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The science of human nature, may be treated after two different ways each of which may contribute to the entertainment and reformation of mankind.

The one considers man chiefly as born for action; pursuing one object, and avoiding another, according to the value which these objects appear to possess, and according to the light in which they present themselves.

As virtue is allowed to be the most valuable, this species of philosophers paint her in the most amiable colors; borrowing all helps from poetry and eloquence, and treating their subject in an easy and obvious manner, and such as is best fitted to please the imagination, and engage the affections.

They select the most striking observations and instances from common life; place opposite characters in a proper contrast; and alluring us into the paths of virtue by the views of glory and happiness, direct our steps in these paths by the soundest precepts and most illustrious examples.

They make us feel the difference between vice and virtue; they excite and regulate sentiments; they bend hearts to the love of virtue and true honor.

The other philosophers consider man a reasonable rather than an active being, endeavor to form his understanding more than cultivate his manners.

It is easy for a rational philosopher to commit a mistake and one mistake is the necessary parent of another unto the seventh generation.

Speculations appear abstract and unintelligible to common readers.

Easy obvious philosophy will be preferred over the accurately abstruse.

It enters more into common life; molds the heart and affections; and, by touching those principles which actuate men, reforms their conduct, and brings them nearer to that model of perfection which it describes.

This also must be confessed, durable fame has been acquired by the easy philosophy; abstract reasoners appear hitherto to have enjoyed only a momentary reputation, from the caprice or ignorance of their own age.





A philosopher, who purposes only to represent common sense in beautiful engaging colors, if by accident he falls into error, sees his error, returns to the narrow path, renews his appeal to common sense and the natural sentiments of the mind securing himself from any dangerous illusions.

Accurate and just reasoning is the only remedy, fitted for all dispositions.

It alone is able to subvert abstruse philosophy and metaphysical jargon, which being mixed up with popular superstition, renders it in a manner impenetrable to careless thinkers, and gives it the air of science.

After deliberate inquiry rejecting the most uncertain part of man's purported knowledge, there are many positive advantages, which result from an accurate scrutiny into the powers and faculties of human nature.

In operations of the mind whenever thoughts become the object of reflection they appear obscure and ill-defined; the mind's eye cannot readily and easily discriminate and distinguish fuzzy abstract lines and boundaries.

The objects are too fine to remain long in the same aspect or situation; and must be apperceived in an instant, by a superior penetration, derived from natural reflection, and improved by habit and study.

It becomes, therefore, no inconsiderable part of science barely to know the different operations of the mind, to separate them from each other to class them under their proper heads, and to correct all that seeming disorder when made the object of reflection and inquiry.

Everyone will readily allow that there is considerable difference between the perceptions of the mind, when a man feels the pain of excessive heat, or the pleasure of moderate warmth, and when he afterwards recalls to his memory this sensation, or anticipates it by his imagination.

These faculties may mimic or copy the perceptions of the senses; but they never can entirely reach the force and vivacity of the original sentiment.

When they operate with greatest vigor they represent their object in so lively a manner that we could almost say we feel or see it or hear it resonate.

All the colors of poetry, however splendid, can never paint natural objects in such a manner as to make the description be taken for a real landscape.

The most lively thought is still inferior to the dullest sensation.

We may observe the same to run through all perceptions of the mind.

A man actuated by anger reacts differently than an angry man.

When we reflect on past sentiments and affections, thought is a unfaithful mirror for the real disorders and agitations of the passion.

It requires no discernment to mark the distinction between them.

The thought of man not only escapes all human power and authority but is not even restrained within the limits of nature and reality.

To form monsters, and join incongruous shapes and appearances, costs the imagination no more trouble than to conceive natural and familiar objects.





While the body is confined to the Earth, along which it creeps with difficulty; thought can in an instant transport us into distant regions of reality; or even beyond reality, into unbounded chaos, where natural law no longer exists.

Though thought appears to possess unbounded liberty we find upon nearer examination it is really confined within very narrow limits.

All this creative power of the mind amounts to no more than the faculty of compounding the materials afforded us by the senses and experience.

All ideas, especially abstract ones, are naturally faint and obscure: the mind has but a slender hold of them: they are apt to be confounded with other resembling ideas; we are apt to imagine a determinate idea annexed to it.

Bringing ideas into a clear light removes dispute concerning their nature!

The principle of connection within imagination introduces a logical certainty to the degree of methodical regularity within the dialectic of memory.

In serious thinking this is so observable that any particular thought, which breaks in upon the regular tract or chain of ideas, is invariably examined.

Even in our wildest and most wandering reveries, nay in our very dreams, we shall find, if we reflect, the imagination ran not altogether wild as there is a connection upheld among the different ideas, which succeed each other.

Were the loosest and freest conversation to be transcribed, there would immediately be observed something which connected it in all its transitions.

Or where this is wanting, the individual who broke the thread of discourse might still inform you, that there had revolved in his mind a succession of thought, which had gradually led him from the subject of conversation.

It is found simple ideas are comprehended in compound ones bound together by some universal principle which has an equal influence on all mankind.

All the objects of human reason or inquiry may naturally be divided into two kinds; relations of ideas or relational knowledge and matters of fact.

Relations of ideas are geometrically calculable; every affirmation, either intuitively or demonstratively certain, must be provable to become fact.

That the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the square of the two sides, is a statement which expresses a relation between these figures.

Statements of this category are discovered by the mere operation of thought.

Though there never was a circle or triangle in nature, truths demonstrated by Euclid retain their material certainty through factual evidence.

Matters of fact are accepted rather than ascertained.

The negation of every matter of fact is a possiblity, conceived by the mind with the same facility and distinctness as if it was conformable to reality.



replace fear of the unknown with curiosity


It may be a subject worthy of curiosity, to enquire what is the nature of that evidence which assures us of any real existence and matter of fact, beyond the present testimony of our senses, or the records of our memory.

Such enquiries may even prove useful, by exciting curiosity but halting implicit faith and security, the bane of all reasoning and free enquiry.

In reality, all arguments from experience are founded on the similarity which we discover among natural objects, and by which we are induced to expect effects similar to those which we have found to follow from such objects.

None but a fool will ever pretend to dispute the authority of experience.

It is only after a long course of uniform experiments in any category, that we attain a firm reliance and security with regard to a particular event.

A long course of uniform experiments shows us a number of uniform effects.

All inferences from experience suppose that the future will resemble the past.

If there be suspicion the course of nature may change, and the past may be no rule in the future, all experience becomes useless with no ability to infer.

All inferences from experience are effects of expectations, not of reasoning.

Expectation, then, is the great guide of human life.

It is that principle alone which renders experience useful; allowing us to expect in the future a similar course of events with those of the past.

Without the influence of expectation, we should be entirely ignorant of every matter of fact beyond what is immediately here in the present.

There would be an end at once of all action.

Some facts must be present in memory to proceed in drawing a conclusion.

A man finding in a desert country the remains of pompous buildings would conclude the country had been cultivated by civilized inhabitants; but did nothing of this nature occur to him, he could never form such an inference.

Taught the events of former ages from history we must peruse the original manuscript carrying inferences from one testimony to another, till we arrive at the eyewitness' and spectators of these distant events.

Proceeding upon some fact present to the memory our reasoning becomes merely hypothetical; even though links might be connected with each other, the whole chain of inferences would have nothing to support it.

If I ask why you believe any particular matter of fact, which you relate, you must tell me some reason; and this reason will be some other matter of fact.

As you cannot proceed after this manner, ad infinitum, you must terminate in some matter of fact; or must allow that your belief is without foundation.

All belief of matter of fact is derived from an object present to the memory and a perceived connection between that and another object.

Having found two object - flame and heat - always connected; if flame or snow be presented anew to the senses, the mind expects heat or cold.

This belief is the necessary result of placing the mind in such circumstances.

It is an operation of the soul as unavoidable as to feel gratitude when we receive benefits or hatred when we meet with injuries.

All these operations are of natural instincts, which no reasoning or process of thinking or understanding is able either to produce or to prevent.




The Monkey Business Illusion



The great advantage of the mathematical sciences is ideas are always determinate, the smallest distinction between them is perceptible.

An oval is never mistaken for a circle, nor an hyperbola for an ellipse.

Equilateral triangles, presented to senses and apperceived, are distinguished by boundaries much more exact than vice and virtue, right and wrong.

Operations of the understanding escape us upon the reflection of memory.

Power to recall the original object depends upon the contemplation of it.

Ambiguity is introduced into reasoning: similar objects are readily taken to be the same: and the conclusion becomes at last very wide of the premises.

If the mind retains the ideas of geometry determinately, it must carry on a much longer and more intricate chain of reasoning and compare ideas much wider of each other in order to reach the abstruse truths of morality.

Trace the principles of reason through a few steps to acknowledge ignorance.

The chief obstacle, therefore, to our improvement in the philosophical or metaphysical sciences is the obscurity of ideas, and ambiguity of terms.

The principal difficulty in the mathematics is the length of inferences and compass of thought, requisite to the forming of any conclusion.

Our progress in physics is retarded by the want of proper experiments and phenomena, overlooked even by the most diligent and prudent inquiry.

The science of human nature requires superior care to be surmounted.

All ideas are nothing but copies of impressions; it is impossible to think of anything not antecedently noted by either our external or internal senses.

Complex ideas, may, perhaps, be well known by definition, which is nothing but an enumeration of those parts or simple ideas, that compose them.

When we have pushed up definitions to the most simple ideas, and find still more ambiguity and obscurity; what resource are we then possessed of?

By what technique can we throw light upon these indeterminate ideas, and render them altogether precise and determinate to our intellectual view?

It might reasonably be expected in questions disputed with great eagerness that the meaning of all the terms should have been agreed already.

How easy it appears to give exact definitions to the terms employed in reasoning, upon further scrutiny we shall draw a quite opposite conclusion.

From this circumstance alone we may presume that there is some ambiguity in expression and the disputants affix different ideas to the words employed.

The faculties of the mind are naturally alike in every individual; if men define terms they no long form different opinions of the same subject.

If men attempt discussion of questions entirely beyond the reach of human capacity they may long beat the air in their fruitless contests.

Intelligible definitions would immediately put an end to the controversy.

As rational philosophers tend to engage in a labyrinth of obscurity sensible readers turn a deaf ear expecting neither instruction or entertainment.



argument

How to Argue - Philosophical Reasoning

How to Argue - Induction & Abduction



A novel argument may serve to renew discusion of the controversy.

Synchronicity arises from the uniformity observable in the operations of nature, where similar objects are constantly connected together by inference.

Human nature remains forever and always still the same, in its principles and operations; the same motives always produce the same actions.

Ambition, avarice, narcissism, vanity, friendship, generosity, public spirit: this passion, from the beginning, the source of all the actions and enterprises.

Would you know the sentiments and inclinations of the Greeks and Romans?

Study well the temper and actions of the French and English.

Mankind are so much the same, in all times and places, that history informs us of nothing new or strange in this particular.

Watching men in all varieties of circumstances and situations, and become acquainted with the regular springs of human action and behavior.

Records of war, faction and revolution are collections of social experiments.

The social engineer fixes the principles of his science through experiments.



vivid conception


To explode any forgery in history, we cannot make use of a more convincing argument, than to prove, that the actions ascribed to any individual are directly contrary to the course of nature, and that human motives, in such circumstances, induced the storyteller to inaccurately report matters of fact.

The principles of human nature informs us of nothing new or strange as that uniformity in every particular, is found throughout nature.

Universal principles of human nature furnish material from observation to become acquainted with the regular springs of human behavior.

We learn the great force of education which molds the human mind from its infancy and forms it into a fixed and established character.

Even the characters, which are peculiar to each individual, have a uniformity of character in the different ages of human life.

The mutual dependence of men is so great in all societies no human action is entirely complete in itself, or is performed without reference to the actions of others, requisite to make it answer fully the intention of the agent acting.





The poorest craftsman, who labors alone, expects at least the protection of the magistrate, to ensure him the enjoyment of the fruits of his labor.

In these conclusions they take their measures from past experience; and firmly believe that men are to continue in operations as they always have.

Experimental inference concerning the actions of others enters so much into life that no man, while awake, is ever a moment without employing it.

Mankind has agreed in theory on liberty as well as on that of connection.

When we consider how aptly natural and moral evidence links together we shall allow they are of the same nature, derived from the same principles.

When any opinion leads to absurdities, it is certainly false; but it is not certain that an opinion is false, because it seems of dangerous consequence.

Liberty is the ability to act or not act consistent with morality.





The mind of man, formed by nature, displaying certain characteristics and having dispositions immediately feels the sentiment of approbation or blame.

These distinctions are found in the natural sentiments of the human mind and will not be altered by any philosophical theory or speculation.

The origin of the passions of man will acquire authority if we find the same theory is requisite in explaining the same phenomena in all other animals.

Animals as well as men learn many things from experience.

Both infer the same events will always follow from the same causes.

By this principle they become acquainted with the properties of matter.

The ignorance of youth contrasts the plainly distinguishable sagacity of the aged, who after long observation, avoid pain while in pursuit of pleasure.

A horse, accustomed to the field, becomes acquainted with the proper height which he can leap, and will never attempt what exceeds his force and ability.

The horse infers some matter of fact beyond what immediately strikes his senses and this inference is altogether founded on past experience.

He expects from the present situation the same consequences which it has always found in observation to result from similar objects and conditions.

We possess reasoning in common with beasts and need not disquisitions of human understanding to comprehend the objects of our intellectual faculties



adaptation


Although without hesitation mankind acknowledges the doctrine of connection in all ages they profess the contrary opinion of separation.

Uncertainty proceeds from the secret opposition of contrary causes.

It is a hypothetical pretense refutation is dangerous to religious morality.

The general observations treasured up by a course of experience, give us the clue of human nature, and teach us to unravel all its intricacies.

Pretexts and appearances no longer deceive us.

A man is guilty of unpardonable arrogance who concludes that an argument that has escaped his own investigation does not really exist.

Nothing appears more surprising to those who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the ease with which the many are governed by a few.


David Hume





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This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

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