Rachel Carson

 Chinese charater for the respect of nature

"The history of life on Earth has been a history of interaction between living things and their surroundings.

To a large extent, the physical form and the habits of the Earth's vegetation and it's animals life have been molded by the environment.

Considering the whole span of earthly time, the opposite effect, in which life actually modifies it's surroundings, has been relatively slight.

Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - mankind - acquired significant power to alter nature on the Earth.

It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the Earth - eons of time in which that developing and evolving and diversifying life reached a state of adjustment and balance with its surroundings.

The most alarming of all man's assaults upon the environment is the contamination of the air, earth and water with dangerous and lethally toxic materials.

Given time - time not in years but in millennia - life adjusts and a balance has been reached.

For time is the essential ingredient, but on this modern Earth there is no time." - Rachel Carson

Chinese charater for nature lover

Ecological Toxicity Information

Swimming In A Sea Of Neurotoxins

Toxins that Causes Neuropathy - Causes of Nerve Damage

convict lake

"There is an unbreakable link between human well-being and the health of the Earth"- Walter Reid

"Quite simply, our planet is hospitable to us because, like every other denizen of this planet, we evolved here and have thus become adapted by Natural Selection to Earth's conditions. Humans are extremely versatile, and although we seem to think that we can exist outside the laws of nature, we cannot." - Eric R. Pianka

Poison Spring - The Secret History of the EPA

an ancient survival program









bisphenol A

polychlorinated biphenyls


polybrominated diphenyl ethers




methyl tert-butyl ether


endocrine disruptors


crony industrial capitalism

OSHA seeks to reduce exposure to beryllium

EPA Toxics Nominee Provided Koch-Funded
Study in Chicago Petcoke Battle

"In the ideal market economy the price of a product as reflected by the demands of buyers and sellers in a free market would represent the best possible allocation of resources.

In reality, many economic exchanges create "spillover effects" or "externalities" which impose costs on people who are not parties to the transaction.

The number and seriousness of these "externalities" rose remarkably in the second part of the 20th century.

Localized externalities - toxic substances from industrial manufacturing that leech into public water supplies - also pervasive externalities such as acid rain, ozone depletion, dead zones, desertification, CO2 buildup and nuclear waste." - Don Mayer

"European countries have taken a proactive stance in an attempt to cleanse their societies of the toxicological deluge of the last 50 years.

The US, unfortunately, has chosen to do the opposite by protecting chemical companies rather than humans from the thousands of untested compounds we encounter on a daily basis.

The average American (fetus, child and adult) has over 87 known man-made toxins in his or her tissues, interacting in unknown ways in a myriad of combinations.

Despite this fact, the US government rejects the precautionary stance as expensive and unnecessary 'myth'.

Like the other examples of federal government assault on sound science over the last six years, this risk based assessment is pure bunk." - Arthur Strauss MD"

2005 Cord blood provided by the American Red Cross of ten random newborns is tested.

It is discovered the fetuses have been exposed to hundreds of toxic industrial oils in utero.

Blood samples from the cords contained at least 287 industrial oils.

Each sample contained between 159 and 243 industrial oils including 180 that can cause cancer in humans and animals, 217 that are known to damage the nervous system and brain, and 208 that can cause birth defects in animals.

The industrial oils found in the chord blood included mercury compounds, brominated flame retardants, pesticides and perfluoronated oils used in products such as Scotchguard and Teflon.

The study was peer reviewed by eight physicians and a toxicologist.

Industrial Oils

modern "food" products

What's on my food?

"When DuPont tells you that they bring "Better Living through Chemistry," they don't tell you that it's only for 100 years, then the entire planet dies for their profit."- Jack Herer

endocrine disruptor

endocrine disruptors

What Are Endocrine Disruptors ?

"Businesses that are required to adjust standards to sell abroad are finding it difficult to make two different products - one for the American market, which permits the poisoning of citizens, and one for the rest of the Earth, where citizens are protected by governments that are mindful of their safety." - Joan Morrison

breakfast of champions

Are Toxic Chemicals Turning Boys Into Girls?

The Disappearing Male

Toxic Breast Milk?

Effects on Humans

Early Puberty in Girls Is Becoming Epidemic

Feminization of Male Species from Recycled Water

‘Quats’ in your bathroom cleaners may harm fertility

"We contaminated the environment sufficiently that there are measureable amounts of potentially toxic substances in humans - both children and adults. We have fouled our own nest."- Dr. Jerome A. Paulson, Pediatrics George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences

Sperm counts of males in countries that have engaged in the extensive use of hormone disrupting chemicals has dropped drastically in the last few years.

A dramatic increase in hermaphrodites, increasing exponentially when DDT and other chlorinated compounds went into widespread use, has occured within the last 150 years.

Frogs with both male and female reproductive organs were rare in the 19th and early 20th centuries but became common during the 1950s, when the largest volumes of the chlorinated compound oils were used.

Pesticides and industrial oils can alter the sex hormones of mammals, fish and amphibians . The ability of certain oils, endocrine disruptors, to mimic or block estrogen and testosterone, which are key in sexual organ development and reproduction, is considered one of the most disturbing descoveries of environmental science. This is the reason that George Walker Bush shuttered the EPA libraries.

"I found it alarming to read a story premised on the idea that cultural shifts were the only cause of population change. Since 1960, we have introduced thousands of new oil into our environment and done many other things that are inimical to life and reproduction. It is disingenuous to look at just a few sociological causes and to ignore what we have done to the Earth." - Joe Shea, commented on the sperm count reduction of men in developed countries.


Polytetrafluoroethylene – PTFE

DuPont Found Liable for Cancer from Teflon Chemical

New Teflon Toxin Found in North Carolina Drinking Water

How DuPont Concealed the Dangers of the New Teflon Toxin

Six Million Americans Are Drinking Toxic 'Teflon Chemicals'

Chemical Used in Non-Stick Pans Unsafe at Any Level

Teflon (PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene) CAS No. 9002-84-0

3M Knew About the Dangers of PFOA and PFOS Decades Ago

1938 PTFE is discovered serendipitously by DuPont chemist, Roy Plunkett, who finds that a tank of gaseous tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4) had polymerized to a white powder.

PFOA is an essential ingredient in the making of stick-resistant Teflon, which is used in cook-ware, clothing, bedding and an array of other household products.

PFOA was present in the blood of nearly all the 1,500 people tested in the US, including young children. Perfluorooctanoic acid is transferred to fetuses in the womb. Animal tests have shown that high doses of the PFOA causes liver cancer, immune suppression and developmental disorders. PFOA exposure may increase cholesterol and triglyceride levels in people.

Toxicologists have reported that levels found in some children are as high as those found in chemical plant workers and approach those that caused developmental problems in rats.

PFOA persists in the environment indefinitly and has been found in the blood of polar bears.

1951 DuPont has developed applications for Teflon in commercial bread and cookie-making; however the incorporation avoides the market for consumer cookware due to potential problems associated with release of toxic gases if stove-top pans are overheated in inadequately ventilated spaces. The pyrolysis of PTFE, detectable at 200 °C (392 °F), evolves several fluorocarbon gases and a sublimate. A study documented birds having been killed by these decomposition products at 202 °C (396 °F), with unconfirmed reports of bird deaths as a result of non-stick cookware heated to as little as 163 °C (325 °F). Meat is usually fried between 204 and 232 °C (399 and 450 °F).

When pans are overheated beyond approximately 350 °C (660 °F) the PTFE coating begins to dissociate, releasing byproducts (PFOA) which can cause polymer fume fever in humans and can be lethal to birds.

1981 DuPont internal memos indicated that DuPont is aware of a study conducted by 3M that showed PFOA was harmful to newborn rats, killing some and causing some to be born with eye and face defects.

DuPont moves female employees out of PFOA areas at the plant and tells them to consult doctors before getting pregnant but does not sound an alarm.

2002 Pertluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA, poses a "substantial risk of injury to human health or the environment," including a risk of birth defects. Most of the research is conducted by scientists for 3M incorporation, which was the main manufacturer of PFOA until , when it voluntarily stopped making it. 3M incorporation also removes its Scotchgard products from the market because they contained a related chemical.

DuPont is the only US manufacturer of perfluorooctanoic acid. Seven other companies, 3M/Dynean, a unit of 3M, French incorporation Arkema, Japan's AGC Chemical/Asahi Glass, Switzerland's Ciba Specialty Chemicals Holding & Clariant, Japan's Daikin Industries and Italy's Solvay Solexis use PFOA in other products such as textiles, automobile fuel systems, computer chips, telecommunications equipment, electronic wiring, fire fighting foams and certain paper. These 8 companies use 75% of the PFOA - China uses 25%.

2004 DuPont proposes a settlement with as many as 60,000 residents of Ohio and West Virginia of six area water districts with ground water contamination with PFOA which the incorporation has used to manufacture Teflon and other products since 1951.

2005 Minnesota residents claimed 3M discharged PFOA and PFOS, perfluorooctanoic sulfonate, in Washington County contaminating ground and well water.

DuPont's former medical director reveales that more than 20 years ago the incorporation became aware of birth defects in 2 of 8 children born to women who worked at one of their facilities manufacturing Teflon. Similar birth defects occur in the general public at a rate of 2 in every 1,000 births.

Perfluorooctanoic acid can leach into food from packaging. PFOA is still used to coat food packaging to keep oils from bleeding into the packaging. Some researchers contend that the chemical can leach into french fries from the small bags used typically by fast food chains. Perfluorooctanoic acid can also leach onto popcorn as the microwavable packaging is coated with a teflon-like material. Perfluorooctanoic acid is also used to coat pizza delivery boxes. When heated perfluorooctanoic acid can be released from the packaging.

DuPont, which continues to manufacture polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin or Teflon, reached a $16.5 million settlement with the EPA to settle allegations the incorporation hid information about the dangers of a toxic chemical known as PFOA used in the manufacture of Teflon. DuPont covered up important information about PFOA's health effects and about the pollution of water supplies near the incorporation's Washington Works plant for 20 years.

Teflon is used as an inert in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest.

People with the higher PFOA levels were more than twice as likely to have thyroid diseases.

Teflon Patents

Roy J. PLUNKETT, Wilmington, Del., assignor to Kinetic Chemicals Inc.: "Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers"; US Patent 2,230,654; filed July 1, 1939; granted Feb. 4, 1941; French Patent (FR) 917,431; filed Nov. 14, 1945; granted Jan. 7, 1947 (Kinetic Chemicals Inc. is a subsidiary of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & incorporation, Wilmington, Delaware)

1995 Michael J. McCREERY, Xenia, Ohio, assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army: "Topical skin protectants", US Patent 5,607,979; filed May 30, 1995; granted March 4, 1997


methyl tert-butyl ether or MTBE

MTBE in Drinking Water

1979 Methyl tert-butyl ether replaces tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline.

Methyl tert-butyl ether, also known as methyl tertiary butyl ether and MTBE, is an organic compound with molecular formula (CH3)3COCH3. MTBE is a volatile, flammable, and colorless liquid that is sparingly soluble in water. It has a minty odor vaguely reminiscent of diethyl ether, leading to unpleasant taste and odor in water. MTBE is a gasoline additive, used as an oxygenate to raise the octane number. Its use became controversial after finding its occurrence in ground water. After that federal and state legislation favored ethanol. Worldwide production of MTBE has been constant at about 18 million tons/y (2005) owing to growth in Asian markets which are less subject to ethanol subsidies.

1992 MTBE is being used at higher concentrations in some gasoline to fulfill the oxygenate requirements set by Congress in Clean Air Act amendments.

1996 Santa Monica closes 7 of 11 drinking water wells in its Charnock well field after discovering MTBE contamination.

1999 MTBE, manufactured by the chemical reaction of methanol and isobutylene, is being produced in very large quantities of more than 200,000 barrels per day in the US.

2001 An associate professor of chemistry at Purdue University finds MTBE in gasoline supplies in systems where the fuel additive is not required. The study examines 200 samples of gas taken from stations in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan and finds that over 70% of the samples contained MTBE and 25% of the samples contained "significant amounts of MTBE. One ounce of MTBE can contaminate 1,000 tons of water.

California's Water Resources Control Board reports 48 public water drinking systems serving hundreds of thousands of residents have been contaminated with MTBE. This is in addition to tens of thousands of private wells throughout California and hundreds of thousands of private wells nationwide.

Shell, Chevron, Texaco, Equilon Enterprises and Unocal settle a lawsuit filed by an environmental group which requires the oil companies to remediate MTBE ground water contamination at a minimum of 700 sites in California.

Exxon agrees to pay $12 million in partial reimbursement of what South Lake Tahoe Public Utility to remediate MTBE from ground water which had to close 12 of its 34 drinking water wells.

2003 ChevronTexaco agrees to pay $9.1 million to settle a lawsuit arising from MTBE ground water contamination in Cambria, California.

2004 California Superior Court judge approved a settlement agreement between a dozen firms and the City of Santa Monica, California over ground water contamination MTBE. The settlement, which is valued at $312 million, includes $100 million in cash payments plus "a potentially unlimited obligation to cleanup up the wells." Defendants included in this settlement are: ChevronTexaco, Chevron USA Inc., Chevron Products Co., ExxonMobil, Shell Oil, Shell Oil Products, Shell Pipeline, Equilon Enterprises, Equilon Pipeline, Texaco Refining, Thrifty Oil, and Best California Gas. This is believed to be the largest settlement to date for MTBE contamination.

New York State had identified over 13,000 sites with ground water contamination by MTBE. New York had allowed gasoline sold in the state to include 12 to 15% MTBE, some of the highest mixtures in the nation.

MTBE contamination has been discovered in ground water in 28 states and estimates of the costs to cleanup the contamination range from $30 billion to $100 billion. The estimated costs to filter some 130 municipal drinking water wells in Plainview Long Island (New York) ranges from $390 million to $1 billion.

New York has removes some 6,000 leaking underground storage tanks.

By January, 2005 oil companies agreed to pay nearly a half billion dollars to settle lawsuits filed on behalf of municipalities over MTBE contaminated ground water .

2005 ChevronTexaco agrees to settle a lawsuit by paying $850,000 for ground water contamination with MTBE. The suit is filed by the Los Osos Community Services District after MTBE from a former gas station contaminated ground water and at least one drinking water well.

EPA announced another settlement with a dozen oil companies over MTBE contaminated ground water beneath Santa Monica, California. The settling companies, which will pay $1.5 million to end the suit, include Shell Oil; Shell Oil Products; Equilon Enterprises; Shell Pipeline; TRM; ChevronTexaco; Chevron USA; ExxonMobil; Mobil Oil; Thrifty Oil; and Best California Gas. The companies have already extracted nearly 350 million gallons of contaminated ground water .

Estimates of cleanup costs necessary to remediate MTBE contaminated ground water nationwide run between $29 billion and $92 billion. Some 140 municipalities and water companies have filed lawsuits against petroleum industry defendants over ground water contamination with the fuel additive MTBE.

Twelve oil companies, Premcor Refining, Conoco, Tosco, Shell Oil, Shell Oil Products, Phillips Petroleum, BP Products North America, BP Amoco, Union Oil, UNO-VEN, Citgo Petroleum, and PDV Midwest Refining LLC, have agreed to pay $8 million to the village of East Alton, Illinois to settle their liability for drinking water wells contaminated with MTBE. Two gas stations are believed to be the source of the contamination.

Twenty-one US Senators asked the EPA to provide them with information contained in a draft report currently being reviewed by the agency that concludes that the gasoline additive MTBE should be labeled a likely human carcinogen. A provision which would have granted MTBE makers immunity from liability for cleanup costs related to ground water contaminated by MTBE was been stripped from the Energy bill. Tens of thousands of sites in America have been identified with ground water contaminated with MTBE, including ground water that serves as drinking water for tens of millions of Americans.

avoid bisphenol A or BPA

Bisphenol A

bisphenol A

BPA in Canned Food

These canned foods are the worst for BPA

Are school lunches packed with BPA?

BPA found beached and at sea

BPA trumps temperature to decide turtle sex

The Scary New Evidence on BPA-Free Plastics

BPA alternative disrupts normal brain-cell growth, is tied to hyperactivity

Relationship between urinary bisphenol A levels and prediabetes

Bisphenol A (BPA) Causes 100x More Harm Than Previously Imagined

Gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation

Bisphenol A Exposure May Induce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation via Reprogramming
the DNA Methylation Patterns of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

Cadmium Exposure Enhances Bisphenol A-Induced Genotoxicity through
8-Oxoguanine-DNA Glycosylase-1 OGG1 Inhibition in NIH3T3 Fibroblast Cells

1930s Bisphenol A is first investigated in the search for synthetic estrogens. Diethylstilbestrol, is determined to be more powerful than estrogen itself, so bisphenol A is not used as a synthetic estrogen.

Bisphenol A current uses are as a primary monomer in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.

Bisphenol A is also used as an antioxidant in plasticizers and as a polymerization inhibitor in PVC.

1998 Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction is established within the National Institutes of Health to assess the dangers of chemicals to human reproductive health. As with most government programs to study the effects of industry on humans the bulk of the work is outsourced to industry sponsored "think tanks".

2007 More than 100 government studies confirmed the ability of bisphenol A to mimic estrogen, cause genetic changes that lead to prostate cancer, decreased testosterone, low sperm counts and early female fertility.

A study of bisphenol A is done by Sciences International funded by BASF, Dow Chemical, DuPont, Chevron, ExxonMobil, 3-M, Union Carbide, the National Association of Manufactures as well as numerous other manufactures and industry groups. Sciences International reviews the scientific literature, writes the basic report, "suggests" who should be a member of the scientific review panel, sets the parameters and the agenda under which the panel operates. Bisphenol A has not been conclusively proven to have any detrimental effects on humans. A dozen industry studies confirm.

Some polymers manufactured with bisphenol A are FDA-approved for use as food additives.

2008 FDA BPA draft assessment of claims bisphenol A is safe, ignoring numerous independent and government-funded studies which show risk of harm including brain and prostate damage to developing infants, fetuses, and children, as well as increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. FDA relies on two studies funded by an arm of the American Chemistry Council, a trade organization representing chemical manufacturers.

In test animals bisphenol A in concentrations lower than those set by the EPA have caused permanent changes to the genital tract, changes in breast tissue that predispose cells to hormones and carcinogens, 30% increase in prostate weight, signs of early puberty, decline in testicular testosterone, breast cells predisposed to cancer, prostate cells more sensitive to hormones and cancer, insulin resistance, decreased maternal behavior, damage to eggs and chromosomes, hyperactivity and reversal of normal sex difference in brain structure.

"Small amounts of estrogenic oil, bisphenol A for example, can permanently disrupt cellular control systems and predispose the prostate to disease in adulthood," said Barry G. Timms, a professor of biomedical sciences at the University of South Dakota who specializes in prostate biology.

"Exposure before birth to bisphenol A and other estrogen mimics at low doses explains why we have this increase in incidences of both breast and prostate cancers," said Patricia Hunt, professor School of Molecular Biosciences at Washington State University.

"The failure to report the toxic effects of bisphenol A in plastics follows a familiar pattern in which the industry involved adamantly denies any harm despite overwhelming animal studies to the contrary. Many neurodegenerative diseases, from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder to brain tumors, are dramatically rising in the Western culture, especially in children. Many toxic substances are present in common foods, cleaners, clothes, personal items and other household products, consumers and especially parents would be well advised to become aware and avoid exposure." - Dennis Schumacher MD

"Reading the comments of Steve Hentges of the American Chemistry Council's polycarbonate/BPA group gave me a profound feeling of déjà vu. Steve Hentges' denigration of scientific evidence of the probable health dangers ºof bisphenol A (BPA) echoed the comments, over years, of "scientists" from the tobacco industry denigrating scientific findings of tobacco's health risks. One suspects that all the evidence that is needed to prove the danger of BPA is in locked flies of the plastics industry." - Norman Decker MD

2009"Researchers focused on 634 male workers at four factories in China who were exposed to elevated levels of BPA. They followed the men over five years and compared their sexual health with that of male workers in other Chinese factories where BPA was not present. The men handling BPA were four times as likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction and seven times as likely to have difficulty with ejaculation, said De-Kun Li, a scientist at the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, which conducted the study with funds from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health." - Lyndsey Layton, November 11, 2009

phthalates degradation


1990s Toxicologists recognize pesticides and many industrial compounds, including phthalates, can mimic estrogen or block testosterone, the female and male sex hormones that control reproductive development. Review of sperm counts in developed nations showed a substantial decline since World War II, when many synthetic pesticides and industrial compounds were introduced into the environment. Previous studies of men have linked phthalates to low sperm quality. Nearly everyone in a 1999-2000 survey of 2,500 people throughout America had phthalates in their urine.

2005 It is discovered that phthalates, used in plastics and beauty products have widely contaminated humans altering the reproductive organs of baby boys. Researchers find a strong correlation between phthalate contamination and changes in the size and anatomy of the children's genitals.

Mothers with the highest levels of chemical in their urine late in their pregnancies had babies with a cluster of effects. The span between anus and penis, called anogenital distance, is comparatively short, and the infants had smaller penises and scrotums and more instances of incomplete descent of testicles. Phthalate levels associated with the genital changes were not unusually high for the general population.

Reproductive biologists say that a shorter anogenital distance is a female like effect in animals, a telltale sign of decreased male hormones, and that it is likely that the human effects are similar, because hormones function the same in animals and humans.

Toys, baby bottle nipples, pacifiers, teething rings, vinyl bath toys, medical equipment, hairspray, deodorants, perfumes, vinyl products including upholstery, packaging, wall and floor covering, nail polishes and other beauty products sold in America contain phthalates which has been banned in the Europe and Japan.

"America has become a dumping ground for chemical filled toys that are banned in much ofthe global industrialized world." - Fiona Ma

Europe has banned 2 phthalates found in cosmetics and 6 phthalates found in toys. Japan, Mexico and Canada has also banned phthalates. America is one of a few industrialized countries in which phthalates are still used.


trichloroethylene, or TCE

"The evidence on trichloroethylene is overwhelming. We have 80 epidemiological studies and hundreds of toxicology studies. They are fairly consistent in finding cancer risks that cover a range of tumors." - Dr. Gina Solomon, an environmental medicine expert at UC San Francisco

2001 Trichloroethylene, or TCE, is as much as 40 times more likely to cause cancer than the EPA had previously believed. 1400 military properties nationwide are identified as polluted with trichloroethylene. The Pentagon had the information buried.

Huge swaths of California, Texas, New York and Florida lie over trichloroethylene plumes.

The San Fernando and San Gabriel (30 square miles) valley aquifers of the Los Angeles basin are largely contaminated with trichloroethylene and there is high ambient levels of trichloroethylene in the air. 243 wells have been shut down and in some cases water agencies use cleaner water to dilute trichloroethylene contaminated ground water .

Several remedial settlements have been reached over trichloroethylene contaminated ground water in San Bernardino, California - Lockheed Martin; Lisle, Illinois and DuPage County, Illinois - Lockformer Co.; Dayhoit, Kentucky -National Electric Coil/Cooper Industries; Warren, Rhode Island - Jones Apparel/Victoria Creations; Urbana, Ohio - Siemens Energy & Automation Inc. and Nikko Materials USA

Indoor air in homes near contaminated sites contain enough trichloroethylene to create an elevated cancer risk. Trichloroethylene has been linked to liver, pancreatic and kidney cancers, birth defects and childhood leukemia.

common pyrethroid pesticides


Pyrethroids, synthetic versions of natural compounds found in flowers, are used extensively in pesticides .

Pyrethroids have been considered safer than DDT and chlordane because they did not seem to build up in the environment.

Pyrethroids are the second most common class of pesticide that results in poisoning. In high doses, pyrethroids are toxic to the nervous system.

At low doses, they alter hormones. The pyrethroid compounds are used in large volumes in farm and household pesticides and are sprayed by public agencies to kill mosquitoes.

polybrominated diphenyl ethers molecular structure

polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDE

A Flame Retardant That Came With Its Own Threat to Health

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, used as flame retardants, are bioaccumulating in human bodies throughout America. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are being spread by an array of store-bought foods as well as dust inside homes and offices.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs, are added to computers, televisions, furniture cushions, upholstery textiles, carpet backings, mattresses, cars, buses, aircraft and building construction materials by chemical corporations to harden plastic and make polyurethane foam less flammable.

High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected in a variety of fish, meat and fowl in America. In America human bodies carry 20 times more on average than in Europe. Americans are breathing much higher levels found in their household dust compared with European homes. PBDEs escape as a gas from hard plastic and polyurethane foam - especially newer computers, furniture and other products - and then adhere to dust.

"There is more or less a continuous exposure, and there is absolutely no way to really control it. You have almost a 24-hour exposure, except for the time you are outside," said Aake Bergman, head of environmental chemistry at Stockholm University in Sweden and a leading authority on flame retardants.

The flame retardants have been detected in virtually every individual and animal tested, even newborns and fetuses, around the world, including Australia and the Arctic. Amounts in humans and wildlife are doubling in North America every four to six years, a pace unmatched for any contaminant in at least 50 years.

"We have two sources: Food is one and indoor air is another. We now know that the sources are inside our houses, inside our buildings," said Mehran Alaee of Canada's National Water Research Institute.

"PBDEs are found in almost all foods of animal origin; and some have very high levels of these chemicals," said a report by University of Texas environmental scientist Arnold Schecter.

Farm-raised fish contained 5 to 6 times more than wild fish. Other foods that contained high levels of PBDEs included pork sausage, duck and hot dogs. Beef had the lowest levels, followed by goose, pheasant, scallops, canned tuna and wild coho salmon. Chicken contained moderate amounts. PBDEs bind to fat so trimming excess fat, eating lean meats and avoiding large, predatory fish is advised - especially for pregnant and nursing women.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers bioaccumulate in body fat building up over one's lifetime.

"I am convinced we are building a huge, ticking time bomb in our environment today," said Aake Bergman, who has studied toxic contaminants since the 1970s.

1980 Hyperthyroidism rates began to skyrocket in indoor cats. Indoor cats lounge on polybrominated diphenyl ether, flame retardant, treated furniture, grooming themselves by licking.

2007 Californians for Fire Safety launches a campaign to derail a legislative bill to ban toxic flame retardants. Californians for Fire Safety is funded by Albemarle Corporation, Chemtura Corporation, and IC Limited - Industrial Products mnaufactures of PBDE.

"My uncle was a fire fighter and he believed in the use of flame retardants. He treated his children's pajamas and used flame retardants in his house on fabric. My uncle died at 45. His wife and his two children have had thyroid problems nearly all their lives. My cousin, Ralph, was lethargic since childhood. He was fairly intelligent but he never had any get up and go. He only worked about a total of 2 years, short lived jobs, out of his adult life. He once told an employer that it was to hard to get out of bed to go to work. Ralph died at age 53." - Athbhreith Athbheochan

2010 Each tenfold increase in blood concentration of PBDEs was linked to a 30% decrease in the likelihood of becoming pregnant each month.

"One of the strongest associations of PBDEs is with thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone does seem to play an important role in fertility.

Either too low or too high levels can impair fertility.

PBDEs also seem to mimic estrogen.

We know these endocrine-disrupting chemicals can affect the next generation's fertility." - Kim Harley



Perchlorate salts, a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion, are produced industrially by the oxidation of solutions of sodium chlorate by electrolysis.

2004 EPA published a draft assessment which concludes that perchlorate is harmful to the human thyroid, particularly in infants, when concentration in drinking water exceed one part per billion (ppb). FDA finds perchlorate contamination in nearly every one 104 milk samples taken from milk bought in retail stores in Arizona, California, Georgia, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington. The average concentration of perchlorate in the milk samples is 5.76 parts per billion (ppb). 38% of the samples had levels over 6 ppb. Perchlorate is also found in 128 samples of lettuce from Arizona, California, Florida, New Jersey, and Texas.

The States of Maryland and Massachusetts adopted a safety limit on perchlorate in drinking water of 1 ppb.

California set a preliminary limit of 6 ppb for perchlorate in drinking water.

2005 Texas Tech University's Institute of Environmental and Human Health finds perchlorate in virtually all samples of women's breast milk at levels on average almost two times greater than in cow's milk. The highest levels found in breast milk, 92 parts per billion (ppb) and 51 ppb came from two New Jersey women. Samples exceeding 30 ppb were found in women from New Mexico, Missouri and Nebraska. The average for all samples was 10.5 ppb. The study found that a 9 pound baby drinking breast milk with 10.5 ppb of perchlorate would ingest more than double the amount of perchlorate deemed safe by a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report.

The findings concern health experts because infants and fetuses are the most vulnerable to the thyroid-impairing effects of the chemical. Perchlorate blocks the nutrient iodide and inhibits thyroid hormones, which are necessary for brain development and cellular growth of a fetus or infant. A baby with impaired thyroid development may have neurological defects that result in lower IQ, mental retardation, loss of hearing and speech and motor skills deficits.

American women with low iodine levels exposed to a perchlorate concentration in the water of 4 parts per million, 11 million people in 26 states, have suppressed thyroid function which can lead to health problems in them and abnormal brain development in their offspring. 111,1 women tested had an average percholate level of 2.9 parts per million.

EPA has identified 395 sites throughout the country with ground water contaminated by perchlorate - over half of which are in California and Texas. Only 51 of these at this time are undergoing remediation.

2006 Suggested limit of percholate in drinking water, modified by the George Walker Bush to 25 ppb, is 10 times higher than it should be. With any standard lower than 5 ppb, as research suggested, the expected costs of cleanup to the DoD and several of its major contractors is staggering.

Olin Corp is the liable party for perchlorate contamination in hundreds of drinking water wells in Santa Clara County, California. The ten mile plume of contamination emanated from a former flare manufacturing plant Olin Corp. operated from 1955 to 1996. Tests of Santa Clara wells have found some 227 wells with perchlorate above the states safety limit of 6 parts per billion. Some wells had levels above 100 parts per billion.

In San Bernardino, California, Lockheed Martin agrees to clean up perchlorate contaminated ground water.


DCA or 1,2-dichloroethane

2008 Bill Doucette finds 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), a toxic chlorinated solvent, in gingerbread man Christmas ornaments made in China at Hill Air Force Base, an aircraft-maintenance facility north of Salt Lake City. Each gram of gingerbread man polyresin contained 2.3 milligrams of 1,2-dichloroethane and the emission rate of the toxic chlorinated solvent fumes remains dangerously elevated for nearly a year.

pcb structurepolychlorinated dibenzodioxins

PCB or polychlorinated biphenyls

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

How to Protect Your Family

Monsanto Hid Decades Of Pollution

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Exposure and Diabetes

Study adds PCBs to list of chemicals linked to autism

1929 The commercial production of PCBs is taken over in by Monsanto from Swann Chemical incorporation.

Through partial oxidation polychlorinated biphenyls create dioxins and dibenzofurans.
Polychlorinated biphenyls alter estrogen levels in the body. In the womb, males can be feminized or the baby may be intersex, neither a male nor a female or both sets of reproductive organs may develop. Biological magnification of PCBs has also led to polar bears and whales that have both male and female sex organs and males that cannot reproduce. This effect is also known as endocrine disruption.

1930 to 1977Monsanto, markets PCBs under the trade name Aroclor. PCB mixtures have been used for a variety of applications, including dielectric fluids for capacitors and transformers, heat transfer fluids, hydraulic fluids, lubricating and cutting oils, and as additives in pesticides, paints, carbonless copy paper, adhesives, sealants, plastics, reactive flame retardants, and as a fixative for microscopy. Polychlorinated biphenyls were also used in surgical implants. The most commonly observed health effects in people exposed to large amounts of PCBs are skin conditions such as chloracne and rashes, but these were known to be symptoms of systemic poisoning dating back to the 1920s.

2001 Waste disposal and recycling firm Philip Services is fined $1,000,000 for environmental violations at four Washington State locations. The facilities accept hazardous substances for disposal and/or recycling including PCBs, solvents, acids, cyanide and petroleum products. The incorporation has already been deemed a responsible party for ground water contamination that has migrated from their Georgetown, Washington facility onto adjacent properties and has been fined in 1995 ($160,000) and 1998 ($25,000) for previous environmental violations.

EPA endorsed the Clinton Administration's plan to remove PCB contaminated sediment from a 40 mile stretch of the Hudson River north of Albany. The cleanup is expected to cost General Electric, whose facilities dumped some 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the river up until 1977, about $460 million. General Electric has spent hundreds of millions fighting the dredging plan.

2003 Alabama jurors award $6 million in property damages in the Anniston, Alabama PCB contamination class action to 21 plaintiffs. There are some 900 additional plaintiffs in the class seeking property damages and 3,500 seeking damages for illnesses allegedly caused by exposure to PCBs. Another class action has been filed by some 15,000 additional plaintiffs. Monsanto made PCBs at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971.

Paper manufacturer Glatfelter agreed to pay $25 million towards the dredging of PCB contaminated sediment in Wisconsin's Fox River and Green Bay.

2004 Aluminum incorporation Alcoa agrees to study remediation options for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in New York's Grasse River.

Residents filed a toxic tort lawsuit against National Electric Coil plant in Dayhoit, Kentucky. Substances released included PCBs, dioxins, vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene and heavy metals. The plaintiff's also allege that the incorporation misled residents regarding the health risks once the contamination was discovered. The facility was bought by Cooper Industries from National Electric Coil in 1985 and was closed in 1987.

2005 Seven paper companies that dumped PCBs into the Fox River, Wisconsin over a 20 year period ending in the 1970s have pay $130 million for cleanup.

General Electric agrees to spend $215M - $265M in first phase of PCB cleanup of the Hudson River, New York. Under the agreement, the incorporation will pay $100 million to $150 million to clean up some 10% of the 2.65 million cubic yards of PCB contaminated sediment.

2006 Capacitor manufacturer Schlumberger Technology Corp. has agrees to pay $20 million to settle its liability for natural resource damages to Lake Hartwell which straddles the border between South Carolina and Georgia. A incorporation facility which operated from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s discharged PCBs into Twelve Mile Creek which feeds the lake.

It is hard to believe but there are products that are banned in China that the US government allows to be sold in America.

wasted earth

unique library index

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