Iran exports 42,000 pounds of opium.
is widespread in Iran.
"In Isfahan, one traveller reports as far as the
eye could see there is nothing but fields of poppies." - Gerald T.
In Kerman forty percent of the population is smoking
Women smoke at home while the men smoke in the bazaars and coffee
1870 A shift towards production of a
cash crop, opium, at the expense of food
production along with poor rainfall creates a famine.
Dry farming increases the incidence
of food shortages with a lack
One traveller during this period estimates nine out of ten
of the aged in Persia take
one to five grams of opium daily.
Plague appears and two thirds of the
population in large cities die.
1914 Iran exports
875,000 pounds of opium.
Famine and Genocide in Persia
Great Britain role in Great Famine in Iran during World War
"We have a very extensive capability of
intercepting messages wherever they may be in the airwaves.
is necessary and important to the United States as we look abroad at enemies or
We must know, at the same time, that capability at
any time could be turned around on the American people, and no American would
have any privacy left such is the capability to monitor everything - telephone
it doesn't matter.
There would be no place to hide.
The CIA is
a bureaucracy which feeds
on itself, and those involved are
constantly sitting around thinking up schemes for [foreign] intervention
which will win them promotions and justify further additions to the staff.
It self-generates interventions that otherwise never would be thought
of, let alone authorized." - Senator Frank Church
"CIA arms, money, and
Corsican crime syndicate in Marseille to
wrestle control of labor
unions from the Communist Party.
The Corsicans gained political
influence and control over the docks - ideal conditions for cementing a
long-term partnership with drug distributors.
Marseille became the
postwar heroin capital of the Western world.
First Marseille heroin
laboratories were opened in 1951, only months after the Corsicans took over the
waterfront." - Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast
"The Nationalist Chinese army became the opium
barons of The Golden Triangle (Burma, Thailand and Laos), the largest
source of opium and heroin. A pattern
becomes apparent in regimes
installed by the CIA.
Air America flew heroin from all
over Southeast Asia.
Many GI's in Vietnam became addicts.
laboratory built at CIA headquarters in northern Laos refined heroin.
After a decade of American military intervention, Southeast Asia had
become the source of 70 percent of the world's illicit opium and the major
supplier of raw materials for America's
booming heroin market." -
Christopher Robbins, Air America
Regimes derive a portion of cash flow from
the distribution of narcotics.
In the absence of
a popular base for externally
installed puppets external
funds are needed for political repression.
There is someone very
close to the installed
puppet, typically a relative, that is heavily involved in a narcotics
In Taiwan Chiang Kai-shek and his brother-in-law TV
In Mexico Luis Echeverría Álvarez and his
brother-in-law Rubén Zuno Arce.
Iran Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and his twin sister
Ngô dình Diem
and his brother Ngô dình Nhu.
Afghanistan Hamid Karzai and his brother Ahmed Wali
Laos broke the close family tie rule-of-thumb when Phoumi
Nosavan used Ouane Rattikone.
French SDECE military intelligence is in need of
money for covert operations.
Officers contact opium producers in the
Golden Triangle, and set up an international system of smuggling, the "French
Connection", aided by intelligence and other aid from SDECE.
is made between the Corsican Mafia, who has a historical presence in South
Vietnam dating back to the French occupation, and leading members of the
American and Sicilian Mafia, under the leadership of
Luciano is asked to provide assistance to American military intelligence about
Axis infiltration of the waterfront in American ports (which was
effectively controlled by the Mafia), as well as assisting
Allied forces in their invasion of Sicily and
Luciano uses his contacts in the Sicilian Mafia to assist US forces by
gathering intelligence and identifying both fascist collaborators and
Socialist/Communist elements in the Italian résistance movement, who are
then systematically eliminated.
Luciano is covertly permitted to run
his crime operations from prison, and at the end of the war he is deported back
to Sicily, where he immediately begins a major expansion of his drug
operations, forging alliances with Corsican Mafia members in South Vietnam and
organized crime figures in other countries, including
|20 percent of US soldiers
became addicted to CIA supplied heroin in Vietnam, according to a study
published in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Many people believed a
huge number of addicts were about the head home when the war ended.
percent of the addicted soldiers simply stopped.
They shifted from a
terrifying cage back to a pleasant one and no longer wanted a reminder of
lords in Burma are recruited in operations against China.
"The US defensive strategy for the region was defined by John Foster Dulles in
January 1954 in his "massive retaliation" speech.
According to Dulles,
the US would provide aid for the expansion and modernization of native armies
which would be able to hold the southward surge of China's armies long enough
for the US to launch a massive air strike at China's industry and
To facilitate these projected air-strikes into Southern
and Western China the US began construction and expansion of a network of
airbases centered on Northeast Thailand.
From1954-1962 the US spent a
modest $97.5 million on seven Royal Thai airbases, and two major highways
linking the base at Udorn in the Northeast with Bangkok and North central
Thailand." - Al McCoy
1959 Opium traffic
identified as an alternative source of income for Laotian government of Phoumi
1963 Laotian Quanne Rattikone
produces heroin for the Army camps in South Vietnam.
transpotation through Air America.
1965 Theodore Shackley supports Vang Pao in his quest for
an opium monopoly helping finance the
building of an air drug shipment service between Long Tien and
Laos becomes the largest
center in the world.
Support is provided General Ouan Rattikone
(Phoumi's successor) and his drug-funded army.
Airplanes are supplied for opium
transportation and intervene militarily with air support in battles over
contested opium caravans.
"Ted Shackley ran the CIA
recruitment pool from which
Helliwell drew his
and lethal workforce." - Patricia Goldstone
1968 Ted Shackley helps arrange a partnership between Santos
Trafficante and Vang Pao.
"American involvement had gone far beyond
coincidental complicity; embassies had covered up involvement by client
governments, contract airlines had carried opium, and individual agents had
winked at the opium traffic.
As an indirect consequence of American
involvement in the Golden Triangle, opium production steadily increased.
Southeast Asia's Golden Triangle grew 70% of the world's illicit opium,
supplied an estimated 30% of America's Heroin, and was capable of supplying the
United States with unlimited quantities of
come." - Alfred W. McCoy
Norwin Meneses Cantarero, known as El Rey del Drogas (the king of drugs), feels
the heat of a Nicaraguan customs probe into his smuggling of high-end North
American cars from the US into Nicaragua so
his gang murders the chief
Norwin Meneses Cantarero comes from a family intimately
linked to the Somoza
One brother had been chief of police in Managua.
Two other brothers are generals in the force most loyal to Somoza, the
The DEA and other agencies began
keeping files on Meneses in 1974.
Sandinista revolution evicts Anastasio Somoza and his regime.
Meneses Cantarero is granted political refugee
status when he and other
members of the Somoza elite flee to the US.
Norwin Meneses Cantarero,
"head of security and intelligence" for the leading organization in the Contra
coalition the Fuerza Democratico Nicaraguense works with Enrique
Bermudez, Oscar Danilo Blandon, a cousin, and Adolfo Calero.
up a cocaine distribution ring in San Francisco, establishing ties with Freeway
Ricky Ross who manufactures crack out
of shipments of powder cocaine and distributes it through
the black street gangs of South Central
Los Angeles throughout America.
Profits made by the Nicaraguan
exiles are funneled back to the Contra army.
The son of a Managua
slumlord, Blandon headed Somoza's agricultural export program as an important
component of the country's mainly beef and
coffee based economy.
Somoza family owns at least a quarter of the nation's agricultural
In his position as head of the export program, Blandon has
developed close ties to the Department
of Commerce and the State Department.
He secures $27 million in
and is well known to the US military and CIA, both of which have a commanding
presence in Somoza's Nicaragua.
Somoza sent his officer corps for
training in the US.
The CIA station chief was the most powerful foreigner in
Blandon's wife, Chepita, came from a powerful clan, the Murillo
One of her relatives is the mayor of Managua.
Blandon and Murillo families lost their land locked fortunes in the 1979
In Somoza's final days, Jimmy Carter made a last-ditch
effort to maintain a US-backed regime in Nicaragua even if Somoza should be
forced to quit.
The plan is to preserve the National Guard as the
custodian of US interests.
This plan fails.
The Sandinistas sweep
into power, Carter orders the initial funding of what later becomes known as
the Contras, operating out of Honduras.
The CIA musters Argentinian
officers fresh from their own death squad campaigns, and these men began to
organize the exiled National Guardsmen into a military force.
Bermudez had been a colonel in the National Guard, had trained at the US
National Defense College and had served from 1976 to July 1979 as Somoza's
military attache in Washington.
Furnished with $300,000 in CIA money, Bermudez
takes command of the fledgling Contra force in Honduras.
Support provided to the warlord
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader of the Hezbi-i Islami guerilla group in
"The boom in the
Pakistan drug trade was financed by BCCI."- Alfred W. McCoy
1981 Bermudez announces the formation of the FDN and his own
position as commander of its military wing.
The CIA script later
installs Adolfo Calero, formerly the
concessionaire in Managua, as the FDN's civilian head, operating mainly out of
the US, where he is under CIA supervision.
Reagan approves National
Security Directive 77, which provides a budget of $19.3 million for the
1989 "Bermudez was the target of a government-sponsored drug sting
operation." - John Kerry, chairman
committee investigating Contra cocaine smuggling. "Law enforcement officials know
that the sting was called back in the interest of protecting the
"There's a saying," Blandon testified, "that the ends justify
the means. And that's what Mr. Bermudez told us in
report concludes that members of the
State Department "provided
support for the Contras involved in drug trafficking ... elements of the
Contras received financial and material assistance from drug
November 1993 Judge Robert C.
Bonner, the former head of the DEA, appeares on 60 Minutes and alleges that the
CIA had permitted literally a ton of cocaine to enter the
"For the better part of a decade, a San Francisco
Bay Area drug ring sold tons of
cocaine to the Crips and Bloods
street gangs of Los
Angeles and funneled millions in drug profits to a Latin American guerrilla
army run by the CIA." - Gary Webb1996 Gary
Webb writes a series of articles published in the San Jose Mercury News
which investigates the Nicaraguans linked to the CIA-backed Contras who had
smuggled cocaine into the US.
According to Gary Webb, the CIA was aware
of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of drugs into the US by the
Contra personnel and directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the
CIA Director John M. Deutch went to Los Angeles to refute the
allegations raised by the Gary Webb articles, and was famously confronted by
former LAPD officer Michael Ruppert, who said he had witnessed it
A Miami jury indicted former Venezuelan anti-narcotics
chief and CIA asset, General Ramon Guillen Davila, who "led a CIA
counter-narcotics program that put tons of cocaine on US streets in
2001 The American presence in Afghanistan
is weakened initially by its dependence on a drug-trafficking Tajik-Uzbek
minority coalition - the Northern Alliance led by Ahmad Shah
"Since 2002, the prosecution of
the war in Afghanistan 'at
all levels' has been based on an implied strategy of attrition
via clearing operations virtually
identical to those pursued in Vietnam.
In Vietnam, they were dubbed
"search and destroy missions;"
in Afghanistan they are called "clearing operations" and
"compound searches," but the purpose is the same, to find easily replaced
weapons or clear a tiny,
arbitrarily chosen patch of worthless ground for a short period, and then
turn it over to indigenous security forces who can't hold it, and then go do it
again somewhere else." - Thomas Johnson
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