In God essence
and existence are inseperable from God and
are indeed identical with God.
It appears that God does not exist; because if one of two
infinite, the other would be
altogether destroyed. But the
word "God" means that God is
goodness. If, therefore, God
existed, there would be no
evil discoverable; but there is
evil in the world.
Therefore God does not exist.
Further, it is superfluous to suppose that what
can be accounted for by a few principles
has been produced by many. But it appears that every thing we see in the
world can be accounted for by other
principles, supposing God did not
natural things can be reduced to one
principle which is
nature; and all voluntary things can be
reduced to one principle which is human
reason, or will. Therefore there is no need
to suppose God's existence.
On the contrary, it
is said in the individual of
God: "I am who I am." (Exodus 3:14)
answer that, the
existence of God
can be proved in five ways.
The first and more
manifest way is the argument from motion.
It is certain, and
evident to our senses, that in the
world some things are in
motion. Now whatever is in
motion is put in
motion by another, for nothing
can put itself in motion. For
motion is nothing else than the
reduction of some thing from potentiality to actuality. But nothing can be
reduced from potentiality to actuality, except by some thing in a state of
Thus that which is actually hot, as fire, makes
wood, which is potentially
hot, to be actually
hot, and thereby moves and changes it. Now
it is not possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and
potentiality in the same regard, but only in different aspects.
what is actually hot cannot simultaneously
be potentially hot; but it is simultaneously
potentially cold. It is therefore impossible that in the same
regard and in the same way a thing should be both mover and moved. Therefore,
whatever is in motion must be put
in motion by another. If that by
which it is put in motion be
itself put in motion, then this
also must needs be put in motion
by another, and that by another again.
But this cannot go on to
infinity, because then there
would be no first motion, and,
consequently, no other motion;
seeing that subsequent motions
move only inasmuch as they are put in motion by the first
motion; as the staff moves only
because it is put in motion by
Therefore it is necessary to
arrive at a first motion,
in motion by no other;
this everyone understands to be God.
The second way is from the
nature of the efficient cause.
reality of sense we find there is an order of efficient
causes. There is no case known (neither is
it, indeed, possible) in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of
itself; for so it would be prior to itself, which is
efficient causes it is not possible to go on to
infinity, because in all
efficient causes following in order, the first is the cause of the intermediate
cause, and the intermediate is the cause of the ultimate cause, whether the
intermediate cause be several, or only one.
Now to take away the cause
is to take away the effect. Therefore, if there be no first cause among
efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, nor any intermediate cause. But if
in efficient causes it is possible to go on to
infinity, there will be no
first efficient cause, neither will there be an ultimate effect, nor any
intermediate efficient causes; all of which is plainly false.
Therefore it is necessary to admit a
first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the
name of God.
The third way is
taken from possibility and
necessity, and runs thus.
we find in nature things that are possible
to be and not to
be, since they are found to be generated, and to
corrupt, and consequently, they are possible
to be and not to
But it is impossible for these always to
exist, for that which is possible not
to be at some time is not.
Therefore, if every thing is
possible not to be, then at one
time there could have been nothing in
Now if this were
true, even now there would be nothing in
existence, because that which does not
exist only begins to
exist by some thing already
Therefore, if at one
time nothing was in
existence, it would have been
impossible for any thing to
have begun to exist; and thus even now
nothing would be in existence -- which is
Therefore, not all things are necessary, but there must
exist some thing the
existence of which is necessary as every
necessary thing either has its necessity caused by another, or not.
it is impossible to go on to
infinity in necessary things
which have their necessity caused by another, as has been already proved in
regard to efficient causes.
Therefore we cannot but postulate the
existence of some thing having of itself
its own necessity, and not receiving it from
another, but rather causing in
others their necessity.
This all men
speak of as God.
fourth way is taken from the gradation to be found in things.
beings there are some more and some less
noble and the like. But
"more" and "less" are predicated of different things, according as they
resemble in their different ways some thing which is the maximum, as a thing is
said to be hotter according as it more
nearly resembles that which is hottest; so
that there is some thing which is truest, some
thing best, some thing noblest and, consequently,
some thing which is uttermost being; for those
things that are greatest in truth are greatest
Now the maximum in any genus
is the cause of all in that genus; as fire, which is the maximum
heat, is the cause of all
Therefore there must
also be some things which is to all beings the
cause of their being,
goodness, and every other
perfection; and this we
speak of as God.
fifth way is taken from the governance of the
We see that things which lack
intelligence, such as
act for an end, and this is
evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way.
Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end.
whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an
end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with
knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is shot to its mark by the
Therefore some intelligent
being exists by whom all
natural things are directed to their
end; and this being we
speak of as God.
Reply to Objection 1.
Augustine says (Enchiridion xi):
"Since God is the highest good, God would not
allow any evil to
exist in His works, unless His omnipotence and goodness were such as to bring
good even out of evil."
This is part of the
goodness of God, that
He should allow evil to exist, and out of it produce
Reply to Objection 2.
Since nature works for a determinate
end under the direction of a higher agent, whatever is done by
nature must needs be traced back to God, as
to its first cause.
So also whatever is done voluntarily must also be
traced back to some higher cause other than human reason
or will, since these can change or fail; for
all things that are changeable and
capable of defect must be traced back
to an immovable and self-necessary first principle.
Whether all things are life in God?
It appears that not all things are life
in God. For it is said (Acts 17:28), "In God we live, and move, and be."
But not all things in God are in
motion. Therefore not all things
are life in God.
Further, all things are in God as their first model. But things
modelled ought to conform to the model.
Since, then, not all things have life
in themselves, it appears that not all things are life in God.
Further, as Augustine
says (De Vera Relig. 29), a living
substance is better than a
substance that does not
If, therefore, things which in
themselves have not life, are
life in God, it appears that things
exist more truly in God than themselves.
appears to be false; since in
exist actually, but in God potentially.
Further, just as good things and things
made in time
are known by God, so are bad
things, and things that God can make, but never will be
If, therefore, all things are
life in God, inasmuch as
known by God, it appears that even
bad things and things that will never be
made are life in God, as
known by God, and this appears inadmissible.
On the contrary,
(Jn. 1:3,4), it is said, "What was made in
God was life."
But all things were
made, except God.
Therefore all things are life in God.
live in God is to
intellect, the thing
understood, and the
understanding, are one and the same.
Hence whatever is in God as understood is the very
life of God.
Since all things that have
been made by God are in God as things
it follows that all
things in God are the divine
Reply to Objection
Creatures are said to be in God in a
In one way, they are
held together and preserved by the divine
power. And creatures are thus said to be in God, even as they
exist in their own
sense we must
words of the Apostle when he says, "In God we
live, move, and be"; since our being, living, and moving are themselves
caused by God.
In another sense
things are said to be in God, as in
God who knows them, in which
sense they are in God through their proper
ideas, which in God are not distinct from the
Hence things as they are in
God are the divine
essence. And since the
essence is life and not
motion, it follows that things
existing in God in this manner are not
Reply to Objection 2.
The thing modelled must be like the
model according to the
form, not the mode of
For sometimes the
being of another
category in the
model from that which it has in the thing
form of a house has in the mind
of the architect immaterial and intelligible being; but in the house that
exists outside his mind,
material and sensible
ideas of things, though not
existing in themselves, are
life in the
divine mind, as having a
existence in that mind.
to Objection 3.
only, and not matter, belonged to
natural things, then in all regards
natural things would
exist more truly in the
divine mind, by the ideas of them, than in themselves.
For which reason, in
Plato held that the "separate" man was the true man; and that man as he
exists in matter, is man only by participation.
But since matter enters into the
being of natural things a
natural thing has
being more truly in its own nature than in the
divine mind, because it
belongs to human nature to be
material, which, as
existing in the
divine mind, it is not.
So a house has nobler
being in the architect's mind than in
matter; yet a
material house is a house more
truly than the one which
exists in the
mind; since the former is actual,
the latter only potential.
Reply to Objection 4.
bad things are in God's knowledge, as
being comprised under that
knowledge, yet they are not in God as
created by God, or preserved by God, or as
having their type in God.
They are known by God through the types of
Hence it cannot be said
that bad things are life in God.
Those things that are not in
time may be
spoken of as of as
life in God in so far as
life means understanding only,
and inasmuch as
they are understood by God; but not in
so far as life implies a
the Prima Secundae of the Summa Theologiae
Thomas Aquinas seven conditions that must coincide
to make a war just became the traditional doctrine of the Catholic
Church:victory must be assured;
fought for must itself be just;
the purpose of the warring power must
remain just while hostilities go on;
war must be truly the last resort,
all peaceful means having been exhausted;
the methods employed during
the war to vanquish the foe
must themselves be just;
the peace concluded at the end of the war must
be just and of such nature as to prevent a new war;
the benefits the war
can reasonably be expected to bring for humanity must be greater than the evils
created by the war.
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