This is life eternal. This is all that
youth will give you. It is the season for wine,
department of economy, an act, a habit, an
institution, a law, gives birth
not only to an effect, but to a series of effects. Of these effects, only the
first is immediate; it manifests itself simultaneously with its cause; it is
seen. The others unfold in succession for they are not seen and it is well for
us if they are foreseen.
Be happy for this
moment. This moment is your life.
good economist and a bad
economist this constitutes the whole difference,
the one takes account of the
visible effect while the other takes
account both of the effects which are seen and also of those which it is
necessary to foresee. Now this difference is enormous, for it almost always
happens that when the immediate consequence is
favorable, the ultimate consequences are
fatal, and the converse.
Hence it follows that
the bad economist pursues a
small present good, which will be followed by a great evil to come, while
the true economist pursues a great good to come, at the risk of a small present
In fact, it is the same in
the science of health, arts, and in that of morals.
If often happens, that
the sweeter the first fruit
of a habit is, the more bitter are the consequences. Take, for example,
debauchery, idleness, prodigality.
When, therefore, a man,
absorbed in the effect which
is visible, has not yet learned to
discern those which are not visible, he gives way to fatal habits, not only
by inclination, but by calculation.
This explains the fatally grievous condition of
Ignorance surrounds men's
actions which are determined by their first consequences, the only ones which
men can see.
Experience teaches effectually,
Experience makes us acquainted
with all the effects of an action, by causing us to feel them;
cannot fail to finish by knowing that fire burns, if we have burned
For this rough teacher, I should
like, if possible, to substitute a more gentle one,
The pleasures of the senses too much indulged, or
too long persisted in, lay the foundation of diseases, which either cut life
prematurely, or make the evening of our days miserable.
There is in all of a strong
disposition to believe that anything lawful is also just. This belief is so
widespread that many individuals have erroneously held that things are 'just'
because the law makes them so or because authority claims it is so.
The law perverted ! The
police powers of the state perverted along with it !!
The law, not only
turned from its proper purpose, but made to follow an entirely contrary
purpose! Law - the weapon of every kind of greed !!!
checking crime law itself guilty of evils it is supposed to punish !!!!
Moral duty requires me to call the attention of my fellow citizens to
This gift of life is physical, intellectual, and moral.
cannot maintain itself alone.
The Creator of our Life has entrusted us
with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it.
order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of
Three gifts from God precede all human legislation
Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men
have made laws.
Men make laws to protect life, liberty, and
A Just and Enduring Government
Under a just administration, everyone would understand that he
possesses all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his
No one would have an argument provided his person is
respected, his labor is his choice, and
the fruits of his labor are
protected against all unjust attack.
In the non-intervention of the
state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop
themselves in a natural manner.
We would not see the great displacements
of capital, labor, and population caused by legislative
State-created displacements burden the government with
Complete Perversion of the Law
Law has been used to destroy its own objective:
It has been applied to
annihilating the justice that it was supposed to maintain; to limiting and
destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect.
The law has
placed the collective force at the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish,
without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of others.
It has converted plunder into a right, in order to protect plunder.
And it has converted lawful
defense into a crime, in order to punish lawful defense.
Tendency of Mankind
Self-preservation and self-development are common aspirations among
If everyone enjoyed the unrestricted use of his faculties and
the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be
ceaseless, uninterrupted, and unfailing.
But there is a tendency common
When they can,
they wish to live and prosper at the expense of others.
desire has its origin in the very nature of man in that primitive, universal,
and insuppressible instinct that impels him to satisfy his desires with the
least possible pain.
Man may live and satisfy his needs by ceaseless labor and application of his
faculties to natural resources.
This process is the origin of property.
It is also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by seizing
and consuming the products of the labor of others.
This process is the
origin of plunder.
As man is naturally inclined to avoid pain "and since
labor is pain in itself" it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever
plunder is easier than work.
Under these conditions, neither religion
nor morality can stop
Plunder stops only when it becomes more painful and more
dangerous than labor.
All law should protect property and punish
But, generally, the law is made by one man or one class of
As law cannot operate without the sanction and support of a
dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws.
The proper purpose of law is to use the power of collective force to
stop this fatal tendency to plunder.
The fatal tendency that exists in
the heart of man to satisfy his wants with the least possible effort, explains
the almost universal perversion of the law.
The Fate of Non-Conformists
you suggest a doubt as to the morality of these institutions, it
is boldly stated, "You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a
subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon which society rests."
If you lecture upon political science, there will be found official
organizations petitioning the government in this vein of thought:
"Science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of view of free
trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice)
Science is to be
especially taught from the viewpoint of the facts and laws that regulate French
industry (facts and laws which are contrary to liberty, to property, and to
Government-endowed teaching positions rigorously refrain from
endangering in the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in
laws carry the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a
If there exists a law which sanctions slavery or
or robbery, in any form
whatever, it must not even be
An effect of this tragic perversion of the law is that
it gives an exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to
politics in general.
The Fatal Idea of Legal Plunder
Under the pretense of organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement,
the law takes property from one person and gives it to another.
law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few every class will aspire to
grasp the law.
Excluded classes will furiously demand their rights in
Law Causes Conflict
long as it is admitted that the law may be diverted from its true purpose "
that it may violate property instead of protecting it " then everyone will want
to participate in making the law, either to protect himself against plunder or
to use it for plunder.
Political questions will always be prejudicial,
dominant, and all-absorbing.
It is hardly necessary to examine what
transpires in the French and English legislatures; merely to understand the
issue is to know the answer.
Identify Legal Plunder
the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the
citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime it is committimg plunder.
Try to change this law and the person who profits from this law will
complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights.
He will claim
that the state is obligated to protect and encourage his particular
Do not listen to the sophistry of vested
Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of
desiring to fight socialism by the use of brute force. He ought to be
exonerated from this accusation, for he has plainly said:
"The war that
we must fight against socialism must be in harmony with law, honor, and
But why does not Mr. de Montalembert see that he has placed
himself in a vicious circle? You would use the law to oppose socialism? But it
is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to practice
legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all
other monopolists, desire to make the law their own weapon. And when once the
law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism? For when
plunder is abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes,
and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for help.
this, you would exclude socialism from entering into the making of laws? You
would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace? You shall not
succeed, I predict, so
long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the legislature. It
is illogical "in fact, absurd" to assume otherwise.
Function of the Law
the law " which necessarily requires the use of force " rationally be used for
anything except protecting the rights of everyone?
I defy anyone to
extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it: Law is organized
Justice organized by law excludes the idea of using law (force) to
organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity,
agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion.
organizing by law of any one of these would inevitably destroy the essential
How can we imagine force being used against the liberty of
citizens without it also being used against justice?
Fraternity Destroys Liberty
Legal plunder has two roots: One of them, as I have said before, is in human
greed; the other is in false
It is impossible for me to separate the word
fraternity from the word voluntary.
I cannot possibly
understand how fraternity can be legally enforced without liberty
being legally destroyed, and thus justice being legally
this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by the word
When a portion of wealth is transferred from the person who owns it "
without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud
" to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an
act of plunder is committed.
This act is exactly what the law is
supposed to suppress, always and everywhere.
In this case of legal
plunder, however, the person who receives the benefits is not responsible for
the act of plundering.
responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and
Therein lies the political danger.
Systems of Plunder
The sincerity of those who advocate
communism is not here
Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a
spirit or a political fear.
communism are basically the same plant in
three different stages of its growth.
All that can be said is that
legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and
in protectionism because the plunder is limited to specific groups and
Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is
the vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the most sincere stage of
Since the law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the law should not also
organize labor, education, and religion.
Law cannot organize labor,
education, and religion without destroying justice.
As law is force the
proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions
When law and force keep a person within the bounds of justice,
they impose nothing but a mere negation.
They oblige him only to
abstain from harming others.
They violate neither his personality, his
liberty, nor his property.
They safeguard all of these.
are defensive; they defend equally the rights of all.
Injustice - Law as a Negative Concept
purpose of the law is to prevent injustice from
Injustice, instead of justice, has an existence of
Justice is achieved only when injustice is absent.
purpose of the law is to cause justice to reign.
The harmlessness of
the mission performed by law and lawful
defense is self-evident; the usefulness is obvious; and the legitimacy cannot
When the law, by means of its necessary agent, force,
imposes upon men a regulation of labor, a method or a subject of education, a
religious faith or creed " then the law is no longer negative; it acts
positively upon people.
It substitutes the will of the legislator for
the will of the people; the initiative of the legislator for the initiative of
becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to be men; they lose their
personality, their liberty, their property.
Try to imagine a regulation of
labor imposed by force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth
imposed by force that is not a violation of property.
If you cannot reconcile these
contradictions, then you must conclude that the law cannot organize labor and
industry without organizing injustice.
When a politician views society
from the seclusion of his office, he deplores the deprivations which are
the lot of so many of our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder
when contrasted with luxury and wealth.
The politician should ask
himself whether this state of affairs has not been caused by old conquests and
lootings, and by more recent legal plunder.
He attempts to remedy the
evil by increasing and perpetuating the very thing that caused the evil in the
first place: legal plunder.
With this in mind, examine the
profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education,
free credit, and public
You will find that they are always based on legal plunder,
can permit this transaction of teaching-and-learning to operate freely and
without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by taking
from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to
instruct others, without charge.
In this second case, the law commits
legal plunder by violating liberty and property.
Need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to use force in the
matters of morality and
Socialists cleverly disguise legal plunder from others and
even from themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity,
organization, and association.
As we ask only for justice socialists
thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association.
The socialists brand us with the name individualist.
We assure the socialists that we repudiate only forced
organization, not natural organization.
We repudiate the forms of
association that are forced upon us, not free association.
repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity.
the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of
We do not repudiate the natural unity of
mankind under Providence.
A Confusion of Terms
Socialism, like the ancient ideas from which it springs,
confuses the distinction
between government and society.
If we disapprove of state education the
socialists say that we are opposed to education.
If we object to a state
religion the socialists say that we want no religion at all.
object to a state-enforced equality they say that we are against
The Socialists Wish to Play God
Socialists look upon people as raw material to be formed into social
Socialists will demand that a small portion of mankind be
set aside to experiment upon.
these intellectuals and
writers, the relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the
same as the relationship between the clay and the potter.
have consented to recognize
a principle of action in
the heart of man and a principle of
discernment in man's
intellect they have considered these gifts fatal.
They assume that
if the legislators left persons free to follow their own inclinations, they
would arrive at atheism instead
ignorance instead of
knowledge, poverty instead of
production and exchange.
The Socialists Despise Mankind
While mankind tends toward evil, the legislators yearn for good;
while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators
while mankind is drawn toward vice, the legislators are
attracted toward virtue.
Open at random any book on philosophy,
politics, or history, and you will find this idea that mankind is merely inert
matter, receiving life, organization,
prosperity from the
power of the state.
Conventional classical thought everywhere says that
behind passive society there is a concealed power.
A Defense of Compulsory Labor
Let us first consider a quotation from Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in the
Court of Louis XIV] :
According to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from
all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the rulers.
All that the people have to do is to bow to leadership.
Bossuet carries this idea of the state as
the source of all progress even so far as to defend the Egyptians against the
charge that they rejected wrestling and music. He said:
"How is that
possible? These arts were invented by
again among the
Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above:
"One of the first
responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture.
people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal
According to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly
intelligent, had no sense of
responsibility; they themselves could not have invented the most simple
Greeks, naturally intelligent
and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and settlers
From these Egyptian rulers,
the Greek people had learned
sports, foot races, horse and chariot races.
important thing that the Egyptians taught the
Greeks was to become docile,
and to permit themselves to
be formed by the law for the public good."
of Passive Mankind
Classical theorists have held that everything came to the people from
a source outside themselves.
Fenelon - archbishop, author, and
instructor to the Duke of Burgundy - Utopia of Salentum suggests the
prince is depicted as the soul of this shapeless mass of people who
form the nation.
Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it
for themselves; the prince decides for them.
Fenelon ignores the authority of reason and facts when he
attributes the general happiness of the Egyptians, not to their own wisdom but
to the wisdom of their kings:
"We could not turn our eyes to either
shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located;
fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of
flocks; workers bending under the weight of the fruit which the earth lavished
upon its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes
from their pipes and flutes."
He admired the good police regulations in
the justice rendered in favor of the poor against the rich;
the sound education of the children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and
the love of the arts and letters;
the exactness with which all
religious ceremonies were performed;
the unselfishness, the high regard
for honor, the faithfulness to
men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children.
He never stopped admiring the
prosperity of the
"Happy," said he, "is the people ruled by a wise king in such
Socialists Want to
Regiment PeopleFenelon's idyl on Crete is even more
alluring. Mentor is made to say:
"All that you see in this wonderful
island results from the laws of Minos.
The education which he ordained
for the children makes their bodies strong and robust.
From the very
beginning, one accustoms the children to a life of frugality and labor, because
one assumes that all
pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind."
Thus does Mentor
prepare his student to mold and to manipulate doubtless with the best of
intentions the people of Ithaca.
Name and an evil Idea
Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject:
maintain the spirit of commerce, it is necessary that all the laws must favor
It is sufficient
that there be established a census to reduce or fix differences in wealth
within a certain limit.
After this is done, it remains for specific
laws to equalize inequality by imposing burdens upon the rich and granting
relief to the poor.
In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of
Natural affection found no outlet because a man was
neither son, husband, nor father.
Even chastity was no longer
Those who desire to
establish similar institutions must do as follows:
common ownership of property as in the republic of Plato;
revere the gods as Plato commanded;
prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to preserve
let the state, instead of the citizens, establish
The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they
should satisfy needs instead of desires.
The Leader of the Democrats
Rousseau has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely
accepted the theory of the total inertness of mankind in the presence of the
legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely
the workman who sets it in motion.
Use resources available in the best
Create equality through legisaltion.
of objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution.
In the attempt to create equality the state will be subjected to
ceaseless agitations until it is destroyed or changed, and
invincible nature regains her
Why does Rousseau not see that men, by obeying their own
instincts, would turn to farming on fertile soil, and to commerce on an
extensive and easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Rousseau
who might easily be
Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by the
especially in the distribution of property that the genius of the legislator
will be found.
As a general rule, when a new colony is established in
any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to support his
When you resettle a nation with a past into a new country,
the skill of the legislator rests in the policy of permitting the
people to retain no injurious opinions and customs.
If you desire
to prevent these opinions and customs from becoming permanent, you will secure
the second generation by a general system of public education for the children.
A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first
arranging to send wise men along to instruct the youth...
Here is Mably on this subject of the law and the legislator:
of punishing faults, and more of rewarding that which you need.
If the evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures
are unable to cure it, then resort to an extraordinary tribunal with
considerable powers for a short time.
The imagination of the citizens
needs to be struck a hard blow.
Under the influence of teaching like this " which stems from classical
education " there came a time when everyone wished to place himself above
mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in his own way.
of the Socialist Writers
Antiquity presents everywhere " in Egypt,
Rome " the spectacle of a few men
molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to the prestige of force and
This does not prove that this situation is desirable.
It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement,
it is naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and
superstition should be
greatest towards the origins of history.
Uncritical and childish
conformists, take for granted the grandeur,
morality, and happiness of
artificial societies of the past.
They did not understand that
knowledge appears and grows over time.
political struggle we witness is the instinctive struggle of all people toward
Is not liberty the freedom of every person to make full use of
his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons?
liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course,
Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to its rational
sphere of organizing the right of the individual to lawful self-defense; of
The tendency of the human race tp move toward
liberty is largely thwarted.
This is greatly due to a fatal desire
learned from the teachings of antiquity that our writers on public affairs have
They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to
arrange, organize, and regulate it according to their fancy.
reject all systems, and try liberty; for liberty is an acknowledgment of faith
in God and His works.
While society is struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves
at its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries. They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny
of their own social inventions. Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind
docilely to bear this yoke of the public welfare that they have dreamed up in
their own imaginations.
This was especially true in 1789. No sooner was the old regime destroyed than
society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting
from the same point: the omnipotence of the law.
Listen to the ideas of a few of the writers and politicians during that period:
SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the future. It is for him to will
the good of mankind. It is for him to make men what he wills them to
ROBESPIERRE: The function of government is to direct the physical
and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the
commonwealth has come
BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are
to be returned to liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and vigorous
action are necessary to destroy old prejudices, to change old customs, to correct
depraved affections, to restrict
superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices.... Citizens, the
inflexible austerity of Lycurgus forged the firm foundation of the Spartan
republic. The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into slavery.
This parallel embraces the whole science of government.
Considering the extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is
necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of
creating a new people.
Persons are nothing but raw material.
It is not for them to will their own improvement; they are
incapable of it.
According to Saint-Just, only the legislator is
capable of doing this.
Persons are merely to be what the legislator
wills them to be.
Once this is determined, the government has
only to direct the physical and moral forces of the nation toward that
The people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no
desires except those authorized by the legislator.
even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the
foundation of a republic.
doctrine has not been forgotten. Listen to
"The principle of the republican government is
means required to establish virtue is terror.
In our country we
desire to substitute morality
for selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for customs, duties for manners,
the empire of reason for the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for contempt
of poverty, pride for
insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of glory for compassion of money,
good people for good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for wit, truth for
glitter, the charm of
happiness for the boredom
of pleasure, the greatness of man for the littleness of the great, a
generous, strong, happy people for a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people.
In short, we desire to substitute all the virtues and miracles of a
republic for all the vices and absurdities of a
At what a
tremendous height above the rest of mankind does Robespierre place himself!
Note the arrogance with which
He is not content to pray for
a great reawakening of the
Nor does he expect such a
result from a well-ordered government.
he himself will remake mankind,
and by means of terror.
This mass of rotten and
contradictory statements is extracted from a discourse by Robespierre in
which he aims to explain the principles of morality which ought to
guide a revolutionary
Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made
merely for the purpose of repelling
a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing
Rather he wants
a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to force upon the country his
own principles of morality.
He desires nothing
short of using terror to extinguish from France selfishness, honor,
customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money,
good companionship, intrigue,
wit, sensuousness, and poverty.
Not until he,
Robespierre, shall have
accomplished these miracles, as he so rightly
calls them, will he permit the law to
Like an alchemist, Napoleon considered all Europe
to be material for his experiments.
But, in due course, this material
reacted against him.
Mr. Louis Blanc understands the matter forcibly imposed upon the people by the
power of the law:
plan, the state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which
industrial progress can and must proceed in complete liberty. The state merely
places society on an incline (that is all?). Then society will slide down this
incline by the mere force of things, and by the natural workings of the
But what is this incline that is indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc?
not lead to an abyss?
Vicious Circle of Socialism
shall never escape from this circle:
the idea of passive mankind, and
the power of the law being used by a great man to propel the people.
Once on this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? And what is
liberty, Mr. Louis Blanc?
is not only a mere granted right; it is also the power granted to a person to
use and to develop his faculties under a reign of justice and under the
protection of the law.
Once it is agreed that a person, to be truly
free, must have the power to use and develop his faculties, then it follows
that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit
him to develop himself.
It follows that every person has a claim on
society for tools of production, without which human activity cannot be fully
Now by what action can society give to every person the
necessary education and the necessary tools of
Socialist Concept of liberty
According to Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a
system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people.
Free people are ruined and exterminated in proportion to their degree
Mr. Louis Blanc also tells
us that competition leads to monopoly. And by the same reasoning, he
thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that
competition drives production to destructive activity; that
competition drains away the sources of purchasing power; that
competition forces an increase in production while, at the same time, it
forces a decrease in consumption.
the natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is not safe to permit
people to be free, how is it that the tendencies of these organizers are always
Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to
the human race?
Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a
finer clay than the rest of mankind?
Organizers maintain that society,
when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the
instincts of the people are so perverse.
Organizers have received from
Heaven an intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and above mankind; if
so, let them show their titles to
Reject Free Choice
do not dispute the right of social engineers to invent social combinations, to
advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon themselves, at their own
expense and risk.
I do dispute their right to impose these plans upon
us by law "by force" and to compel us to pay for them with our taxes.
do not insist that the supporters of these various social schools of thought
renounce their various ideas.
I insist only that they renounce this one
idea that they have in common:
They need only to give up the idea of
forcing us to acquiesce to their groups and series, their socialized
projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of morality, and
their commercial regulations.
The state considers that its
purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to enlarge, to strengthen, to
spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people.
In regulating industry, the
government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is absurd to deprive
industry of its liberty.
As long as this idea prevails, it is clear
that the responsibility of government is enormous.
In meddling with the balance of trade by playing
with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and if
this results in destruction instead of
prosperity, whose fault
Good fortune and bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality
and inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political
There is not a grievance in the nation for which the
government does not voluntarily make itself responsible.
surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of another revolution
science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be
Essentially, economics is the science of
determining whether the interests of human beings are harmonious or
This must be known before a science of politics can be
formulated to determine the proper functions of government.
all-important question must be answered:
What is law?
ought it to be?
What is its scope; its limits?
what point do the just powers of the legislator stop?
I do not hesitate
to answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an obstacle of
injustice. In short, law is justice.
existence of persons and property preceded the existence of the legislator, and
his function is only to guarantee their safety.
It is not true that the
function of law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our
education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our
function of law is to protect the free exercise of these rights, and to prevent
any person from interfering with the free exercise of these same rights by any
Since law necessarily requires the support of force, its
lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of force is necessary for
Every individual has the right to use force for lawful
Collective force may lawfully be used only for the same
purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose.
is solely the organization of the individual right of self-defense which
existed before law was formalized.
Law and Charity Are Not the Same
The mission of the law is to protect persons and property.
avoid having an effect upon persons and property; and if the law acts in any
manner except to protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty
of persons and their right to own property.
Justice must be measurable,
immutable, and unchangeable.
If you attempt to make the law
religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or
artistic "you will then be lost in an uncharted territory,
in vagueness and
uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of utopias,
each striving to seize the law and impose it upon you.
Justice is simple
and clear, precise and bounded.
justice, do not have precise limits.
Once started, where will you stop?
And where will the law stop itself?
for Stable Government
Law is justice.
In this proposition a simple and enduring government
can be conceived.
I defy anyone to say how even the thought of
revolution, of insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against a
government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing
Under such a regime, there would be the most
prosperity " and it
would be the most equally distributed.
As for the
sufferings that are
inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of accusing the
Proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the law; that
the law is responsible for all individual misfortunes and all social
inequalities then the door is open to an endless succession of complaints,
irritations, troubles, and revolutions.
If the force of government were
limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these
sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in the temperature.
Justice Means Equal Rights
Law is justice.
By what right does the law force me to conform to the
social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. de Melun, Mr. Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc?
If the law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force
these gentlemen to submit to my plans?
Is it logical to
suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream
up a utopia also?
Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put
the organized force of government at its service only?
The Path to Dignity and Progress
Law is justice.
It is only under just law that mankind will achieve
liberty, safety, stability, and responsibility so that every person may attain
his real worth and true dignity of
The solution to the problems of human relationships is to be
found in liberty.
happiest people are found in the countries where the law least interferes with
where government is least felt;
individual has the greatest scope, and free opinion the greatest influence;
where administrative powers are fewest and simplest;
taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and popular discontent the least
excited and the least justifiable;
where individuals and groups most
actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the morals of
admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving;
trade, assemblies, and associations are the least restricted;
labor, capital, and populations suffer the fewest forced displacements; where
mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations;
the inventions of men are
most nearly in harmony with the laws of
In short, the happiest, most moral, and most peaceful people
are those who most nearly follow this principle:
Although mankind is
not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of
persons within the limits of law or force is to be used for nothing except the
administration of universal justice.
There are too many "great" men in the world " legislators,
organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the people, fathers of nations, and so on,
and so on.
Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a
career of organizing it, patronizing it, and ruling it.
say: "You yourself are doing this very thing."
I have joined the ranks
of the reformers, solely for the purpose of persuading them to leave people
My attitude toward all other persons is well illustrated by this
story from a celebrated traveler:
He arrived one day in the midst of a
tribe of savages, where a child had just been born.
quacks "armed with rings, hooks,
and cords" surrounded it.
One said: "This child will never smell the
perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils."
"He will never be able to hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his
A third said: "He will never stand upright unless I bend
The last said: "He will never learn to think unless I flatten
"Stop," cried the traveler.
"What God does is well
done. Do not claim to know more than He. God has given organs to this frail
creature; let them develop and grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and
God has given to men all that
is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies.
He has provided a
social form as well as a human
Social organs of persons are so constituted that they will
develop harmoniously in the clean air of liberty.
Away, then, with
quacks and organizers!
Away with their rings, chains, hooks, and
Away with their artificial systems!
Away with the
whims of government administrators, socialization projects, centralization,
tariffs, government sponsered education, government sponsered religion, debt
slavery, banking monopolies, equalization by taxation, regulation and
restriction, and pious moralizations!
back to stacks
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based
on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of
a perfect world. Through
distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population
has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite
that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and
opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed
the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and
thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to,
re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been
throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with
the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to
the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
more information see: www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to
use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond
'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved