolved exclusively around eloquent speech and the composition of beautiful and attractive poetry and literary excellence.

Muhammad found attentive ears among his contemporaries, who not only were articulate users of the language but held those skilled in the arts of linguistic composition in high esteem.

Before the rise of Islam, Arabic was mainly a spoken language with an oral literature of elaborate poetry and, to a lesser extent, prose.

Writing had not yet fully developed and memorization was the most common means of preserving the literature.

Prophet Musa had the power to divide the sea with his hand and rod, and to let the rock burst forth with water in the desert, and all his other signs in a time of magic.

Prophet Īsā ibn Maryam had the power to bring the dead back to life, to make birds out of clay, to cure those who had been blind from birth and the leprous, and all his other signs in a time of medicine.

Prophet Muhammad had the book and his other signs in a time of eloquence.

speak for justice

Sharia, Shari-'ah, Shari'a, Shariah, Syariah,
Islamic law or the Law of Allah

Shariah controls, rules and regulates all public and private behavior.

Shariah has regulations for personal hygiene, diet, sexual conduct, and elements of child rearing.

Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh, which means ' understanding of details' and refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh.

Scholars hope that fiqh and sharia are in harmony in any given case, but they cannot be sure.

Sharia has certain laws which are regarded as divinely ordained, concrete and timeless for all relevant situations (for example, the ban against drinking liquor as an intoxicant).

Sharia also has certain laws which are extracted based on principles established by Islamic lawyers and judges (Mujtahidun).

The sharia as interpreted by Islamic lawmakers is believed by Muslims to be merely a human approximation of the true Sharia, which is understood as the divine and eternal correct path.

In deriving Sharia law, Islamic lawmakers are not, therefore, actually creating divinely correct or incorrect actions beyond question, but rather attempting to interpret divine principles.

Sharia in general is considered divine, but a lawyer's or judge's extraction or opinion on a given matter is not.

Again the process and intention of refering to the Law of Allah is divinely sanctioned.

An Islamic lawyer or judge's attempts to rule according to Sharia, can be described as 'ruling by Sharia', but this ruling is not beyond question.

For Sunni Muslims, the primary sources of Islamic law are the Qur'an, the Hadith or directions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh, the unanimity of Muhammad's disciples on a certain issue (ijma), and Qiyas (drawing analogy from the essence of divine principles).

Qiyas - various forms of reasoning, including by analogy - are used by the law scholars (Mujtahidun) to deal with situations where the sources provided no concrete rules.

The consensus of the community, public interest, and others were also accepted as secondary sources where the first four primary sources allow.

In Imami-Shi'i law, the sources of law (usul al-fiqh) are the Qur'an, anecdotes of Muhammad's practices and those of the 12 Imams, and the intellect (aql).

The practices called Sharia today, however, also have roots in local customs (Al-urf).

Islamic jurisprudence is called fiqh and is divided into two parts: the study of the sources and methodology (usul al-fiqh - roots of the law) and the practical rules (furu' al-fiqh - branches of the law).

The authority of Sharia is drawn from two primary sources, as well as two secondary sources.

The first major source is the specific guidance in the Qur'an, and the second source is the Sunnah, literally the 'Way', i.e. the way that Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh lived his life.

(The compilation of all that Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh said, did or approved of is called the Hadith.)

A lesser sources of authority is Qiyas, which is the extension by analogy of existing Sharia law to new situations.

Finally, Sharia law can be based on ijma, or consensus.

Justification for this final approach is drawn from the Hadith where Muhammad states; "My nation cannot agree on an error."

The role of ulema, i.e. scholars, is critical, since they are the ones who study the Islamic law and therefore have authority to represent it.

Sharia has largely been codified by the schools (madhhabs) of Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh).

The comprehensive nature of Sharia law is due to the belief that the law must provide all that is necessary for individual spiritual and physical well-being.

All possible actions of a Muslim are divided (in principle) into five categories: obligatory, meritorious, permissible, reprehensible, and forbidden.

Fundamental to the obligations of every Muslim are the Five Pillars of Islam.

Sharia is the social equal to English common law, Roman civil law, Hindu law and the Law of Moses.

There is a striking legal contractual difference between Sharia law (Islam) versus English common law and Roman civil law (Christian).

In both English common law and Roman civil law lawfully executed and valid contracts can not be revised without the consent of both parties.

At the apex of legal protection for people of the descendent Western legal systems a number of laws give consumers a legal right to cancel contracts in specific transactions within a short time after the consumer signs the contract without giving the seller or other party a reason or having to show "legal cause."

"Buyer's Remorse" clauses in consumer contracts are not universal.

The trend in Western corporate culture is to eliminate consumer rights.

One method is to write contracts with arbitration clauses.

Arbitration clauses wave the right of redress through the legal system of the jurisdiction.

Under Sharia law if one party to a contract feels the contract is unjust he may ask the Sharia law authority to change the terms, modify or invalidate the contract on the grounds that fairness and justice under Sharia law requires the equal enrichment of both participants to the contractual obligation.

According to the Quran, marriage is intended to be unbounded by time, as indicated by its characterization as a "firm bond" and by the rules governing divorce.

The relationship between the spouses should ideally be based on love compassion and important decisions concerning both spouses should be made by mutual consent.

When marital harmony cannot be attained, the Quran allows and even advises the spouses to bring the marriage to an end, although this decision is not to be taken lightly, and the community is called upon to intervene by appointing arbiters from the two families to attempt a reconciliation.

In ancient Islam all it took for either a husband or wife to divorce was to repeat the phrase "I divorce thee" three times.

The Quran establishes two means to avoid hasty divorces.

It prescribes two waiting periods of three months before the divorce is final in order to give the husband time to reconsider his decision.

A man who takes an oath not to have sexual intercourse with his wife, which would lead to automatic divorce, is allowed a four-month period to break his oath.

Crime and Islam

Sharia requires a very high level of proof for the most serious crimes and punishments.

If proof is not as specified then the crime must be considered a lesser crime.

A major myth is that judges in Islamic nations have fixed punishments for all crimes.

The judge under Sharia is not bound by precedents, rules, or prior decisions as in English common law.

Hadd crimes, the most serious crimes in Sharia law, are murder, apostasy, making war upon Allah and His messengers, theft, adultery, defamation, false accusation of adultery or fornication, robbery and consumption of intoxicants.

These are considered crimes against Allah.

Tazir crimes are acts which are punished because the offender disobeys the word and Law of Allah.

Tazir crimes are crimes against humanity.

A Qesas crime is one of retaliation.

If you commit a Qesas crime, the victim has a right to seek retribution and retaliation.

The concept of retribution was found in the first statutory "Code of Hammurabi" and in the Law of Moses in the form of "an eye for an eye."

Muslims add to that saying "but it is better to forgive."

Contemporary common law is filled with the assumptions of retribution.

The American justice system has adopted a retribution model which sets fixed punishments for each crime.

The American federal code contains "mandatory minimum" sentences for drug dealing.

Many states have fixed punishment for drug, violence and the use of particular weapons.

Qesas crime is simple retribution: if one commits a crime he knows what the punishment will be.

Diya has its roots in Islamic law and dates to the time of the prophet Mohammad when there were many local families, tribes and clans.

The prophet Mohammad was able to convince several tribes to take a monetary payment in retribution for damage to the clan or tribe.

Diya is paid by the offender to the victim if he is alive.

If the victim is dead, the money is paid to the victim's family or to the victim's clan or tribe.

The assumption is that victims will be compensated for their loss.

Under English common law, the victim or family must sue the offender in a civil tort action for damages.

Qesas law combines the process of criminal and civil hearings into one, just as the "civil law" is applied in many nations on Earth.

Qesas crimes are compensated as restitution under common law and civil law.

Qesas crimes require compensation for each crime committed.


Math and Islam

Engare: game of motion and geometry

"Mechanical methods can suggest the truth of mathematical propositions, which then may be rigorously proven by mathematical methods."

"Mathematics is the bedrock upon which the entire edifice of science rests.

To this day, every school of thought that presumes to the status of a science turns to mathematics for validation, either directly or by implying through hypertrophied technical jargon an exactitude of meaning that admits to the methods of deductive reasoning." - Charles Eisenstein

Decimal system is dependent upon the Arabic numerical system.

Algebra was first fully developed by Al Khwarism, the "father of algebra".

Al-Tusi is the "father of trigonometry".

Al-Khashi, from Persia, invented decimal fractions.


Sunni vs Shi'a

Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.

Sunni and Shi'a culminate centuries of competition between ideologies.

Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines.

The schism occurred in a debate over who were the true adherents to the Sunnah, the prophet's tradition.

A caliphate is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward considered to be the successor to Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah.

Sunni rulers embarked on sweeping conquests that extended the caliphate.

The last caliphate ended with the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Sunni emphasize the all encompassing power of Allah in the material world while Shi'a value martyrdom and sacrifice to turn the dark into light.

2009 Sunni Muslims constitute 90% of the world's Muslim population.

The Green Prophet, Khizr:
Islam's Patron Saint of Cannabis

The color green has a number of traditional associations in Islam.

Green is used in several national flags as a symbol of Islam.

These include: Afghanistan, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Iran, Mauritania, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Sri Lanka.

unique library index

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