since Plato first perceived that the
the nature of the good life
of the individual was necessarily associated with a converging (and not
parallel) inquiry into the
nature of the good community, a close and continuing association has
persisted between political
philosophy and philosophy in
Not only have most of
philosophers contributed generously to
the main stock of our political
ideas, but they have given the
political theorist many of his methods of analysis and
criteria of judgment.
Historically, the main difference between philosophy and
philosophy has been a
matter of specialization rather than
one of method or temper.
By virtue of this alliance, political theorists accepted as needed
the basic quest of the philosopher
for systematic knowledge." - Sheldon S. Wolin, Politics and
The Cave you Fear to enter
contains your Soul.
Introduce your consciousness stream to your Soul.
The Soul of Man is defined as:
The heart of one's essence.
An individual's emotional or moral nature.
The disembodied spirit
of a dead human.
The central or integral part; the vital core.
A spark of God's soul embedded in human flesh.
The essence of
an individual that holds conscience.
The seat of real life or vitality;
source of action; animating essential part.
A personification as the
perfect embodiment of an intangible quality.
Noble manifestation of the
heart or moral nature; inherent power or goodness.
The spiritual nature
of humans, sometimes regarded as immortal, separable from the body at death;
susceptible to happiness or misery in a future state.
The animating and
vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and
emotion and often conceptualized as an immaterial entity.
rational, and immortal part in man which enables him to think.
some disagreement as to what
exactly the Soul may be.
BC Landed aristocracy rules Athens.
The economy depended on
surrounding farms, especially the large estates owned by rich noble families,
Nearly all government decisions and operations are in
the hands of a half-dozen leaders called archons and lesser officials called
Indebtedness magnified the hatred of the commoners towards
A poor farmer had to borrow seed from a rich landowner
to plant his crops.
share cropping the farmer pay his debt
with a share of the harvest.
land had to work as tenants by renting
Draco carves his laws on an oak
According to Aristotle, one of the few ancient sources we have
for Draconian Law, these magik runes are stained with human blood, not
severely punished lawbreakers.
BC Seeing disaster looming, both the aristocracy and common people of
Athens support the election of Solon as primary
Athenians grant Solon, age 35, nearly unlimited powers to write
The Athenians chose Solon to
mediate their crisis for several
The aristocrats approve that he is of noble birth.
commoners truste him as a merchant
who trades for a living.
Solon suggested that all the citizens of
Athens were responsible for the common good - not just the ruling archons and
Solon attempted to make the court system fair to the lower
"To the people I have given such honor as is sufficient,
neither taking away nor granting them more.
For those who had power and
were great in riches, I greatly cared that they should suffer nothing wrong.
Thus I stood, holding my strong shield over both, and I did not allow
either side to prevail against justice." - Solon
He made it possible for
any citizen to step forward and seek justice.
Before only the actual
victim of wrongdoing could make a complaint.
The powerful could easily
threaten victims to discourage complaints.
Solon's law code is based on
two fundamental principles.
The first is laws are fixed and not easily
The second is laws must apply equally to everyone, aristocrats
and commoners alike.
Solon's code of law covered virtually every aspect
of lifetheft, treason, taxation, vagrancy, adoption, boundaries, loans,
and religion, among many others.
Solon rejected all but one Draconian
law the homicide law.
Solon's laws differed greatly from Draco's
He made it a crime to publicly speak evil of either the living or
Solon allowed a husband to kill an adulterer caught in the
A theft committed at night
or in a public place carried a weighter penalty.
Solon's laws focused
on compensating victims and preventing future conflicts.
404 BC Spartan imposes an oligarchy that
rules Athens after the Peloponnesian War.
Thirty commissioners are
appointed to the oligarchy led by Critias.
The oppressive regime
fosters a bloody purge, in which perhaps 1,500 residents are killed.
Moderates flee the city; gather a force, they returned to defeat the
tyrants' forces in a battle at Piraeus in 403.
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leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
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industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
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American social mores and values
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buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
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of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
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