Revivalism emphasizes definable turning
in a Christians life as essential.
"Every tradition has to renew itself from time to
in order to address the pressing issues of the day and offer
kind of practices that are needed for renewal."
Thich Nhat Hanh
Protestant Christian Holiness movements
emphasis on adherence to biblical scripture
the right to
dissent from the established religious institution
emphasis on the spiritual life of the
coupled with a responsibility to live an upright life
emphasis on individual ability to
God and understand the
Will of God for
In Protestantism there has been an evolution and a mixing of
Protestant theological belief
systems that has resulted in a continually splintering, changing,
regrouping and evolving Christian theology.
God's rule over all
The Reformed tradition of John Calvin held that as a
consequence of the fall of man,
every person born into reality is
enslaved to the
Individuals are inclined to reject God's ethics
to serve their own
Calvinists believe attainment of heaven not based on
virtue, merit or faith but is
unconditionally grounded in
expressed as absolution.
The saving grace of God is
effectually applied to those whom God has pre-determined to save.
Once truly saved always saved.
reached its zenith of its influence in the Anglican Church during the reign of
Edward VI first as Forty-Two Articles of Religion found in the Book of Common
1563 Reduced to Thirty-Nine
Articles of Religion.
1571 Adherence to the
Thirty-Nine Articles made a legal requirement by the English
Anglicanism, in its structures, theology and
forms of worship, is
understood as a distinct tradition representing a middle ground between Roman
Catholicism and Protestantism.
ArminianismArminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant
Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Its
acceptance stretches through much of mainstream Protestantism.
Arminianists believe that individuals are
naturally unable to make any
effort towards salvation, salvation is possible by grace
alone, works of human effort cannot cause or contribute to salvation, God's
elects (choses those to be saved) which is conditional upon faith in ,
Christ's atonement was for all people,
God allows his grace to be
resisted by those unwilling to believe, salvation can be lost as continued
salvation is conditional upon continued faith in Christ as
the personification of
Fox is imprisoned for blasphemy
which begins the Quietism revival.
A judge mocks George Fox's
exhortation to "tremble at the Word of the Lord", calling
George Fox and his followers
1653 George Fox is imprisoned and
it is requested that he be put to death.
Parliament requests his
release rather than "a young man die for
George Fox is taken to London for a meeting with the
Fox affirms he has no intention to take up arms and is
able to speak about the differences between the Anglicans and the Friends.
Fox suggests Oliver Cromwell listen to
God's voice and obey
This is "speaking truth to
"It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy to deprive
a man of his natural liberty upon
a supposition that he
may abuse it." - Oliver Cromwell
By "speaking truth to power" -
simple ideas related with plain
speech - George Fox pursued social justice.
1654 George Fox is imprisoned in London.
George Fox is imprisoned in Launceston.
1663 George Fox is imprisoned in Lancaster.
1666 George Fox is imprisoned in Scarborough.
1674 George Fox is imprisoned in Worcester.
repeatedly fell foul of laws forbidding unauthorized worship.
George Fox often emphasised the Quaker rejection of baptism by water; a
useful way of highlighting the focus of Friends
This differed from what he saw as
the superstition of outward
George Fox's theology in his words:
Let no man speak in an unknown
Let no one be put to death for chattel, for
money or any outward thing.
Let all these things be taken away, he that
will not speak a few words to his neighbor without money, freely without end,
or reward, or bribery,
and so bring it to a free Nation, and so a free people by the
Power of God.
Let no one that is high, proud, or
lofty, envious or scornful bear Office, for
he will turn the sword backward
and do Satan's work.
For they that are hasty, proud in a
mad blind zeal will turn the sword against the just.
Let no law be,
but that man may ask a question.
If it be a free Nation, let it be
Let none be persecuted and imprisonment
as vagabonds who are moved by God to speak abroad the
Word of God freely and
lie long in prison, for that is the way to spoil people, and to make more
thieves, for there they learn wickedness together.
Let all this money, and stipends, and
tithes, and hour-glasses for preaching by the hour be taken away from men, who
make a trade of the Scripture.
Let all worship
God in selflessness not in
Let all the Burying the dead for money, and Marrying for money,
and Christening for money, and Churching of women for money, let all these
things be swept away, and let the Nation be a free Nation.
Let no man
bear the sword in violence, or accuse any man falsely.
Let no Judge, nor Justice,
nor Sheriff that is ambitious, highminded, bear rule, for such do not
stand in awe of God which
is the beginning of the wisdom
with which they should order
the Creation to the Glory of God.
They are out of the meek state and
humility, and doing
justly, loving mercy, and walking humbly before God, and they are
aroma in the nostrils of
Let all preaching
for money and singing for money be laid aside.
preaching be a trade, nor
the Word of God made merchandise of.
Methodism1738 John Wesley, an Anglican minister, begins preaching the
precepts of Methodism which leads to the Methodist revival.
intensely studied the Church Fathers and Eastern Orthodox Church.
attended Moravian meetings, heard a sermon of Dr. John Heylyn and seriously
studied Christian religious sects.
John Wesley expressed strong
disagreement with the doctrines of election and reprobation teaching that
individual efforts towards
holiness of heart and life could bring a
truly holy and loving Christian to salvation.
teaching of John Wesley incorporated and melded Arminianist doctrine, Calvinist
doctrine and Anglican doctrine as represented in the Thirty-Nine Articles of
Religion for use by American Methodists in the 18th century.
doctrine must be rational as faith and reason
John Wesley defined the witness of the
Spirit of God
"an inward impression on the
soul, whereby the Spirit
of God directly testifies to an
individual's spirit that
they are indeed children
John Wesley saw a person must believe
Word of God for himself or herself -
intercession was ineffective as redemption occurs only in
a contrite heart.
Wesley's strength lay in his ability to combine seemingly opposing theological
stances backed up by a
reasonable interpretation of scripture.
He was very good at
John Wesley's evangelical theology, grounded firmly in
sacrament, was his promotion of what he termed "Christian perfection," or
holiness of heart.
John Wesley insisted that in this life, the Christian
could come to a state where the
perfect compassion, reigned supreme in one's heart.
To be made perfect
in compassion meant that a Christian could live with a primary guiding regard
for others and their welfare - "to love your neighbor as you love
This parallels the philosophy of
Pentecostal denominations are descended from Methodism and
the Methodist Holiness Movement.
Pentecostal soteriology is generally
Arminian rather than Calvinist.
"Surely it is
obvious, to those who wish to see and have had their eyes
Christ, that the
professing church, Christendom, has become nothing more than a very successful
business, reaping huge profits into
the coffers of those who, wandering off the garden path,
have been enticed by a desire for fame, fortune and universal
They have turned the Father's house into nothing more than a
merchandise and are utilizing the secular world's resources and the secular
world's methods to achieve what they believe to be spiritual success.
The corporation churches, in the same manner as the corporations of the
secular world, have definite characteristics that are clearly observable.
They are human initiated and
governed, management-based, profit-oriented, success-driven,
client-friendly, product-focused (programs and services), and
image conscious. " -
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forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
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Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason
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every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator
and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of
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