has a within as well as a without,
taking place on both
the physical and psychic levels."
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
"There are two theories of evolution. There is the
genuine scientific theory;
and there is the talk-radio pretend version, designed not to
enlighten but to
deceive and enrage." - Edward Humes
not actually caused by man; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to
new conditions of life, and then nature acts on the organization and causes it
Man can and does select the variations given to him by nature,
and thus accumulates them in the desired manner.
Mankind thus adapts animals
and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
Mankind may do this
methodically, or he may do it subconsciously by
preserving the individuals most
useful or pleasing to him without any intention of altering the
It is certain that he can
largely influence the character
of a breed by selecting, in each
successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be inappreciable
except by an educated eye.
subconscious process of
selection has been the great agency in the formation of the most distinct and
useful domestic breeds.
That many breeds produced by man have to a
large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable
doubts whether many of them are varieties or aboriginally distinct species.
There is no reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently
under domestication should not have acted under nature.
survival of favored individuals and
races, during the constantly recurrent struggle for existence, we see a
powerful and ever acting form of selection.
The struggle for existence
inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common
to all organic beings.
This high rate of increase is proved by
calculation, by the rapid increase
of many animals and plants during a succession of peculiar seasons, and when
naturalized in new countries.
More individuals are born than can possibly
A grain in the
balance may determine which
individuals shall live, and which shall die, which variety or species shall
increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become
As the individuals of the
same species come in all regards into the closest competition with each other,
the struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost
equally severe between the varieties of the same species, and next in severity
between the species of the same genus.
On the other hand the struggle
will often be severe between beings remote in the scale of nature.
slightest advantage in certain individuals, at any age or during any season,
over those with which they come into competition, or
better adaptation in however slight a
degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will, in the long run, turn the
having separate sexes, there will be in
most cases a struggle between the males for the possession of the females.
The most vigorous males, or
those which have
most successfully struggled with their conditions of life, will generally
leave most progeny.
Success will often depend on the males having
special weapons, or means of defense, or
charms; and a slight advantage will lead to victory.
As geology plainly proclaims that each
land has undergone great physical
changes, we might have expected to find that organic beings have varied under
nature, in the same way as they have varied under domestication.
Variabilty in nature can only be explained by natural
How Small Genetic Differences Give Rise to Racial
Microbial diversity drives multifunctionality in terrestrial
Man, though acting on external characters alone and
often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding
up mere individual differences in his
domestic productions; and everyone
admits that species present individual differences.
differences, all naturalists admit that
natural varieties exist, which are considered sufficiently distinct to be
worthy of record in systematic works.
No one has drawn any clear
distinction between individual
differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties
and sub-species and species.
On separate continents, and
on different parts of the same continent when divided by barriers of any
category, and on outlying islands,
what a multitude of forms exist, which some experienced
naturalists rank as varieties, others
as geographical races or
sub-species, and others as
though closely allied species!
If then, animals and plants do
vary, let it be ever so slightly or slowly, why should not variations or
individual differences, which are in any way beneficial, be preserved and
accumulated through natural selection, or the
survival of the fittest?
If man can by patience select variations useful to him, why, under
changing and complex conditions of life, should not variations useful to
nature's living products often arise, and be preserved or selected?
What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and
rigidly scrutinizing the whole structure, and habits of each creature, -
favoring the good and rejecting the bad?
I can see no limit to this
power, in slowly and beautifully adapting each form to the most complex
relations of life.
The theory of
natural selection, even if we
look no farther than this, appears to be in the highest degree
As each species tends by its geometrical rate of
reproduction to increase inordinately in
number; and as the modified
descendants of each species will be enabled to increase by as much as they
become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to be able to seize on
many and widely different places in the economy of
nature, there will be a constant
tendency in natural selection to preserve the most divergent offspring of any
Hence, during a long continued course of modification, the
slight differences characteristic of
varieties of the same species, tend to be augmented into the greater
differences characteristic of the species of the same genus.
New and improved varieties will
inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved, and intermediate
varieties; and thus species are rendered
to a large extent defined and distinct(extinct) objects.
Dominant species belonging to the larger
groups within each class tend to give birth to new and dominant forms; so that
each large group tends to become still
larger, and at the same
time more divergent in character.
As all groups cannot thus go on
increasing in size, for the Earth would not hold them, the more dominant groups
beat the less dominant.
This tendency in the
large groups to go on increasing in
size and diverging in character, together with
the inevitable contingency of
much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the forms of life in
groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which has
prevailed throughout time.
We can to a certain extent understand how it
is that there is so much beauty throughout
nature; this may be largely attributed to the
agency of selection.
That beauty, according to our sense of it, is not universal, must be
admitted by everyone who will look at some
venomous snakes, at some
fishes, and at
certain hideous bats with a distorted
resemblance to the human face.
Sexual selection has given the most brilliant
patterns, and other ornaments to the males, and sometimes to both sexes, of
many birds, butterflies, and other animals.
With birds it has often
rendered the voice of the male musical to the female, as well as to our ears.
fruit have been rendered conspicuous by
brilliant colors in contrast with the green foliage, in order that the
flowers may be easily seen,
visited, and fertilized by insects,
and the seeds disseminated by
How it comes that certain colors, sounds, and forms should
give pleasure to man and the lower animals, - that is,
how the sense of beauty in its simplest form was
first acquired, - we do not know
any more than how certain odors and flavors were first rendered agreeable."
It can hardly be supposed that a false theory would explain, in a
satisfactory manner as does the theory of natural selection, the reason all
living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their
cellular structure, their laws
of growth, and their liability
to injurious influences.
It has recently been objected that this is
an unsafe method of arguing; but it is
a method used in judging of the
common events of life, and has often been used by
the greatest natural
theory of light has thus been arrived at; and
the belief in the revolution
of the Earth on its own axis was until lately supported by hardly any
It is no valid objection that science as yet throws no
light on to the far higher problem of the essence or origin of life.
We no longer look at an organic
being as a savage looks at a ship, as something wholly beyond his
comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a
long history; when we
contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many
contrivances, each useful to the possessor, in the same way as
any great mechanical invention is the
summing up of the labor, the experience, the reason, and even the blunders of
numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more
interesting does the study of natural history become!
It is interesting
to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with
birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with
worms crawling through the damp earth, and
to reflect that these
elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent upon
each other in so complex a manner, have
all been produced by Law acting around us.
There is grandeur in this
view of life with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the
Creator into a few forms or into one; and
that, whilst this Earth has gone cycling on according to
the fixed law of gravity, from
so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have
been, and are being, evolved.
I see no good reason
why the views given in this volume should shock the religious feelings of anyone.
It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions
as the "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an
explanation when we only restate a fact.
Versatility is the hallmark of
the primate hand.
With minor variations between species, thirty-five
joints accommodate the palm and fingers to branches and objects of all sizes,
shapes, and orientations.
Six layers of muscles produce movements that
propel the animals and effect gripping patterns used in maintaining feeding and
resting positions, securing an infant's hold on its
mother, removing parasites from the
fur, catching insects, plucking fruits, extracting foods from their
source, and positioning objects for tactile,
olfactory, and visual scrutiny.
Multiple structural constraints on
mobility stabilize joints in regions that are habitually exposed to stresses
during these positional and manipulatory activities.
The locations and
configurations of these constraints vary considerably among species, as do the
relative proportions of hand segments, reflecting the diversity of their
locomotor and feeding patterns.
The key to the versatility of primate hands is to be found in the
nature of the thumb and the fingertips.
The thumb is structurally and
functionally differentiated from the rest of the fingers.
The tips of
all five digits are relatively broad, with moist, ridged, sensitive palmar pads
that are supported by nails.
The advantages of a
grasping hand are most apparent in the levels of the
forest where vines, bushes, and the
slender upper and outer branches of the canopy offer the least purchase to a
paw with claws on the fingertips.
Differentiation of the thumb provides
the ability for prehension of objects by one hand.
The variety and
skill of prehensile activities depend upon the details of joint structure, the relative length of
the thumb and fingers, the sensory nerve supply to the distal digital pads, and
the motor control of hand movements by the
the human hand
Pounding with hand-held hammer
stones has possibly been the tool-using and tool-making activity with the
greatest frequency and antiquity in
It is an activity which directs large, repetitive
forces toward the central region of the palm.
Production of forceful
and accurate blows by a hand-held stone requires control of the hammer stone by
firm precision grips which assure both retention of the stone in the hand and
fine adjustments in its orientation by the thumb and fingers.
Stabilization of objects that are held in the other hand and pounded by
hammer stones in the production of tools also requires firm precision grips and
the ability to vary the orientation of the stone.
The central region of
the modern human palm is stabilized, buttressed, and protected against
intrinsic and extrinsic forces associated with the grasp and manipulation of
stones in pounding by robust bones and a fat-pad.
A secure grasp and
controlled maneuvering of stones by the thumb, fingers, and palm are
facilitated by a unique pattern of hand proportions and joint-and-muscle
configurations that permit cupping of the hand and the formation of a wide
variety of grips.
The proportionately long thumb and short fingers with
broad fingertip pads are able to maneuver the stones and to hold them firmly,
exploiting the leverage of the fingers, or bracing the stones against the palm.
The unique arrangement of intrinsic musculature and orientation of
joints along the second, third, and fifth rays, favoring rotation of the
fingers, allow optimal positioning of the thumb and fingers for grasping and
orienting the stones.
Grips that were found through experimentation to
accommodate and control the stones most comfortably and effectively involved
primarily the thumb, index, and third fingers.
These included the
pad-to-side and three-jaw-chuck thumb/finger grips and extensions of these
grips that incorporate the palm as a passive buttress.
three-jaw-chuck thumb/finger grip is most effective both for wielding hammer
stones and for throwing stones.
Stones of about 500 grams, comparable
in size to tennis balls, are held by the thumb, index, and third fingers,
frequently against the side of the flexed fourth finger which in turn is
buttressed by the flexed fifth finger as a support.
The tip of the
thumb and index and third fingertips control the orientation of the stone and
keep it away from the palm, so that the leverage of these rays is exploited in
propelling the stone.
The pressure and leverage of these rays are
important factors in controlling the rotation and speed of an object thrown by
The modern human hand structure of the joints along the fifth
ray probably contributes to the effectiveness of the finger/active-palm squeeze
grip, which employs all the fingers and active convergence of the palm around a
cylindrical tool, such as an antler hammer, to secure it, so that the tool
functions as an extension of the hand and/or arm.
The use of small
modern tools such as needles and pencils involves the rotation and
translation of objects by
the pads of the fingertips opposed to the tip of the thumb pad, exploiting a
unique human compartmentalization of
a mutant primate with a strange DNA
When one looks at the chromosomes of humans
and the living great apes (orangutan, gorilla, and
chimpanzee), it is immediately
apparent that there is a great deal of similarity between the number and
overall appearance of the chromosomes across the four different species.
There are differences but the overall similarity is striking.
The following observations can be made about similarities and
differences among the four species.
The great apes have 24 pairs of
chromosomes while humans have only 23 pairs.
Except for differences in
non genetic heterochromatin, chromosomes 6, 13, 19, 21, 22, and X have
identical banding patterns in all four species.
Chromosomes 3, 11, 14,
15, 18, 20, and Y look the same in three of the four species (those three being
gorilla, chimps, and humans), and chromosomes 1, 2p, 2q, 5, 7 - 10, 12, and 16
are alike in two species.
Chromosomes 4 and 17 are different among all
Most of the chromosomal differences among the four species
involve inversions - localities on the chromosome that have been inverted, or
swapped end for end. This is a relatively common occurrence among many species,
and has been documented in humans. An inversion usually does not reduce
Other types of rearrangements include a few translocations
(parts swapped among the chromosomes), and the presence or absence of nucleolar
organizers. All of these differences can be observed to be occurring in modern
The largest single chromosomal rearrangement among the
four species is the unique number of chromosomes (23 pairs) found in humans as
opposed to the great apes (24 pairs).
There are two potential naturalistic explanations for the difference in
chromosome numbers - either a fusion of two separate chromosomes occurred in
the human line, or a fission of a chromosome occurred among the apes.
The evidence favors a fusion event in the human line.
chromosomes were apparently joined end to end, and the ends of chromosomes
(called the telomere ) have a distinctive structure from the rest of the
chromosome. Evidence suggests that the vicinity of chromosome 2 where the
fusion is expected to occur, we see first sequences that are characteristic of
the pre-telomeric region, then a section of telomeric sequences, and then
another section of pre-telomeric sequences. In the telomeric section, it is
observed that there is a point where instead of being arranged head to tail,
the telomeric repeats suddenly reverse direction - evidence of fusion.
In chromosomes that have been fused we should see evidence of two
centromeres, the distinctive central part of the chromosome.
of fusion exists as remnants of the 2p and 2q centromeres appear.
may raise the objection that if the fusion was a naturalistic event, how could
the first human ancestor with the fusion have successfully
We have all heard that
the horse and the donkey produce an infertile mule in crossing because of a
different number of chromosomes in the two species.
chromosome number are known to occur in many different animal species, and
although they sometimes seem to lead to reduced fertility, this is often not
The last remaining species of wild horse, Przewalski's
(sha-val-skis) Wild Horse has 66 chromosomes while the domesticated horse has
64 chromosomes. Despite this difference in chromosome number, Przewalski's Wild
Horse and the domesticated horse can be crossed and do produce fertile
offspring which possess 65 chromosomes.
rearrangement has recently been discovered, this one shared both by humans and
chimpanzees, but not found in any of the other monkeys or apes that were
This rearrangement was the movement of about 100,000 DNA pairs
from human chromosome 1 to the Y chromosome10.
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buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a
personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the
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intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the
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and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
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through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been
the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do
not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world.
Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the
population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt
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