"The history of life on Earth
has been a history of interaction between living things and their
To a large extent, the physical form and the habits of the
Earth's vegetation and it's animals life have been molded by the
Considering the whole span of earthly time, the opposite
effect, in which life actually modifies it's surroundings, has been relatively
Only within the moment of time represented by the present
century has one species - mankind - acquired significant power to alter nature
on the Earth.
It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life
that now inhabits the Earth - eons of time in which that developing and
evolving and diversifying life reached a state of adjustment and balance with
The most alarming of all man's assaults upon the
environment is the contamination of the air, earth and water with dangerous and
lethally toxic materials.
Given time - time not in years but in
millennia - life adjusts and a balance has been reached.
For time is the
essential ingredient, but on this modern Earth there is no time." - Rachel
"There is an unbreakable link between human
well-being and the health of the Earth"- Walter Reid
"Quite simply, our planet is hospitable to us
because, like every other denizen of this planet, we evolved here and have thus
become adapted by Natural Selection to Earth's conditions. Humans are extremely
versatile, and although we seem to think that we can exist outside the laws of
nature, we cannot." - Eric R. Pianka
ideal market economy the
price of a product as reflected by the demands of buyers and sellers in a
free market would represent
the best possible allocation of resources.
In reality, many economic
exchanges create "spillover effects" or "externalities" which impose costs on
people who are not parties to the transaction.
The number and
seriousness of these "externalities" rose remarkably in the second part of the
Localized externalities - toxic substances from industrial
manufacturing that leech into public water supplies - also pervasive
externalities such as acid rain, ozone depletion, dead zones, desertification,
CO2 buildup and nuclear waste." - Don Mayer
"European countries have
taken a proactive stance in an attempt to cleanse their societies of the
toxicological deluge of the last 50 years.
The US, unfortunately, has
chosen to do the opposite by
protecting chemical companies rather
than humans from the thousands of
untested compounds we encounter on a daily basis.
The average American
(fetus, child and adult) has
over 87 known man-made toxins in his or her tissues, interacting in unknown
ways in a myriad of combinations.
fact, the US government rejects
the precautionary stance as
expensive and unnecessary 'myth'.
Like the other examples of federal
government assault on sound science over the last six years, this risk based
assessment is pure bunk." - Arthur
2005 Cord blood provided by the
American Red Cross of ten random newborns is tested.
It is discovered
the fetuses have been exposed
to hundreds of toxic industrial
oils in utero.
samples from the cords contained at least 287
sample contained between 159 and 243
industrial oils including 180
that can cause cancer in humans and animals, 217 that are known to damage the
nervous system and
brain, and 208 that can cause birth defects in animals.
industrial oils found in the
chord blood included mercury
compounds, brominated flame retardants,
pesticides and perfluoronated oils
used in products such as Scotchguard and Teflon.
The study was peer
reviewed by eight physicians and a toxicologist.
DuPont tells you that they
bring "Better Living through Chemistry," they don't tell you that it's
only for 100 years, then the entire
planet dies for their profit."-
"Businesses that are required to adjust standards
to sell abroad are finding it difficult to make two different
products - one for the
American market, which permits the
poisoning of citizens, and one for the rest of the Earth, where citizens are
protected by governments that are mindful of their safety." - Joan
"We contaminated the
environment sufficiently that there are measureable amounts of potentially
toxic substances in humans - both children and adults. We have fouled our own
nest."- Dr. Jerome A. Paulson, Pediatrics George Washington University
School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Sperm counts of males in
countries that have engaged in the extensive use of hormone disrupting
chemicals has dropped drastically in the last few years.
increase in hermaphrodites, increasing exponentially when
DDT and other chlorinated
compounds went into widespread use, has occured within the last 150 years.
Frogs with both male and female reproductive
organs were rare in the 19th and early
20th centuries but became common during the
1950s, when the largest volumes of the chlorinated compound oils were used.
Pesticides and industrial oils can alter the
sex hormones of mammals, fish and amphibians . The ability of certain oils,
endocrine disruptors, to mimic or block estrogen and testosterone, which are
key in sexual organ development and reproduction, is considered one of the most
disturbing descoveries of environmental science. This is the reason that
George Walker Bush shuttered
the EPA libraries.
"I found it alarming to read a
story premised on the idea that cultural
shifts were the only cause of population change. Since 1960, we have introduced
thousands of new oil into our environment and done many other things that are
inimical to life and reproduction. It is
disingenuous to look at just a few sociological causes and to ignore what we
have done to the Earth." - Joe Shea, commented on the sperm count reduction of
men in developed countries.
1938 PTFE is
discovered serendipitously by DuPont chemist, Roy Plunkett,
who finds that a tank of gaseous tetrafluoroethylene
polymerized to a white
PFOA is an essential ingredient in the making of
stick-resistant Teflon, which is used in cook-ware, clothing, bedding and an
array of other household products.
PFOA was present in the blood of
nearly all the 1,500 people tested in the US, including young children.
Perfluorooctanoic acid is transferred
to fetuses in the womb. Animal
tests have shown that high doses of the PFOA causes liver cancer,
immune suppression and
developmental disorders. PFOA exposure may increase cholesterol and
triglyceride levels in people.
Toxicologists have reported that levels
found in some children are as high as those found in chemical plant workers and
approach those that caused developmental problems in rats.
persists in the environment indefinitly and has been found in the blood of
DuPont has developed applications
for Teflon in commercial bread and
cookie-making; however the incorporation avoides the market for consumer
cookware due to potential problems associated with release of toxic gases if
stove-top pans are overheated in inadequately ventilated spaces. The pyrolysis
of PTFE, detectable at 200 °C (392 °F), evolves several fluorocarbon
gases and a sublimate. A study documented birds having been killed by these
decomposition products at 202 °C (396 °F), with unconfirmed reports of
bird deaths as a result of non-stick cookware heated to as little as 163 °C
(325 °F). Meat is usually fried between 204 and 232 °C (399 and 450
When pans are overheated beyond approximately 350 °C (660
°F) the PTFE coating begins to dissociate, releasing byproducts (PFOA)
which can cause polymer
fume fever in humans and can be lethal to birds.
internal memos indicated that DuPont is
aware of a study conducted by 3M
that showed PFOA was harmful to newborn rats, killing some and causing some to
be born with eye and face defects.
DuPont moves female employees out of PFOA areas at the plant and tells
them to consult doctors before getting pregnant but does not sound an
2002 Pertluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA,
poses a "substantial risk of injury to human health or the
environment," including a
risk of birth defects. Most of the research is conducted by
scientists for 3M incorporation, which was the main manufacturer of PFOA until
, when it voluntarily stopped making it. 3M incorporation also removes its
Scotchgard products from the market because they contained a related
DuPont is the only US manufacturer of
perfluorooctanoic acid. Seven other companies, 3M/Dynean, a unit of 3M, French
incorporation Arkema, Japan's AGC Chemical/Asahi Glass, Switzerland's Ciba
Specialty Chemicals Holding & Clariant, Japan's Daikin Industries and
Italy's Solvay Solexis use PFOA in other products such as textiles, automobile
fuel systems, computer chips, telecommunications equipment, electronic wiring,
fire fighting foams and certain paper. These 8 companies use 75% of the PFOA -
China uses 25%.
DuPont proposes a settlement
with as many as 60,000 residents of Ohio and West Virginia of six area water
districts with ground water
contamination with PFOA which the incorporation has used to manufacture
Teflon and other products since 1951.
Minnesota residents claimed 3M discharged PFOA and PFOS, perfluorooctanoic
sulfonate, in Washington County contaminating ground and well
DuPont's former medical
director reveales that more than 20 years ago the incorporation became
aware of birth defects in 2 of 8
children born to women who worked at one of their facilities manufacturing
Teflon. Similar birth defects occur in the general public at a rate of 2 in
every 1,000 births.
Perfluorooctanoic acid can leach into food from
packaging. PFOA is still used to coat food packaging to keep oils from
bleeding into the packaging. Some researchers contend that the chemical can
leach into french fries from the small bags used typically by fast food chains.
Perfluorooctanoic acid can also leach onto popcorn as the microwavable
packaging is coated with a teflon-like material. Perfluorooctanoic acid is also
used to coat pizza delivery boxes. When heated perfluorooctanoic acid can be
released from the packaging.
DuPont, which continues to
manufacture polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin or Teflon, reached a $16.5
million settlement with the EPA to settle allegations the incorporation hid
information about the of a toxic chemical known as
PFOA used in the manufacture of Teflon.
DuPont covered up important information
about PFOA's health effects and about the pollution of
water supplies near the incorporation's Washington Works plant for 20
Teflon is used as an inert in pesticide formulations applied to
growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest.
with the higher PFOA levels were more than twice as likely to have thyroid
Roy J. PLUNKETT, Wilmington,
Del., assignor to Kinetic Chemicals Inc.: "Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers"; US
Patent 2,230,654; filed July 1, 1939; granted Feb. 4, 1941; French Patent (FR)
917,431; filed Nov. 14, 1945; granted Jan. 7, 1947 (Kinetic Chemicals Inc. is a
subsidiary of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & incorporation, Wilmington,
1995 Michael J. McCREERY, Xenia, Ohio, assignor to the United
States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army: "Topical skin
protectants", US Patent 5,607,979; filed May 30, 1995; granted March 4,
methyl tert-butyl ether or MTBE
1979 Methyl tert-butyl ether replaces
tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline.
ether, also known as methyl tertiary butyl ether and MTBE, is an organic
compound with molecular formula (CH3)3COCH3.
MTBE is a volatile, flammable, and colorless liquid that is sparingly soluble
in water. It has a minty odor vaguely reminiscent of diethyl ether, leading to
unpleasant taste and odor in water. MTBE is a gasoline additive, used as an
oxygenate to raise the octane number. Its use became controversial after
finding its occurrence in ground
water. After that federal and state legislation favored ethanol. Worldwide
production of MTBE has been constant at about 18 million tons/y (2005) owing to
growth in Asian markets which are less subject to ethanol
1992 MTBE is being used at higher
concentrations in some gasoline to fulfill the oxygenate requirements set by
Congress in Clean Air Act amendments.
Monica closes 7 of 11 drinking water wells in its Charnock well field after
discovering MTBE contamination.
manufactured by the chemical reaction of methanol and isobutylene, is being
produced in very large quantities of more than 200,000 barrels per day in the
2001 An associate professor of chemistry at
Purdue University finds MTBE in gasoline supplies in systems where the
fuel additive is not required. The study examines 200 samples of gas taken from
stations in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan and finds that over 70% of the
samples contained MTBE and 25% of the samples contained "significant amounts of
MTBE. One ounce of MTBE can contaminate 1,000 tons of water.
California's Water Resources Control Board reports 48 public water
drinking systems serving hundreds of thousands of residents have been
contaminated with MTBE. This is in addition to tens of thousands of private
wells throughout California and hundreds of thousands of private wells
Enterprises and Unocal settle
a lawsuit filed by an environmental group which requires the oil companies to
remediate MTBE ground water
contamination at a minimum of 700 sites in California.
Exxon agrees to pay $12
million in partial reimbursement of what South Lake Tahoe Public Utility to
remediate MTBE from ground water
which had to close 12 of its 34 drinking water wells.
agrees to pay $9.1 million to settle a lawsuit arising from MTBE
ground water contamination in
2004 California Superior
Court judge approved a settlement agreement between a dozen firms and the City
of Santa Monica, California over ground water contamination MTBE.
The settlement, which is valued at $312 million, includes $100 million in cash
payments plus "a potentially unlimited obligation to cleanup up the wells."
Defendants included in this settlement are:
ChevronTexaco, Chevron USA Inc.,
Chevron Products Co., ExxonMobil,
Shell Oil, Shell Oil
Products, Shell Pipeline, Equilon Enterprises, Equilon Pipeline, Texaco
Refining, Thrifty Oil, and Best California Gas. This is believed to be the
largest settlement to date for MTBE contamination.
New York State had
identified over 13,000 sites with ground water contamination by MTBE.
New York had allowed gasoline sold in the state to include 12 to 15 percent
MTBE, some of the highest mixtures in the nation.
has been discovered in ground
water in 28 states and estimates of the costs to cleanup the contamination
range from $30 billion to $100 billion. The estimated costs to filter some 130
municipal drinking water wells in Plainview Long Island (New York) ranges from
$390 million to $1 billion.
New York has removes some 6,000 leaking
underground storage tanks.
By January, 2005 oil companies agreed to pay
nearly a half billion dollars to settle lawsuits filed on behalf of
municipalities over MTBE contaminated
ground water .
ChevronTexaco agrees to settle a
lawsuit by paying $850,000 for ground water contamination with
MTBE. The suit is filed by the Los Osos Community Services District after MTBE
from a former gas station contaminated
ground water and at least one
drinking water well.
EPA announced another settlement with a dozen oil
companies over MTBE contaminated
ground water beneath Santa Monica, California. The settling companies,
which will pay $1.5 million to end the suit, include Shell Oil; Shell Oil
Products; Equilon Enterprises; Shell Pipeline; TRM;
ChevronTexaco; Chevron USA;
ExxonMobil; Mobil Oil; Thrifty Oil; and Best California Gas. The companies have
already extracted nearly 350 million gallons of
contaminated ground water .
Estimates of cleanup costs necessary to remediate MTBE
contaminated ground water
nationwide run between $29 billion and $92 billion. Some 140 municipalities and
water companies have filed lawsuits against petroleum industry defendants over
ground water contamination with
the fuel additive MTBE.
Twelve oil companies, Premcor Refining, Conoco,
Tosco, Shell Oil,
Shell Oil Products, Phillips
Petroleum, BP Products North America,
BP Amoco, Union Oil, UNO-VEN,
Citgo Petroleum, and PDV Midwest Refining LLC, have agreed to pay $8 million to
the village of East Alton, Illinois to
settle their liability for drinking water wells contaminated with MTBE. Two gas
stations are believed to be the source of the contamination.
US Senators have asked the EPA to provide them with information contained in a
draft report currently being reviewed by the agency that concludes that the
gasoline additive MTBE should be labeled a likely
human carcinogen. A
provision which would have granted MTBE makers immunity from liability for
cleanup costs related to ground
water contaminated by MTBE was been stripped from the Energy bill. Tens of
thousands of sites in America have been identified with
ground water contaminated with
MTBE, including ground water
that serves as drinking water for tens of millions of Americans.
Bisphenol A is first investigated in the search for synthetic estrogens.
Diethylstilbestrol, is determined to be more powerful than estrogen itself, so
bisphenol A is not used as a synthetic estrogen.
Bisphenol A current
uses are as a primary monomer in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.
Bisphenol A is also used as an antioxidant in plasticizers and as a
1998 Center for the Evaluation of
Risks to Human Reproduction is established within the National Institutes of Health to
assess the dangers of chemicals to human reproductive health. As with most
government programs to study the effects of industry on humans the bulk of the
work is outsourced to industry
sponsored "think tanks".
2007 More than 100 government studies confirmed the ability of
bisphenol A to mimic estrogen, cause genetic changes that lead to
prostate cancer, decreased
testosterone, low sperm counts and early female fertility.
A study of
bisphenol A is done by Sciences International funded by BASF, Dow
Chemical, DuPont, Chevron,
ExxonMobil, 3-M, Union Carbide,
the National Association of Manufactures as well as numerous other
manufactures and industry groups. Sciences International reviews the
scientific literature, writes the basic report, "suggests" who should be a
member of the scientific review panel, sets the parameters and the agenda under
which the panel operates. Bisphenol A has not been conclusively proven to have
any detrimental effects on humans. A dozen industry studies
Some polymers manufactured with
bisphenol A are FDA-approved for use as food additives.
2008 FDA BPA draft assessment
bisphenol A is safe, ignoring numerous independent and
government-funded studies which show risk of harm including brain and prostate
damage to developing infants, fetuses, and children, as well as increased risk
of diabetes and
FDA relies on two studies funded by an arm of
the American Chemistry Council, a trade organization representing
In test animals
bisphenol A in concentrations lower than those set by the
EPA have caused permanent changes to the genital tract, changes in breast
tissue that predispose cells to hormones and
carcinogens, 30% increase
in prostate weight, signs of early puberty, decline in testicular testosterone,
breast cells predisposed to cancer, prostate cells more sensitive to hormones
and cancer, insulin resistance, decreased maternal behavior, damage to eggs and
chromosomes, hyperactivity and
reversal of normal sex difference in brain structure.
"Small amounts of
estrogenic oil, bisphenol A for example, can permanently disrupt cellular
control systems and predispose the prostate to disease in adulthood," said
Barry G. Timms, a professor of biomedical sciences at the University of South
Dakota who specializes in prostate biology.
"Exposure before birth to
bisphenol A and other estrogen mimics at low doses explains why we have this
increase in incidences of both breast and
prostate cancers," said
Patricia Hunt, professor School of Molecular Biosciences at Washington State
"The failure to report the toxic effects of
bisphenol A in plastics follows a familiar pattern in which
the industry involved adamantly denies any harm despite overwhelming animal
studies to the contrary. Many neurodegenerative diseases, from
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder to
brain tumors, are dramatically rising in the Western culture, especially in
children. Many toxic substances are present in common foods, cleaners, clothes,
personal items and other household products, consumers and especially parents
would be well advised to become aware and avoid exposure." - Dennis
"Reading the comments of Steve Hentges of the
Council's polycarbonate/BPA group gave me a profound feeling of déjà vu.
Steve Hentges' denigration of scientific evidence of the
probable health dangers ºof
bisphenol A (BPA) echoed the comments, over years, of
"scientists" from the tobacco industry denigrating
scientific findings of
tobacco's health risks. One suspects that all the evidence that is needed to
prove the danger of BPA is in locked flies of the plastics industry." - Norman
2009"Researchers focused on 634 male
workers at four factories in China who were
exposed to elevated levels of BPA. They followed the men over five years and
compared their sexual health with that of male workers in other Chinese
factories where BPA was
not present. The men handling BPA were four times as likely to suffer from
erectile dysfunction and seven times as likely to have difficulty with
ejaculation, said De-Kun Li, a scientist at the Kaiser Foundation Research
Institute, which conducted the study with funds from the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health." - Lyndsey Layton, November 11, 2009
phthalates1990s Toxicologists recognize pesticides
and many industrial compounds, including phthalates, can mimic estrogen or
block testosterone, the female and male sex hormones that control
reproductive development. Review of sperm
counts in developed nations showed a substantial decline since World War II,
when many synthetic pesticides and industrial compounds were introduced into
the environment. Previous studies of men have linked phthalates to low sperm
quality. Nearly everyone in a 1999-2000 survey of 2,500 people throughout
America had phthalates in their urine.
is discovered that phthalates, used in plastics and beauty products have widely
contaminated humans altering the reproductive organs
of baby boys. Researchers find a strong correlation between phthalate
contamination and changes in the size and anatomy of the children's genitals.
Mothers with the highest levels
of chemical in their urine late in their pregnancies had babies with a cluster
of effects. The span between anus and penis, called anogenital distance, is
comparatively short, and the infants had smaller penises and scrotums and more
instances of incomplete descent of testicles. Phthalate levels associated with
the genital changes were not unusually high for the general population.
Reproductive biologists say that a
shorter anogenital distance is a female like effect in
animals, a telltale sign of decreased
male hormones, and that it is likely that the human effects are similar,
because hormones function the same in animals and humans.
bottle nipples, pacifiers, teething rings, vinyl bath toys, medical equipment,
hairspray, deodorants, perfumes, vinyl products including upholstery,
packaging, wall and floor covering, nail polishes and other
products sold in America
contain phthalates which has been banned in the Europe and
"America has become a dumping ground for chemical filled toys
that are banned in much ofthe global industrialized world." - Fiona
Europe has banned 2 phthalates found in cosmetics
and 6 phthalates found in toys. Japan, Mexico and Canada has also banned
phthalates. America is one of a few industrialized countries in which
phthalates are still used.
trichloroethylene, or TCE
"The evidence on trichloroethylene is overwhelming.
We have 80 epidemiological studies and hundreds of toxicology studies. They are
fairly consistent in finding cancer risks that cover a range of tumors." - Dr.
Gina Solomon, an environmental medicine expert at UC San Francisco
Trichloroethylene, or TCE, is as much as 40 times more likely to cause cancer
than the EPA had previously believed. 1400 military properties nationwide are
identified as polluted with trichloroethylene. The Pentagon had the information
Huge swaths of California, Texas, New York and Florida lie over
The San Fernando and San Gabriel (30 square
miles) valley aquifers of the Los Angeles basin are largely contaminated with
trichloroethylene and there is high ambient levels of trichloroethylene in the
air. 243 wells have been shut down and in some cases water agencies use cleaner
water to dilute trichloroethylene contaminated ground water .
Several remedial settlements have been reached over trichloroethylene
contaminated ground water in
San Bernardino, California - Lockheed Martin; Lisle, Illinois
and DuPage County, Illinois - Lockformer Co.; Dayhoit, Kentucky -National
Electric Coil/Cooper Industries; Warren, Rhode Island - Jones Apparel/Victoria
Creations; Urbana, Ohio - Siemens Energy & Automation Inc. and Nikko
Indoor air in homes
near contaminated sites contain enough trichloroethylene to create an elevated
cancer risk. Trichloroethylene has been linked to liver, pancreatic and kidney
cancers, birth defects and childhood leukemia.
pyrethroids Pyrethroids, synthetic versions of natural compounds found in
flowers, are used extensively in
pesticides . Pyrethroids have been considered safer than
DDT and chlordane because
they do not seem to build up in the environment.
Pyrethroids are the
second most common class of pesticide that results in poisoning. In high doses,
pyrethroids are toxic to the nervous system. At low doses, they alter
hormones. The pyrethroid compounds are used in large volumes in farm and
household pesticides and are sprayed by public agencies to kill
polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDE
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers,
used as flame retardants, are bioaccumulating in human bodies throughout
America. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are
being spread by an array of store-bought
foods as well as dust inside
homes and offices.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs, are added to computers,
televisions, furniture cushions, upholstery textiles, carpet backings,
mattresses, cars, buses, aircraft and building construction materials by
chemical corporations to harden plastic and make polyurethane foam less
High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were
detected in a variety of fish, meat and fowl
in America. In America human bodies carry 20 times more on average than in
Europe. Americans are breathing much higher levels found in their household
dust compared with European homes. PBDEs
escape as a gas from hard plastic and polyurethane foam - especially newer
computers, furniture and other products - and then adhere to dust.
"There is more or less a continuous exposure, and there is absolutely
no way to really control it. You have almost a 24-hour exposure, except for the
time you are outside," said Aake Bergman, head of environmental chemistry at
Stockholm University in Sweden and a leading authority on flame retardants.
The flame retardants have been detected in virtually every individual
and animal tested, even newborns and fetuses, around the world, including
Australia and the Arctic. Amounts in humans and
wildlife are doubling in North
America every four to six years, a pace unmatched for any contaminant in at
least 50 years.
"We have two sources:
Food is one and indoor air is
another. We now know that the sources are inside our houses, inside our
buildings," said Mehran Alaee of Canada's National Water Research
"PBDEs are found in almost all foods of animal origin;
and some have very high levels of these chemicals," said a report by University
of Texas environmental scientist Arnold Schecter.
contained 5 to 6 times more than wild fish. Other foods that
contained high levels of PBDEs included pork sausage, duck and hot dogs. Beef
had the lowest levels, followed by goose, pheasant, scallops, canned tuna and
wild coho salmon. Chicken
contained moderate amounts. PBDEs bind to fat so trimming excess
fat, eating lean meats and avoiding large,
predatory fish is advised - especially for pregnant and nursing women.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers bioaccumulate in body
fat building up over one's
"I am convinced we are building a huge, ticking time bomb in
our environment today,"
said Aake Bergman, who has studied toxic contaminants since the
rates began to skyrocket in indoor cats. Indoor cats lounge on polybrominated
diphenyl ether, flame retardant, treated furniture, grooming themselves by
2007 Californians for Fire
Safety launches a campaign to derail a legislative bill to ban toxic flame
retardants. Californians for Fire Safety is funded by Albemarle
Corporation, Chemtura Corporation, and IC Limited - Industrial Products
mnaufactures of PBDE.
"My uncle was a fire fighter and he believed in
the use of flame retardants. He treated his children's pajamas and used flame
retardants in his house on fabric. My uncle died at 45. His wife and his two
children have had thyroid
problems nearly all their lives. My cousin, Ralph, was lethargic since
childhood. He was fairly intelligent but he never had any get up and go. He
only worked about total of 2 years, short lived jobs, out of his adult
life. He once told an employer that it was to hard to get out of bed to go to
work. Ralph died at age 53." - Athbhreith Athbheochan
2010 Each tenfold increase in blood concentration of PBDEs was
linked to a 30% decrease in the likelihood of becoming pregnant each
"One of the strongest associations of PBDEs is with
Thyroid hormone does
seem to play an important role in fertility. Either too low or too high levels
can impair fertility. PBDEs also seem to mimic estrogen. We know these
endocrine-disrupting chemicals can affect the next generation's fertility." -
perchloratePerchlorate salts, a chemical compound containing the perchlorate
ion, are produced industrially by the oxidation of solutions of sodium chlorate
2004 EPA published a draft
assessment which concludes that perchlorate is harmful to the
human thyroid, particularly
in infants, when concentration in drinking water exceed one part per billion
(ppb). FDA finds perchlorate contamination in
nearly every one 104 milk samples taken from milk bought in retail stores in
Arizona, California, Georgia, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, North
Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington. The
average concentration of perchlorate in the milk samples is 5.76 parts per
billion (ppb). Thirty-eight percent of the samples had levels over 6 ppb.
Perchlorate is also found in 128 samples of lettuce from Arizona, California,
Florida, New Jersey, and Texas.
The States of Maryland and
Massachusetts adopted a safety limit on perchlorate in drinking water of 1 ppb.
California set a preliminary limit of 6 ppb for perchlorate in drinking
2005 Texas Tech
University's Institute of Environmental and Human Health finds
perchlorate in virtually all samples of women's
breast milk at levels on
average almost two times greater than in cow's milk. The highest levels found
in breast milk, 92 parts per billion (ppb) and 51 ppb came from two New Jersey
women. Samples exceeding 30 ppb were found in women from New Mexico, Missouri
and Nebraska. The average for all samples was 10.5 ppb. The study found that a
9 pound baby drinking breast milk with 10.5 ppb of perchlorate would ingest
more than double the amount of perchlorate deemed safe by a recent National
Academy of Sciences (NAS) report.
The findings concern health experts
because infants and fetuses are the most vulnerable to the
thyroid-impairing effects of the
chemical. Perchlorate blocks the nutrient iodide and
inhibits thyroid hormones, which
are necessary for brain development and cellular growth of a fetus or infant. A
baby with impaired thyroid development may have neurological defects that
result in lower IQ, mental
retardation, loss of hearing and speech and motor skills deficits.
American women with low iodine levels exposed to a perchlorate
concentration in the water of 4 parts per million, 11 million people in 26
states, have suppressed thyroid function which can lead to health problems in
them and abnormal brain development in their offspring. 111,1 women tested had
an average percholate level of 2.9 parts per million.
identified 395 sites throughout the country with
ground water contaminated by
perchlorate - over half of which are in California and Texas. Only 51 of these
at this time are undergoing remediation.
Suggested limit of percholate in drinking water, modified by the George Walker
Bush to 25 ppb, is 10 times higher than it should be. With any standard lower
than 5 ppb, as research suggested, the expected costs of cleanup to the US
Department of Defense and several of its major contractors is staggering.
is the liable party for perchlorate contamination in hundreds of drinking water
wells in Santa Clara County, California. The ten mile plume of contamination
emanated from a former flare manufacturing plant Olin Corp. operated from 1955
to 1996. Tests of Santa Clara wells have found some 227 wells with perchlorate
above the states safety limit of 6 parts per billion. Some wells had levels
above 100 parts per billion.
In San Bernardino, California, Lockheed
Martin agrees to clean up perchlorate
DCA or 1,2-dichloroethane 2008 Bill Doucette finds 1,2-dichloroethane
(DCA), a toxic chlorinated solvent, in gingerbread man Christmas ornaments made
in China at Hill Air Force Base, an aircraft-maintenance facility north of Salt
Lake City. Each gram of gingerbread man polyresin contained 2.3 milligrams of
1,2-dichloroethane and the emission rate of the toxic chlorinated solvent fumes
remains dangerously elevated for nearly a year.
PCB or polychlorinated
commercial production of PCBs is taken over in by
Monsanto from Swann Chemical
Through partial oxidation polychlorinated biphenyls
create dioxins and
Polychlorinated biphenyls alter estrogen levels in the body. In the womb,
males can be feminized or the baby may be
intersex, neither a male nor a
female or both sets of reproductive organs may
develop. Biological magnification of PCBs has also led to polar bears and
whales that have both male and female sex organs and
males that cannot reproduce. This effect is also known
as endocrine disruption.
1930 to 1977Monsanto, markets PCBs under the
trade name Aroclor. PCB mixtures have been used for a variety of applications,
including dielectric fluids for capacitors and transformers, heat transfer
fluids, hydraulic fluids, lubricating and cutting oils, and as additives in
pesticides, paints, carbonless copy paper, adhesives, sealants, plastics,
reactive flame retardants, and as a fixative for microscopy. Polychlorinated
biphenyls were also used in surgical implants. The most commonly observed
health effects in people exposed to large amounts of PCBs are skin conditions
such as chloracne and rashes, but these were known to be symptoms of systemic
poisoning dating back to the 1920s.
disposal and recycling firm Philip Services is fined $1,000,000 for
environmental violations at four Washington State locations. The facilities
accept hazardous substances for disposal and/or recycling including
PCBs, solvents, acids, cyanide and petroleum products. The
incorporation has already been deemed a responsible party for ground water
contamination that has migrated from their Georgetown, Washington facility onto
adjacent properties and has been fined in 1995 ($160,000) and 1998 ($25,000)
for previous environmental violations.
EPA endorsed the Clinton
Administration's plan to remove PCB contaminated sediment from a 40 mile
stretch of the Hudson River north of Albany. The cleanup is expected to cost
General Electric, whose facilities dumped some 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into
the river up until 1977, about $460 million.
General Electric has
spent hundreds of millions fighting the dredging plan.
2003 Alabama jurors award $6 million in property damages in
the Anniston, Alabama PCB contamination class action to 21 plaintiffs. There
are some 900 additional plaintiffs in the class seeking property damages and
3,500 seeking damages for illnesses allegedly caused by exposure to PCBs.
Another class action has been filed by some 15,000 additional plaintiffs.
Monsanto made PCBs at the
Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971.
Paper manufacturer Glatfelter
agreed to pay $25 million towards the dredging of PCB contaminated sediment in
Wisconsin's Fox River and Green Bay.
Aluminum incorporation Alcoa agrees to
study remediation options for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in
New York's Grasse River.
Residents filed a toxic tort lawsuit against
National Electric Coil plant in Dayhoit, Kentucky. Substances released included
PCBs, dioxins, vinyl
chloride, trichloroethylene and heavy metals.
The plaintiff's also allege that the incorporation misled residents regarding
the health risks once the contamination was discovered. The facility was bought
by Cooper Industries from National Electric Coil in 1985 and was closed in
2005 Seven paper companies that dumped PCBs
into the Fox River, Wisconsin over a 20 year period ending in the 1970s have
pay $130 million for cleanup.
General Electric agrees to spend $215M -
$265M in first phase of PCB cleanup of the Hudson River, New York. Under the
agreement, the incorporation will pay $100 million to $150 million to clean up
some 10% of the 2.65 million cubic yards of PCB contaminated sediment.
2006 Capacitor manufacturer Schlumberger
Technology Corp. has agrees to pay $20 million to settle its liability for
natural resource damages to Lake Hartwell which straddles the border between
South Carolina and Georgia. A incorporation facility which operated from the
mid-1950s to the late 1970s discharged PCBs into Twelve Mile Creek which feeds
It is hard to believe but there are
products that are banned in
China that the US government allows to be sold in America.
back to stacks
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