As a result of
high demand for tea, silk
and porcelain in Britain and the low demand for British commodities in China,
Britain had a large trade deficit with China and had to trade goods for
silver as the Chinese would only
except silver in trade.
Lost during the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople is the specific formula of
an opium-based elixir ascribed
to alchemists of Byzantium.
Paracelsus referes to an opium-based elixir that he calls laudanum from
the Latin word laudare, meaning "to praise".
He describes it as
a potent painkiller recommending it be used sparingly.
United Company of Merchants of
England Trading to the East Indies opens a trading station in Canton
importing opium and tobacco into China.
The British desire silk.
The Chinese will only take silver
bullion in trade for silk.
British silver reserves become depleted.
The British start importing opium
from India and obtain an opium monopoly by 1773 which continued virtually
unchanged until 1947.
By only excepting silver in exchange for opium
British silver reserves are restored.
Rising opium use in China prompts an imperial edict that forbides
the sale of opium for smoking purposes.
British exports of opium to China are an estimated 15
1757 Britain conquers Bengal
in the Battle of Plassey.
British East India Company pursues a monopoly
on production and export of opium in India.
East India Company murders its way into an opium
Bengal pursues a
monopoly on the sale of
opium in earnest, and abolishes the old opium syndicate at Patna.
Opium is the key to East India
Company control for the next 50 years as importation of opium into China is
against Chinese law.
British East India
Company begins abrogating Chinese law by selling opium for silver at the
auctions in Calcutta leaving it to
be smuggled into China.
The British Crown chartered British East India
Company, is directly responsible for the opium flood that leads to the Opium
Wars in China.
1799 East India
Company agency houses including Jardine, Matheson & Co and Dent
& Co import amounts averaging 900 tons of opium per year.
1804 Morphine, the
first active alkaloid, is extracted from the opium poppy plant in Paderborn,
Germany, by Friedrich Sertürner.
Strychnine alkaloid extracted.
French physician Francois Magendie published a paper describing morphine
bringing pain relief and sleep to an ailing young girl.
1820 Caffeine alkaloid extracted.
1828 Nicotine alkaloid extracted.
1830 East India Company murders its way into an
opium monopoly in Bombay.
the amount of smuggled opium entering China rapidly increasing the Chinese
impose a death penalty for
opium smuggling and send a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu, to curb
1839 First Opium War begins.
1842 Hong Kong is ceded to Britain under the
Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opens to the opium traders of Britain
and other nations.
1850s First reliable syringes are developed and
injecting morphine becomes a standard procedure during and after
1856 Second Opium War begins.
Fought by Britain and France against
During the second Opium War, Lord
Elgin, the British High Commissioner to China, takes 3,500 British troops to
set the entire Old Summer Palace ablaze.
Treaty of Tientsin
legalised the importation of opium.
Legalisation stimulates domestic
Chinese opium production and increased the importation of opium from
Türkey and Persia.
acid is synthesized by Adolf von Baeyer.
1874 Diacetylmorphine, a white, odourless, bitter,
crystalline powder derived
from morphine is compounded by English chemist, CR Wright.
alkaloid extracted by Arthur Heffter.
1898 Bayer begins marketing diacetylmorphine as "
Heroin - early testers said it made
them feel heroic.
Freud penned a white paper for Bayer stating that
diacetylmorphine would cure morphine and chloral hydrate addiction.
and pneumonia are the
leading causes of death
Fear of pneumonia made routine coughs and colds
Heroin, which both
depresses respiration and, as a
sedative, gives a
restorative night's sleep, seemed a godsend.
There were Heroin
pastilles, Heroin cough lozenges, Heroin tablets, water-soluble Heroin
salts and a Heroin elixir in a glycerine solution.
Heroin - trademarked Bayer medicine
Bayer Promoted Heroin for Children
"It's not hypnotic, and there's
no danger of acquiring a
habit." - Boston Medical and Surgical Journal
1907 American Medical
Association gives Heroin a stamp of approval.
1912 Bayer introduces phenobarbital, Luminal, as a
sedative and/or hypnotic.
Barbiturates are used for physician-assisted
suicide in combination with a muscle relaxant for euthanasia and in capital
punishment by lethal injection.
Barbiturates are euthanizing agents in
small-animal veterinary medicine.
Phenobarbital were long used as
anxiolytics and hypnotics.
Barbiturates reduce time to fall asleep,
increase total sleep time, and reduce
Barbiturates act as positive allosteric modulators and, at
higher doses, as agonists of GABAA receptors.
block AMPA and kainate receptors, subtypes of ionotropic glutamate
the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian
At higher concentration, barbiturates inhibit
Ca2+- dependent release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate via
an effect on P/Q-type
voltage-dependent calcium channels.
1914 Heroin is restricted to prescription
only use in the US.
"In most cases, the CIA's role involved
various forms of complicity, tolerance or
ignorance about the trade, not any direct culpability in the actual
The CIA did not handle Heroin, but it did provide
its drug-lord allies with transport, arms, and political protection.
sum, the CIA's role in the Southeast Asian Heroin trade involved indirect
complicity rather than direct culpability." - Alfred W. McCoy
"Our own spy agency is behind the killing of
thousands of American soldiers and civilians all over the world.
are also responsible for continued Afghan opium production, as it has always
served as the primary funding source for CIA paramilitary operations there." -
"Like Afghanistan, South Vietnam at the national
level was a massively corrupt collection of self-interested warlords, many of
them deeply implicated in the profitable opium trade, with almost nonexistent
legitimacy outside the capital city.
The purely military gains achieved
at such terrible cost in our nation's blood and treasure in Vietnam never came
close to exhausting the enemy's manpower pool or his will to fight, and simply
could not be sustained politically by a venal and incompetent set of
dysfunctional state institutions where
self-interest was the order of
the day." - Peter Dale Scott
1970 Controlled Substances Act
I Heroin, cannabis,
Schedule II amobarbital, pentobarbital, and
Schedule III all
Schedule IV barbital,
methylphenobarbital (also known as mephobarbital), and
1971 Vienna Convention on
Schedule II secobarbital,
Schedule III amobarbital, butalbital,
cyclobarbital, and pentobarbital
allobarbital, barbital, butobarbital, mephobarbital, phenobarbital,
butabarbital, and vinylbital
1979 The Soviets
enter Kabul on December 25, five months after
Operation Cyclone begins,
to install a pro-Moscow government.
1980 Afghanistan produces 200 metric tons of opium.
Throughout the 1980s the CIA working through
Intelligence(ISI), spends $2 billion to support the Afghan mujahideen
Within two years the Pakistan-Afghanistan
borderlands became the world's top Heroin producer.
the Heroin addict
population goes from near zero in 1979 to 5,000 in 1981 and to 1.2 million
As the Mujahideen guerrillas territorial control increased more
and more farmers planted opium poppies as cash crops.
Across the border
in Pakistan, Afghan leaders and local syndicates under the protection of
Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence operated hundreds of Heroin
laboratories to generate cash which they used to purchase weapons to fight the
The CIA helps facilitate
distribution, even squelching DEA
the Heroin left labs in Pakistan, the Sicilian mafia managed its export
to the US, and a chain of syndicate-controlled pizza parlors distributed the
drugs to street gangs in American cities.
Ordinary Americans did
not see the links between the CIA's alliance with Afghan drug lords, the pizza
parlors, and the Heroin on America's streets.
"There are powerful
business and financial interests behind narcotics.
military control over the drug routes is as strategic as oil and oil pipelines.
The bulk of the revenues associated with the global trade in narcotics
are not appropriated by terrorist groups and warlords.
Narcotics constitute a major source of wealth
formation for national intelligence agencies,
a powerful actor in the spheres of
finance and banking.
Intelligence agencies, powerful business, drug
traders and organized crime are competing for the strategic control over the
A large share of this multi-billion dollar revenues
of narcotics are deposited in the Western banking system.
Most of the large international banks together with their
affiliates in the offshore banking havens launder large amounts of
narco-dollars." - Michel Chossudovsky
The opium trade is denounced
immoral by the Taliban and prohibited.
Taliban bank $90 million downpayment on the rights to
an oil pipeline
2001 Launch Operation Enduring
2004 UN estimates Afghanistan produces
87% of the world opium.
2006 Afghanistan produces
6,724 metric tons of opium - more than 30 times as much opium as in 1980 ~
448,000 Afghan families cultivate opium poppies.
a staggering increase in
Afghani opium production of 60% over 2005.
"Opium production has
grown exponentially since 2001 as much as 60% of the country's GDP is either
generated by or dependent on it.
As many as 90% of Afghanistan's police
chiefs are reportedly involved in or protecting the drug trade." - Chris Mason,
State Department, Center
for Advanced Defense Studies
The Afghan minister of counter
narcotics General Khodaidad Khodaidad claims the majority of drugs are
stockpiled in two provinces controlled by troops from the US, the UK, and
2007 9000 metric tons of opium are
2008 "The White House says it believes
that Ahmed Wali Karzai is involved in drug
trafficking, and American officials have repeatedly warned President Karzai
that his brother is a political liability, two senior Bush administration
officials said in interviews last week." - James Risen, October 4, 2008
2009 It is learned that Ahmed Wali Karzai has
been on the CIA payroll since the invasion.
" Ahmed Wali Karzai is the
biggest drug baron of Afghanistan. What is most disturbing from my point of
view is that the military aircraft, American military aircraft are also being
used." - ISI General Hamid Gul
"When five drug traffickers in military
uniforms were caught transporting Heroin in a police truck in 2007, it
was a victory for a dogged team of Afghan investigators and their US mentors
who are waging a Quixotic battle against narcotics, the nation's largest
industry. The men were prosecuted by a special drug court that the US
government has spent tens of millions of dollars developing as a bulwark
against corruption. They were sentenced to between 16 and 18 years in prison.
But in April, Afghan president Hamid
Karzai pardoned the five men. One was the nephew of a powerful politician
managing Karzai's reelection campaign, and the presidential decree ordering
their release notes that they had ties to a well-respected family, according to
a senior Afghan official." - Farah Stockman July 3, 2009
"The Afghan people are rebelling because the
American government is currently committed to destroying 60% of their economy.
In the name of the "war on drugs," an American
corporation, DynCorp, is
being paid to barge into the fields of some of the poorest people on Earth and
systematically destroy their only livelihood.
A quarter of all Afghan
babies die before their fifth birthday.
If Western governments continue
this program of economic destruction - and the negative propaganda bonanza it
creates - the Taliban may
be sufficiently rejuvenated to march on Kabul.
There is an alternative
to this disastrous spiral.
The Earth is
a shortage of legal opiates.
Organization describes "an unprecedented global pain crisis."
of the Earth's population has almost no access to painkillers at all.
developed countries, for cancer care alone there is an unmet annual need for
550 metric tons more opium to make opium.
Instead of destroying
Afghanistan's most valuable resource, Western governments should buy it
outright and resell it to producers of legal opiate-based painkillers on the
Türkey and India produce opium as legal suppliers
of opiates for pain-control purposes.
Add Afghanistan to the legal
opium producers." - Johann Hari
OxyContin® is oxycodone, an opioid analgesic medication
synthesized from thebaine.
Thebaine (paramorphine) is an opiate
alkaloid. A minor constituent of opium, thebaine is chemically similar to both
morphine and codeine.
"From 1996 to 2001, the number of
oxycodone-related deaths nationwide increased 400% while the annual number of
OxyContin® prescriptions increased nearly 20-fold, according to a report by
the United States Drug Enforcement Administration. In 2002, the DEA said the
drug caused 146 deaths and contributed to another 318." - International
2004 36,000 people make ER
visits due to oxycodone overdoses.
May of 2007
Purdue Pharma executives plead guilty to charges that they mislead the
government about the risk of addiction to OxyContin®.
oxycodone was less addictive and less subject to abuse.
- president, lawyer, chief
medical officer - agree to pay $634.5 million in fines.
Pharma is taking advantage of patent law to keep OxyContin from
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to view the world to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based
on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex of America and is responsible for the
collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction
of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation.
Coöperation does not occur at the point of a gun.
mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the
corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests
in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by
pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population
through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been
the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do
not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world.
Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the
population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt
international elite that further consolidates their power and which further
All views and opinions presented on this web site are
the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their
writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful
and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web site is
believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in
print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts
truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our
efforts to advance understanding of criminal justice, human rights, political,
economic, democratic, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe
this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for
in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C.
Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those
who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for
research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved