Revivalism emphasizes definable turning
in a Christian's life as essential.
"Every tradition has to renew itself from time to
in order to address the pressing issues of the day and offer
kind of practices that are needed for renewal."
Thich Nhat Hanh
Protestant Christian Holiness movements
emphasis on the spiritual life of the
coupled with a responsibility to live an upright life
In Protestantism there has been an evolution and a mixing of
Protestant theological belief
systems that has resulted in a continually splintering, changing,
regrouping and evolving Christian theology.
God's rule over all
The Reformed tradition of John Calvin held that as a
consequence of the fall of man,
every person born into
reality is enslaved to
Calvin claimed individuals were inclined to reject
concerns but this is a mistaken viewpoint and trap frequently fallen into
by Roman law
Calvinists believe attainment of heaven not based on
merit or faith but is
unconditionally grounded in God's
mercy expressed as absolution.
The saving grace of God is
effectually applied to those whom God has pre-determined to save.
Once truly saved always saved.
Calvinist thought reached
its zenith of its influence in the Anglican Church during the reign of Edward
VI first as Forty-Two Articles of Religion found in the Book of Common
1563 Reduced to Thirty-Nine
Articles of Religion.
1571 Adherence to the
Thirty-Nine Articles made a legal requirement by the English
Anglicanism, in its
structures, theology and forms of
worship, is understood as a distinct tradition representing a middle ground
between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
ArminianismArminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant
Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Its
acceptance stretches through much of mainstream Protestantism.
Arminianists believe that individuals are
naturally unable to make
any effort towards salvation,
salvation is possible by
grace alone, works of human effort cannot cause or contribute to salvation,
God's elects (choses those to be saved) which is conditional upon faith in ,
Christ's atonement was for all
people, God allows his
grace to be resisted by those unwilling to believe, salvation can be lost
as continued salvation is conditional upon continued faith in Christ as
the personification of
emphasis on individual ability to
God and understand the
Will of God for
Fox, imprisoned for blasphemy,
begins the Quietism revival.
A judge mocks George Fox's exhortation to
"tremble at the Word of the
Lord", calling George Fox and his
1653 George Fox is
imprisoned and it is requested that he be put to death.
requests his release rather than "a young man die
George Fox is taken to London for a meeting with the
Fox affirms he has
no intention to take up arms
and is able to speak about the differences between the
Anglicans and the
Cromwell listen to God's voice and obey
This is "speaking truth to
"It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy to deprive
a man of his natural liberty upon
a supposition that he
may abuse it." - Oliver Cromwell
By "speaking truth to power" -
simple ideas related with plain
speech - George Fox pursued social justice.
1654 George Fox is imprisoned in London.
George Fox is imprisoned in Launceston.
1663 George Fox is imprisoned in Lancaster.
1666 George Fox is imprisoned in Scarborough.
1674 George Fox is imprisoned in Worcester.
Quakers repeatedly fell foul of
laws forbidding unauthorized worship.
George Fox often emphasised
the Quaker rejection of baptism by
water; a useful way of highlighting the focus of Friends
This differed from what he saw as
the superstition of outward
George Fox's theology in his words:
Let no man speak in an unknown
Let no one be put to death for chattel, for
money or any outward thing.
Let all these things be taken away, he that
will not speak a few words to his neighbor without money, freely without end,
or reward, or bribery,
and so bring it to a free Nation, and so a free people by the
Power of God.
Let no one that is high, proud, or
lofty, envious or scornful bear Office, for
he will turn the sword backward and
do Satan's work.
they that are hasty, proud in a mad blind zeal will turn the sword against the
Let no law be, but that man may ask a question.
be a free Nation, let it be free.
Let none be persecuted and
imprisonment as vagabonds who are moved by God to speak abroad the
Word of God freely and faithfully.
Let none lie long in
prison, for that is the way to spoil people, and to make more thieves, for
there they learn wickedness together.
Let all this money, and stipends, and tithes, and
hour-glasses for preaching by the hour be taken away from men, who make a trade
of the Scripture.
Let all worship God in
selflessness not in
Let all the Burying the dead for money, and Marrying for money,
and Christening for money, and Churching of women for money, let all these
things be swept away, and let the Nation be a free Nation.
Let no man
bear the sword in violence, or accuse any man falsely.
Let no Judge, nor Justice,
nor Sheriff that is ambitious, highminded, bear rule, for such do not
stand in awe of God which
is the beginning of the wisdom
with which they should order
the Creation to the Glory of God.
They are out of the meek state and
humility, and doing
justly, loving mercy, and walking humbly before God, and they are
aroma in the nostrils of
Let all preaching for money and singing for money be laid aside.
Let not preaching be
a trade, nor the Word of God made merchandise of.
Wesley, an Anglican minister, begins preaching the precepts of Methodism which
leads to the Methodist revival.
John Wesley intensely studied the Church
Fathers and Eastern Orthodox Church.
He attended Moravian meetings,
heard a sermon of Dr. John Heylyn and seriously studied Christian religious
John Wesley expressed strong
disagreement with the doctrines of election and reprobation teaching that
individual efforts towards holiness of heart and life could bring
a truly holy and loving Christian to
The evangelistic teaching of John Wesley incorporated and
melded Arminianist doctrine, Calvinist doctrine and Anglican doctrine as
represented in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion for use by American
Methodists in the 18th century.
Wesley saw doctrine must be rational as
faith and reason are synonymous.
Wesley defined the witness of the
Spirit of God
"an inward impression on the
soul, whereby the Spirit of
God directly testifies to an individual's spirit that they
are indeed children of
John Wesley saw a person must believe
Word of God for himself or herself -
intercession was ineffective as redemption occurs only in
a contrite heart.
Wesley's strength lay in his ability to combine seemingly opposing theological
stances backed up by a
reasonable interpretation of scripture.
He was very good at
John Wesley's evangelical theology, grounded firmly in
sacrament, was his promotion of what he termed "Christian perfection," or
holiness of heart.
Wesley insisted that in this life, the Christian could come to a state where
the Agápe, or
perfect compassion, reigned supreme in one's heart.
To be made perfect
in compassion meant that a Christian could live with a primary guiding regard
for others and their welfare - "to love your neighbor as you love
This parallels the philosophy of
Pentecostal denominations are descended from Methodism and
the Methodist Holiness Movement.
Pentecostal soteriology is generally
Arminian rather than Calvinist.
"Surely it is
obvious, to those who wish to see
and have had their eyes
the professing church,
has become nothing more than a very successful business,
reaping huge profits into the
coffers of those who, wandering
off the garden path, have been enticed by a desire for fame, fortune and
They have turned the Father's house into nothing
more than a
of merchandise and are utilizing the secular world's resources and the
secular world's methods to achieve what they believe to be spiritual success.
The corporation churches, in the same manner as the corporations of the
secular world, have definite characteristics that are clearly observable.
They are human initiated and governed, management-based,
profit-oriented, success-driven, client-friendly, product-focused (programs and
services), and image
conscious. " - Hugh Skyborn
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author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
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founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason
which requires no leap of faith, accepts
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every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator
and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of
curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets
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