"Evolution has a within as well as a
taking place on
both the physical and psychic levels."
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
"There are two
theories of evolution.
There is the genuine scientific theory; and there is the talk-radio pretend
version, designed not to
enlighten but to
deceive and enrage." - Edward Humes
not actually caused by man; he only
exposes organic beings to new conditions of life, and then nature acts on
the organization and causes it to vary.
Man can and does select the
variations given to him by nature, and thus accumulates them in the desired
adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
may do this methodically, or he may do it subconsciously by
preserving the individuals most
useful or pleasing to him without any intention of altering the
It is certain that he can largely influence the character of
a breed by selecting, in each
successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be inappreciable
except by an educated eye.
subconscious process of
selection has been the great agency in the formation of the most distinct
and useful domestic breeds.
That many breeds produced by man have to a
large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable
doubts whether many of them are varieties or
aboriginally distinct species.
There is no reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently
under domestication should not have acted under nature.
survival of favored individuals and
races, during the recurrent struggle for existence, we see a powerful and
ever acting form of selection.
The struggle for existence inevitably
follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to all
This high rate of increase is proved by calculation, by
the rapid increase of many animals and plants during a succession of peculiar
seasons, and when naturalized in new countries.
More individuals are born than can
A grain on the balance may determine which
individuals shall live, and which shall die, which variety or species shall
increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become
As the individuals of the same species come in all regards into
the closest competition, the struggle will generally be most severe between
A struggle may occur between beings remote in the scale of nature.
The slightest advantage in certain individuals will
turn the balance.
In mammals there exists a
struggle between males for possession of females.
The most vigorous
males, or those which have most
successfully struggled with their conditions of life, will generally leave
Success will often depend on the males having
special weapons, or means of
defense, or charms; and a slight advantage will lead to victory.
geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes,
we might have expected to find that organic beings have varied under nature, in
the same way as they have varied under domestication.
nature can only be explained by natural selection.
How Small Genetic Differences Give Rise to Racial
Microbial diversity drives multifunctionality in terrestrial
though acting on external characters capriciously, can quickly produce a
great result by adding up mere
individual differences in his
domestic productions; and
everyone admits that species present
naturalists admit that natural varieties exist, which are considered
sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works.
No one has drawn any clear distinction
between individual differences and
slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and sub-species.
On separate continents, and on different parts of the same continent
when divided by barriers of any category, and
on outlying islands, such a
multitude of forms exist experienced naturalists rank varieties.
then, animals and plants do vary, let it
be ever so slightly or slowly, why should not variations, which are in any way
beneficial, be preserved and accumulated through natural selection, or the
survival of the fittest?
If man can by patience
select variations useful to him, why, under changing and complex conditions of
life, should not variations useful to nature's living products often arise, and
be preserved or selected?
What limit can be put to this power, acting
during long ages and rigidly scrutinizing the whole structure, and habits of
each creature, - favoring the good and rejecting the bad?
I can see no
limit to this power, in slowly and beautifully adapting each form to the most
complex relations of life.
The theory of natural selection, even if we
look no farther than this, appears to be in
the highest degree
In the economy of
nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to preserve
the most divergent offspring of any one species.
Hence, during a long
continued course of modification, the slight differences characteristic of
varieties of the same species, tend to be augmented into the greater
differences characteristic of the species of the same genus.
New and improved varieties will inevitably
supplant and exterminate the older, less improved, and intermediate
species belonging to the larger groups within each class tend to give birth
to new and dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still
larger, and at the same time more
divergent in character.
As all groups cannot thus go on
increasing in size, for the Earth would not hold them, the more dominant groups
beat the less dominant.
of large groups to go on
increasing in size and diverging in character explains the subordinate
arrangement of all the forms of life.
We can to a certain extent
understand how it is that there is so much
beauty throughout nature; this may be largely attributed to the agency of
That beauty, according to our sense of it, is not universal,
must be admitted by everyone who will look at some
venomous snakes, at some fishes, and
at certain hideous bats with a distorted
resemblance to the human face.
Sexual selection has given the most brilliant
colors, elegant patterns, and other ornaments to the males, and sometimes
to both sexes, of many birds, butterflies, and other animals.
birds it has often rendered the voice of the male musical to the female.
fruit have been
rendered conspicuous by brilliant colors in
contrast with the green foliage, in order that the
flowers may be easily seen, visited,
and fertilized by insects, and
the seeds disseminated by
It can hardly be supposed that a false theory would explain,
in a satisfactory manner as does the theory of natural selection, the reason
all living things have much in common, in their
chemical composition, their
cellular structure, their
laws of growth, and their liability to injurious
It has recently been objected that this is an unsafe
method of arguing; but it is a method
used in judging of the common events of life, and has often been used by
the greatest natural
theory of light and the
belief in the revolution of the Earth on its own axis was until lately
supported by hardly any direct evidence.
Science as yet throws no light on the problem of
the essence or origin of life.
production of nature is one which has had a long history.
interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many
kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about,
and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and
to reflect that these
elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and
dependent upon each other in so complex
There is grandeur in this view of life with
its several powers, having been originally
breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this
Earth has gone cycling on according to
the fixed law of gravity, from
so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have
been, and are being, evolved.
I see no good reason why the views given
in this volume should shock the
religious feelings of anyone. It is so easy to hide our
ignorance under such
expressions as the "plan of creation," "unity
of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only
restate a fact.
eminent scientists and
theologians who, while accepting the
established findings of science, from the
big bang to the evolution of our
species, also perceive creative spirit and
within themselves to the extent that they cannot rule out an ultimate
divine energy and presence
within everything that exists." - Bill McAuliffe
"We could bomb Afghanistan back into the Stone
Age, but what
would that set them back, fifteen minutes?" - Argus
When one looks at the
chromosomes of humans and the living great apes (orangutan,
chimpanzee), it is immediately
apparent that there is a great deal of similarity between the number and
overall appearance of the chromosomes across the four different species.
There are differences but the overall similarity is striking.
The following observations can be made about similarities and
differences among the four species.
The great apes have 24 pairs of
chromosomes while humans have only 23 pairs.
Except for differences in
non genetic heterochromatin, chromosomes 6, 13, 19, 21, 22, and X have
identical banding patterns in all four species.
Chromosomes 3, 11, 14,
15, 18, 20, and Y look the same in three of the four species (those three being
gorilla, chimps, and humans), and chromosomes 1, 2p, 2q, 5, 7 - 10, 12, and 16
are alike in two species.
Chromosomes 4 and 17 are different among all
Most of the chromosomal differences among the four species
involve inversions - localities on the chromosome that have been inverted, or
swapped end for end. This is a relatively common occurrence among many species,
and has been documented in humans. An inversion usually does not reduce
Other types of rearrangements include a few translocations
(parts swapped among the chromosomes), and the presence or absence of nucleolar
organizers. All of these differences can be observed to be occurring in modern
The largest single chromosomal rearrangement among the
four species is the unique number of chromosomes (23 pairs) found in humans as
opposed to the great apes (24 pairs).
There are two potential
naturalistic explanations for
the difference in chromosome numbers - either a fusion of two separate
chromosomes occurred in the human line, or a fission of a chromosome occurred
among the apes.
The evidence favors a fusion event
in the human line.
The chromosomes were apparently joined end to end,
and the ends of chromosomes (called the telomere ) have a distinctive structure
from the rest of the chromosome.
Evidence suggests that the vicinity of
chromosome 2 where the fusion is expected to occur, we see first sequences that
are characteristic of the pre-telomeric region, then a section of telomeric
sequences, and then another section of pre-telomeric sequences.
telomeric section, it is observed that there is a point where instead of being
arranged head to tail, the telomeric repeats suddenly reverse direction -
evidence of fusion.
In chromosomes that have been fused we should see
evidence of two centromeres, the distinctive central part of the chromosome.
Evidence of fusion exists as remnants of the 2p and 2q centromeres
Some may raise the objection that if the fusion was a
naturalistic event, how could the first human ancestor with the fusion have
We have all heard that the horse and the donkey
produce an infertile mule in crossing
because of a different number of chromosomes in the two species.
Variations in chromosome number are known to occur in many different
animal species, and although they sometimes seem to lead to reduced fertility,
this is often not the case.
The last remaining species of wild horse,
Przewalski's (sha-val-skis) Wild Horse has 66 chromosomes while the
domesticated horse has 64 chromosomes. Despite this difference in chromosome
number, Przewalski's Wild Horse and the domesticated horse can be crossed and
do produce fertile offspring which possess 65 chromosomes.
chromosomal rearrangement has recently been discovered, this one shared both by
humans and chimpanzees, but not found in any of the other monkeys or apes that
This rearrangement was the movement of about 100,000 DNA
pairs from human chromosome 1 to the Y chromosome10.
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