These findings suggest that ELS results in an
uncoupling of glucocorticoid-endocannabinoid
signaling in the hippocampus, which, in turn, relates to alterations in
stress regulation of memory recall. These data provide
compelling evidence that
ELS-induced deficits in the glucocorticoid-endocannabinoid coupling following
stress could predispose susceptibility to stress-related psychopathology.
Exposure to stressful
situations is one of the risk
factors for the precipitation of several psychiatric disorders, including
Major Depressive Disorder,
Disorder and Schizophrenia.
data revised here indicate that the
hippocampal eCB signaling
contributes to emotional and behavioral flexibility during the exposure to
aversive stimuli, functioning as a regulatory buffer system for emotional
responses. eCBs are essential players in plastic events involved in the
flexibility of hippocampal functions in basal conditions and during stressful
Besides the hippocampus, other brain
regions such as the prefrontal cortex,
amygdala (Hill et al.,
2010), nucleus accumbens (Bosch-Bouju et al., 2016), the paraventricular
nucleus of the hypothalamus (Wamsteeker et al., 2010), lateral habenula (Park
et al., 2017) and the periaqueductal gray matter (Moreira et al., 2009), are
involved in stress-induced behavioral and neuroplastic consequences. These
regions are modulated by eCBs and, therefore, are also potential therapeutic
targets for cannabinoid drugs
Stress is a ubiquitous risk factor for the
exacerbation and development of affective disorders including major depression
and post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding the neurobiological
mechanisms conferring resilience to the adverse consequences of stress could
have broad implications for the treatment and prevention of mood and anxiety
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical component
of the reward circuitry, and dysfunction of the NAc may account for anhedonia
and other symptoms of depression.
We compared three types of eCB/CB1 receptor-mediated synaptic
plasticity in slices prepared from the NAc core of control and stress-exposed
mice: depolarization-induced suppression of excitation, long-term depression,
and the depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) induced
by group I metabotropic glutamate
receptor agonist DHPG. CUS (56-week exposure to stressors), but not
sub-CUS (1 week exposure to stressors), induces depression-like behaviors and
impairs these forms of eCB/CB1 receptor-mediated plasticity examined
in the NAc core. Neither sub-CUS nor CUS altered the tissue contents of the
eCBs, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. However, exposure
to CUS, but not to sub-CUS, attenuated the depression of
fEPSPs induced by the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55 212-2. CUS
exposure reduced the maximal effect without affecting the EC50 of
WIN 55 212-2 to induce fEPSP depression. Thus, impaired CB1 receptor
function could account for CUS-induced deficiency in eCB signaling in the NAc.
Both CUS-induced deficiency in eCB signaling and depression-like behaviors were
reversed by in vivo administration of antidepressant fluoxetine. These results
suggest that downregulation of eCB signaling in the NAc occurs after CUS and
contributes to the pathophysiology of depression.
is greatest, brains shift activity to increase processing of critical
information and ignore irrelevant visual content.
enforcement in Ancient China was carried out by "prefects".
Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police.
the Roman Empire, Legions, provided security.
Martin Anderson, 14, went
joyriding in his
In the spring of 2006 the state
of Florida sent Martin Anderson to "boot camp" were he suffocated at the hands
State mandated "behavioral modification"
caused the death of Martin Anderson, sentenced to death for joyriding in his
Chris Penley, 15 years old, held a pellet gun to his neck
Mike Weippert, a sheriff's deputy, obliged shooting
Chris Penley dead
Chadwick Shane Cochran, a mentally ill individual, is beaten to death when Los
Angeles County Deputies knowingly place him with Level 9 threats held on
charges of murder,
Chadwick Shane Cochran expected to be beat.
Cochran, his father and a Baptist minister, said his son Shane was unruly and
chaffed under his authority so he
punished him, "I paddled his butt, yes I did, and it was black and
"How many of enrapitured devotees of
James C. Dobson, founder of
Focus on the Family, realize
he was directly responsible
for inhumane beatings.
In his books, "Dare to Discipline"
and "The Strong-Willed Child,"
James C. Dobson argues it is
a biblical obligation to "break the
will" of children.
The mentally ill Chadwick Shane Cochran offended
two violent Latino gang members who promptly beat him to death.
the 'astonishment' of the deputies when they returned and found that Chadwick,
charged with unlawful possession of a firearm (a firearm that had been given to
him by his landlady), had been beaten to death!
We now see the results
of his "psychological" ministry: hoards of human sheep with broken
wills, unable to think, following leaders
the trauma to their own children and our nation.
Greven, "Spare the Child," or Justin A. Frank, "Bush on the
Couch" to see how the religious roots of physical
punishment, advocated by the likes of James C. Dobson shaped the leaders
that threaten to destroy our country." - Alitta Kullman
|Renita Lamkin, an African
church pastor, told The Huffington Post that she was "standing in the
middle of the street, with people behind me, and the police were in front of
me." Lamkin said she was attempting to mediate between police and protesters
the demonstration and told the police, "They're moving, they're leaving." "And
then there was a pop!" she said, as a rubber bullet struck her
"Police power is a genuine technique only
when it is supplemented by propaganda which plays a leading role in the
psychological environment necessary to the completeness of police power."
Jacques Ellul, Technological Society,
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to en❡a❡e Яeality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the faλsification of reaλity outside personal
experience has forged a populace unable to discern pr☠paganda from
reality and that this has been done purposefully by an internati☣nal
c☣rp☣rate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt
version of reaλity on the human race. Religi☯us int☯lerance
☯ccurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices,
religi☸us beliefs or persons due to their religi⚛us
ide⚛l⚛gy. This web site marks the founding of a system of
philºsºphy nªmed The Truth of the Way of the Lumière
Infinie - a ra☨ional gnos☨ic mys☨ery re☦igion based on
reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a pers∞nal relati∞n with the Æon
through the pursuit of the knowλedge of reaλity in the hope of curing
the spiritual c✡rrupti✡n that has enveloped the human spirit. The
tenets of The Mŷsterŷ of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out
in detail on this web site by the author. Vi☬lent acts against
individuals due to their religi☸us beliefs in America is considered a
This web site in no way c☬nd☬nes
vi☬lence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that
is already occurring due to the internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate
cartels desire to c✡ntr✡l the human race. The internati☣nal
c☣rp☣rate cartel already controls the w☸rld
ec☸n☸mic system, c☸rp☸rate media w☸rldwide, the
global indus✈rial mili✈ary en✈er✈ainmen✈ complex
and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the eg● w●rship and
the destruction of gl☭bal ec☭systems. Civilization is based on
coöperation. Coöperation with bi☣hazards of a
American social mores and values have declined precipitously over
the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more
power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the p☠pulace in general
through c✡rp✡rate media by pressing emotional buttons which have
been πreπrogrammed into the πoπulation through prior mass
media psych☣l☣gical ☣perati☣ns. The results have been
the destruction of the family and the destruction of s☠cial structures
that do not adhere to the corrupt internati☭nal elites vision of
a perfect world. Through
distra¢tion and ¢oer¢ion the dir⇼ction of th✡ught
of the bulk of the p☠pulati☠n has been direc⇶ed ⇶oward
s↺luti↻ns proposed by the corrupt internati☭nal elite that
further con$olidate$ their p☣wer and which further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and
opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed
the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
☨hough☨. All factual information presented on this web site is
believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in
print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts
truthfully. Øpinion and
☨hough☨s have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined,
added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and
☨hough☨ has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit
of the original writer with the intent of making his or her
☨hough☨s and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our
efforts to advance understanding of ¢riminal justi¢e, human
rightϩ, political, politi¢al, e¢onomi¢,
demo¢rati¢, s¢ientifi¢, and so¢ial justi¢e
iϩϩueϩ, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any
such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site
is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for rėsėarch and ėducational
purposės. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved