Revivalism emphasizes definable turning
in a Christian life as essential.
salvation by grace through
1542 John Calvin founds the first
Protestant absolutist theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland.
there has been an evolution and a mixing of
Protestant theological belief
systems that has resulted in a continually splintering, changing,
regrouping and evolving Christian theology.
God's rule over all
The Reformed Tradition of John Calvin held that as a
consequence of the fall of
man, every person born is enslaved to
Calvin claimed individuals were inclined to reject
ethical concerns but
this is a mistaken viewpoint and trap frequently fallen into by
Calvinists believe attainment of heaven to be
unconditionally grounded in God's
mercy expressed as absolution.
God saves those whom God has
pre-determined to save.
Once truly saved always
Calvinist thought reached
its zenith of its influence in the Anglican Church during the reign of Edward
VI first as Forty-Two Articles of Religion found in the Book of
1563 Reduced to
Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion.
1571 Adherence to the Thirty-Nine Articles made a
legal requirement by the English Parliament, requires church attendance on the
Anglicanism, in its
structures, theology and forms of
worship, is understood as a distinct tradition representing a middle ground
between Roman Catholicism and
Puritanism, a religious reformation movement, begins in
Its initial goal was removing any remaining links to
Catholicism within the Church of England after its separation from the Catholic
1603 The accession of James I to the
English throne brought the Millenary Petition, a Puritan manifesto for
reform of the English church.
1604 James I calls
the Hampton Court Conference.
At the Hampton Court
Conference James commissions the translation of the Christian Bible into
the English vernacular, the King James Version (KVJ).
1610 Dutch Arminianism is articulated in
Arminianism is a school of soteriological
thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian
Jacobus Arminius. Its acceptance stretches through much of mainstream
Arminianists believe that individuals are
naturally unable to make
any effort towards salvation, salvation is possible by grace alone,
works of human effort
cannot contribute to salvation,
God's Elect have
unconditional faith that:
Christ's atonement is for all
allows his grace to be resisted by those unwilling to believe;
salvation can be lost as
continued salvation is
conditional upon continued faith in Christ as
the personification of
emphasis on individual ability to
God and understand the Will of God for oneself
1650 George Fox,
imprisoned for blasphemy, begins the
mocks George Fox's exhortation to "tremble at the Word of the
Lord", calling George Fox and his
1653 George Fox is
imprisoned and it is requested that he be put to death.
requests his release rather than "a young man die
George Fox is taken to London for a meeting with the
Fox affirms he has
no intention to take up arms
and is able to speak about the differences between the
Anglicans and the
Cromwell listen to God's voice and obey
This is "speaking truth to
"It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy to deprive
a man of his natural liberty upon
a supposition that he
may abuse it." - Oliver Cromwell
By "speaking truth to power" -
simple ideas related with plain
speech - George Fox pursued social justice.
1654 George Fox is imprisoned in London.
George Fox is imprisoned in Launceston.
1663 George Fox is imprisoned in Lancaster.
1666 George Fox is imprisoned in Scarborough.
1674 George Fox is imprisoned in Worcester.
Quakers repeatedly fell foul of
laws forbidding unauthorized worship.
George Fox often emphasised
the Quaker rejection of baptism by
water; a useful way of highlighting the focus of Friends
This differed from what he saw as
the superstition of outward
George Fox's theology in his words:
Let no man speak in an unknown
Let no one be put to death for chattel, for
money or any outward thing.
Let all these things be taken away, he that
will not speak a few words to his neighbor without money, freely without end,
or reward, or bribery,
and so bring it to a free Nation, and so a free people by the
Power of God.
Let no one that is high, proud, or
lofty, envious or scornful bear Office, for
he will turn the sword backward and
do Satan's work.
Let no law be, but that man may ask a question.
If it be a free Nation, let it be free.
Let none be persecuted
and imprisonment as vagabonds who are moved by God to speak abroad the
Word of God freely and
Let none lie long in
prison, for that is the way to spoil people, and to make more thieves, for
there they learn wickedness together.
Let all this money, and stipends, and tithes, and
hour-glasses for preaching by the hour be taken away from men, who make a trade
of the Scripture.
Let all worship God
in selflessness not in
Let all the Burying the dead for money, and Marrying for money,
and Christening for money, and Churching of women for money, let all these
things be swept away, and let the Nation be a free Nation.
Let no man
bear the sword in violence, or accuse any man
Let no Judge, nor
Justice, nor Sheriff that is ambitious, highminded, bear rule, for such do not
stand in awe of God which
is the beginning of the wisdom
with which they should order
the Creation to the Glory of God.
They are out of the meek state and
humility, and doing
justly, loving mercy, and walking humbly before God, and they are
aroma in the nostrils of
Let all preaching for
money and singing for money be laid
Let not preaching be a trade, nor
the Word of God made
emphasis on the spiritual life of the
coupled with a responsibility to live an upright life
1703 Pietism becomes
popular in Denmark.
Pietistic Lutherans meet together in conventicles,
"apart from Divine Service in order to mutually encourage piety."
believe "any true Christian could point back in his or her life to an inner
struggle with sin that culminated in a crisis and ultimately a decision to
start a new, Christ-centered life."
"The hoary adage "cleanliness is next to
godliness" was resurrected
by evangelist John Wesley and preached from a
John Wesley, an
Anglican minister, begins preaching the precepts of Methodism which leads to
the Methodist revival.
John Wesley intensely studied the Church Fathers
and Eastern Orthodox Church.
He attended Moravian meetings, heard a
sermon of Dr. John Heylyn and seriously studied Christian religious
John Wesley expressed strong
disagreement with the doctrines of election and reprobation teaching that
individual efforts towards holiness of heart and life could bring
a truly holy and loving Christian to
The evangelistic teaching of John Wesley incorporated and
melded Arminianist , Calvinist and Anglican doctrine as seen in the
Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion.
John Wesley abridged the list
from 39 to 24 (editing out much Calvinist emphasis) for use by American
Methodists in the 18th century.
Conference of Methodist Episcopal Church passed the first
Restrictive Rule, which states that the General Conference may
not in any way change the Articles of Religion making the list
Gnostic translation of
Article I. Acceptance of
Article II. Christ is the Son of
Man as well as the Godhead.
Article III. The
Article V. Old Testament canonical books are:
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges,
Ruth, 1st & 2nd Books of Samuel, 1st & 2nd Books of Kings, 1st &
2nd Books of Chronicles, Book of Ezra, Book of Nehemiah, Book of Esther, Book
of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Songs of Solomon, Four
Prophets the Greater, Twelve Prophets the Less.
All the books of
the New Testament are canonical.
Article VI. Acceptance of the
VII. Man is apt to fall into unnatural
Article VIII. Walking with God
allows us to act in good
Article IX. Only Christ can mend our
Article X. There is no earthly redemption in
make up stuff.
Article XII. We are all
sinners. Redemption lies in
invocation of saints are
not of Christ.
Speak plainly the
Word of God so
all may hear.
"Two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel; that is to say,
Baptism and the Supper of the Lord." - John Wesley
a sign of
regeneration or rebirth.
XVIII. The bread we share
together is a partaking of the body of
Christ; and likewise the
cup of blessing is a partaking of the
blood of Christ.
are not exclusive. We do not form cliques or
Christ sacrificed himself so you don't
Article XXII. Any
sincere heart felt oblation is
Article XXIII. We don't
belong to Britian anymore !
Status does not the man
Article XXV. Loyalty
only to Christ but acquiesce
to principalities orders.
doctrine must be
rational as faith and
reason are synonymous.
John Wesley defined the witness of the
Spirit of God
"an inward impression on the
soul, whereby the Spirit of
God directly testifies to an individual's spirit that they are indeed
children of God."
John Wesley understood a person must hear the
Word of God himself - intercession is
ineffective as redemption occurs only
in a contrite heart.
Wesley's strength lay in his ability to combine seemingly opposing theological
stances backed up by a
reasonable interpretation of scripture.
He was very good at
John Wesley's evangelical theology, grounded firmly in
sacrament, was his promotion of what he termed
Christian Perfection, or
Holiness of Heart.
John Wesley insisted that in this life, the Christian could come to a state
where the Agápe, or
perfect compassion, reigned supreme in one's heart.
To be made perfect
in compassion meant a Christian could live with the primary guide "to love your
neighbor as you love yourself.".
This parallels the philosophy of
Pentecostal denominations are descended from Methodism and
the Methodist Holiness Movement.
Pentecostal soteriology is generally
Arminian rather than Calvinist.
"Surely it is obvious, to those who wish to see and have had
their eyes enlightened by
the professing church,
has become nothing more than a very successful business,
reaping huge profits into the
coffers of those who, wandering
off the garden path, have been enticed by a desire for fame, fortune and
They have turned the Father's house into nothing
more than a
merchandise and are utilizing the secular world's resources and the secular
world's methods to achieve what they believe to be spiritual success.
The corporation churches, in the same manner as the corporations of the
secular world, have definite characteristics that are clearly observable.
They are human initiated and governed, management-based,
profit-oriented, success-driven, client-friendly, product-focused (programs and
services), and image
conscious. " - Hugh Skyborn
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